Natural Aphrodisiacs

Herbs, Oils, and Other Aphrodisiacs

This eBook guide teaches you everything that you need to know about how to use natural oils and remedies to turn your partner on in a way that you never thought was possible. Natural remedies and herbs give you access to a world of pleasure that you never know was possible, and this eBook goes through almost every type, giving you the ability to use each one of them to the most powerful effect. You will learn the best herbs and oils to choose, how to choose the right plant for you and your partner. You will also learn the tips and tricks to use herbs safely, without endangering anyone in your ever-expanding search for pleasure. All it takes is the eBook guide, and you can use the best sort of love-making supplements every created: the all-natural kind! Read more here...

Herbs Oils and Other Aphrodisiacs Summary

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An incentive motivationlearning account of the origin of hypoactive sexual desire disorder

In the next few paragraphs, I will discuss the development of acquired hypoactive sexual desire disorder in incentive motivational and learning terms. With the purpose of keeping the arguments as comprehensible as possible, I will consider that the sex of the partner suffering from hypoactive sexual desire disorder is a woman. With slight modifications, the arguments can equally well be applied to men. I will also assume that the woman lives in a stable relationship. This assumption is made because most of the clinical descriptions available refer to people living in such relationships. There are many examples in the clinical literature of women suffering from hypoac-tive sexual desire disorder who display active withdrawal responses from stimuli that would be expected to function as sexual incentives. Even the mentioning of anything sexual may 'bring tears to the eyes and outbursts of rage', as so eloquently described by Helen Kaplan in one of her case histories (Kaplan, 1979, p....

General conclusion concerning hypoactive sexual desire disorder

The most common of all sexual dysfunctions is one of the least known. Taking into account that the disorder was created only some 20 years ago, this state of profound ignorance is perhaps what we should expect. Moreover, it is not a life-threatening disease and funding research regarding its causes and cures is not a top priority for any funding agency. However, speculations concerning the causes of low sexual desire and its treatment have existed long before the diagnostic category was invented. None of these speculations seems to have been very successful, since they are all forgotten or hidden in the mind of some nostalgic clinician. My explanation for this sad state of affairs is that sexual desire has not been analyzed in an appropriate theoretical context. It has certainly been the subject of much disordered thought, but the futility of the brain-storming approach should have become widely apparent. the afflicted individual for some reason or another never got to experience...

The relationship between sexual desire motivation and excitation arousal

Arousal or excitation are also imprecise terms. Some would use either of these terms as equivalent to motivation. The statement 'I am so aroused' could mean that the person making it feels an immediate urge to engage in sexual activity and or that she perceives abundant vaginal lubrication. The same reasoning can be applied to the term 'excited'. Here I will not suggest a replacement term. Instead, I want to make clear that arousal, in the context of human sexual behavior, refers exclusively to enhanced genital blood flow. This is eloquently expressed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM IV, American Psychiatric Association, 2000). The definition of female sexual arousal is 'The arousal response consists of vasocongestion in the pelvis, vaginal lubrication and expansion, and swelling of the external genitalia' (p. 543). There is no explicit definition of arousal in men, but male erectile disorder appears as a subcategory of sexual arousal...

Potential endocrine causes of hypoactive sexual desire disorder

It is difficult to imagine that deficiency in some gonadal hormone could account for the situational variants of hypoactive sexual desire disorder. It may also be difficult to explain the acquired variant in terms of endocrine alterations, unless we assume that the onset of these endocrine alterations coincide with the onset of hypoactive sexual desire disorder. On the contrary, an endocrine explanation may be very suitable for explaining the life-long variant. However, it is most important not to forget that hypoactive sexual desire caused by a general medical condition is excluded from the diagnosis of hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Whenever reduced sexual desire can be attributed to diseases in the endocrine glands, castration or ovariectomy or any other medical condition, another diagnosis must be given. On the contrary, the combined type accepts organismic conditions as contributing factors, acting in conjunction with unknown psychic entities. In Chapter 5, I made clear that...

Significance to humans

Bezoar stones, calcified concretions sometimes found in the stomachs of goats and ibex, were prized in the Middle Ages for testing whether food was poisoned. Aphrodisiac properties are still assigned to the horns of some species, and have most recently resulted in a major decline in saiga populations on the Russian steppe. This same medicinal trade is also beginning to impact wild sheep and goat populations in parts of Central Asia.

Assessment of Sexual Behavior

Sexuality is essential to human life, experienced through individual thoughts and desires, behaviors, relationships, and cultures (Robinson et al, 2002 WHO, 2006). A responsible, safe, and fulfilling sexual life experience requires a positive approach to sexuality and an understanding of the social, economic, and political factors (e.g., gender inequality and poverty) that may lead to sexual ill-health (WHO, 2006). Sexual well-being involves positive sexual expression, coupled with the possibility of satisfying and safe sexual experiences. To promote sexual health, public policy experts, health educators, physicians, and clinicians, benefit from extensive knowledge and understanding of sexual behavior including sexual aspects of relationships (e.g., sexual arousal and functioning).

General Health Benefits

2004) (3) Increases immunity Increased levels of immunoglobulin A, an essential antibody used by the immune system to protect against viral infections, were found in college students reporting having sex at least three times per week (Charnetski and Brennan, 2004) (4) Associated with reduced stress Participants who had vaginal sex in the last 2 weeks had lower blood pressure and stress response to stress-inducing tasks (Brody, 2006). Among medical residents, stress negatively affected desire, sexual arousal , and sexual satisfaction (Sangi-Haghpeykar et al, 2009) and (5) Increases physical fitness Sexual intimacy was associated with physical fitness level among Fifty Plus Fitness Association members (Bortz and Wallace, 1999) frequency of sexual activity was higher among men enrolled in an intensive physical fitness program (White etal, 1990).

The main olfactory system

Another elegant study, this time performed in dogs, recorded intracavernous pressure changes in response to female odors. Simultaneously, the electromyo-grams from the ischiocavernosus and bulbospongiosus muscles were obtained (Shafik, 1997). As mentioned long ago, these muscles are important for penile insertion. Results showed that vaginal odors from donors in all stages of the estrous cycle were equally effective in enhancing intracavernous pressure and all were equally ineffective in modifying electromyographic activity in the striated penile muscles. Interestingly, the pressure response was abolished after anesthesia of the nasal mucosa, showing that olfactory input is essential. These data together with those from rats mentioned in the preceding paragraph nicely demonstrate that odors can enhance sexual arousal, understood as enhanced genital blood flow. As always, it is important to remember that the term arousal has many different meanings depending on the context in which it...

Visual incentive stimuli

In primates, the situation may be quite different. We know that visual sexual incentive stimuli are of paramount importance in the human and there is a small amount of data suggesting that visual stimuli may enhance sexual arousal also in a non-human primate. The human data will be discussed at length in Chapter 4. Here I will briefly mention a couple of studies made in the chacma baboon, Papio ursinos. This species attracted scientists' attention because the females show an unusually large swelling of the genitals and the perineum during estrus. Genital swelling around estrus is known to occur in females of many primate species, but zoologists have suggested that the swelling in the chacma baboon is far larger than that of any other primate species. Because of that, it was quite natural to imagine that this conspicuous visual stimulus might have some effects on sexual arousal in males. In a very creative study, individually caged males were exposed either to estradiol-treated females...

General conclusion concerning sexual incentive stimuli in nonhuman animals

Vision does not seem to be of much importance either for sexual incentive motivation or for regulation of copulatory behavior in the few non-human species in which it has been studied. Nevertheless, some data suggest that visual stimuli are effective in enhancing at least some aspects of sexual arousal in non-human primates. The fundamental importance of cutaneous stimulation for copulatory reflexes is beyond doubt. Likewise, its lack of importance for sexual incentive motivation is obvious. It would appear that we have to agree with the proposal made by Frank Beach more than 50 years ago copulatory behavior is a multisen-sory process. Lack of one sensory modality can be compensated for by other modalities. An excellent review of the multisensory hypothesis was published several years ago (Stern, 1990). Despite its age it is still the most eloquent exposition of Beach's hypothesis I have ever read. Turning our attention from copulation to incentive motivation responsible for approach...

Enhanced genital blood flow

As pointed out in the preceding paragraph, the main visceral response to distant sexual incentives in the human is enhanced genital blood flow. This response is called sexual arousal, as mentioned long ago. The distinction between this visceral reaction and any mental state produced by sexual incentive stimuli should always be clearly maintained. Nevertheless, terms like 'subjective arousal' are sometimes used to refer to the conscious perception of genital arousal. It appears, though, that subjective arousal is only partially determined by genital blood flow. Studies in men and women have revealed modest correlations between questionnaire or other reports of arousal and objective measurements of genital response, viz. penile tumescence and vaginal blood flow (Laan et al., 1995). It is generally believed that the correlation is higher in men than in women (Heiman, 1977 Steinman et al., 1981). One probable reason for this is that erection is a more notorious event than vaginal...

Detection and Assessment

There are no reliable and empirically derived criteria for recognition of depression in PD. Therefore, it is not surprising that depression remains under-detected and under-treated in the PD population (15,71). In a clinic-based study, nearly two-thirds of patients with clinically significant depressive symptomatology were not receiving antidepressant therapy (11). Older individuals often underreport depressive symptoms and are likely to focus on somatic or vegetative complaints (e.g., fatigue or loss of energy, reduced sexual desire or functioning, pain, sleep changes, or appetite changes), which are the prominent features of mood disorders as well as PD (102). Patients may simply attribute any mood symptoms to their PD, even when their PD has been relatively stable and the mood changes are relatively acute. In one study, over half the patients who had clinically significant depressive symptoms did not consider themselves depressed (11).

Sexual incentive properties of odors

Similarly, the existence of conditioned olfactory stimuli with sexual incentive properties in the human is unknown. While we know that visual or auditory stimuli with sexual content enhance genital blood flow, there is no published study showing that an olfactory stimulus can have this effect. The closest approximation is a study where young women, as always undergraduates, were asked to read either an explicit account of a sexual encounter between a man and a woman on a train or a story about a French journalist. There was no sexual content in the story about the journalist. Half of the subjects were invited to wear a mask impregnated with 300 ig of androstenol and the other half wore a control mask. The mask covered the mouth and the nose, assuring that the steroid reached the olfactory epithelium. After having finished reading, the subjects answered a questionnaire evaluating sexual arousal and some other mental events. Results showed that androstenol had...

Dorothy Tennovs concept of limerence as an approximation to sexual incentive motivation

I would like to propose that the state of limerence is the conscious experience of sexual incentive motivation. There is indeed some support for this notion. The limerence object must be a member of the sex which the limerent person prefers for sexual interaction. In our discussion of non-human sexual incentive motivation, I repeatedly made clear that the sexual incentive stimulus must be emitted by an individual with whom sexual interaction is potentially possible. Otherwise the stimulus may activate social motivation rather than sexual. A female rat can be a sexual incentive only when receptive, a castrated male cannot be a sexual incentive, and so on. Likewise, limerence can only be activated by an individual with whom sexual interaction eventually may occur. We must remember that humans can have mental representations of events that have not yet occurred but that may occur in some future. This means that the limerent person's expectancy of future sexual interaction is enough for...

The role of aromatization in men

Maintained sexual behaviors just as well as testosterone in the 'agonadal' group, despite the fact that no estradiol could be detected in the blood of these men, is additional strong evidence against a role for estrogen receptors. The ineffectiveness of aromatase inhibition has been confirmed in later studies. In one (Bagatell et al., 1994), healthy men between 20 and 40 years of age were treated with a GnRH antagonist for 6 weeks. Ten men received daily injections of testosterone enanthate during this period, while 10 others received testosterone enanthate + the aromatase inhibitor testolactone. The 10 men given only the GnRH antagonist had a dramatic reduction in blood testosterone concentration during the treatment period and sexual behaviors were much reduced from week 4 of treatment and on. The frequency of intercourse, of spontaneous erection, of sexual desire and of sexual fantasies was diminished. After 6 weeks, the frequency of masturbation was also reduced. All these...

Studies on men with spontaneous gene deletions

Some men have an inactivating mutation in the gene coding for aromatase, CYP19. Up to 2005, seven cases have been identified and studied (Jones et al., 2006). This number is very low and any conclusion obtained from the studies of these seven men must be regarded as very uncertain. Nevertheless, sexual behaviors appear to be of normal intensity in all seven, although fertility may be reduced by the congenital lack of estrogens (Simpson, 2004). Plasma hormone concentrations are variable, with some men showing elevated testosterone concentrations (Morishima et al., 1995), while others have concentrations close to the lower end of the normal range (Carani et al., 1997). Obviously, estrogen is not found in the blood of these men. One case study suggests that estrogen treatment enhances sexual functioning above pretreatment levels (Carani et al., 1999), while another study fails to find this effect (Carani et al., 2005). However, the combined treatment with estradiol + testosterone was...

Gulls Terns Relatives And People

In the 1800s, gull and tern feathers, and sometimes even whole birds, were used to decorate women's hats. The eggs of certain species have been, and continue to be, collected for food. Some eggs are considered aphrodisiacs (aff-roh-DEE-zee-acks), substances that enhance sexual desire, in parts of the world. Adult gulls and terns are also sometimes hunted for food. Gulls and terns were sometimes used as a sign that land was nearby by sailors, and terns are still used to locate schools of fish. Because of their more remote tundra habitats, skuas and jaegers have interacted less with human beings.

The potential role of the prefrontal cortex

Of cortical tissue removed was the factor determining the effect on sexual behavior (Beach, 1940). This observation suggested that all cortical areas were equally important, or perhaps unimportant, for this behavior. This hypothesis was tested in a few experiments (Larsson, 1962, 1964). Results showed that the effects of localized lesions were modest, but suggested that frontal ablations might have larger effects than dorsolateral or posterior ablations. An interesting experiment in hamsters revealed that ablation of the cingulated and retrosplenial cortices enhanced the threshold for sexual arousal (Bunnell et al., 1966). This observation was followed by a study of the effects of large ablations of the medial and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (Soulairac and Soulairac, 1972). This kind of lesion seemed to have a reliable and quite peculiar effect on male rat sexual behavior. We confirmed these preliminary results in a quite extensive study of the consequences of extensive destruction...

Indirect estimations of nervous activity in association with sexual behavior

We have seen many examples of the usefulness of studying changes in genital blood flow in response to sexual incentives. Instead of that, some researchers have preferred to study changes in blood flow in the brain during exposure to such incentives. Changes in blood flow or in the oxygenation levels of hemoglobin are supposed to depend on altered nervous activity. In the marmoset, exposure to the odor of periovulatory females increased the signal from the preoptic area and the anterior hypothalamus more than exposure to the odor of ovariectomized females did. Furthermore, while the response to the periovulatory female odor outlasted the presence of the odor, the small response to the odor of ovariectomized female disappeared as soon as the odor was withdrawn (Ferris et al., 2001). This study confirms that the preoptic area is activated by sexually relevant stimuli. Data from the human, strangely enough, do not systematically do so. Young men watching a pornographic movie while inside...

Central nervous control of sexual behavior in the human female

In one study, women were exposed to a fragment of a pornographic movie and a documentary as control. The pornographic movie caused activation of the thalamus, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, the inferior frontal lobe, insula, corpus cal-losum, the anterior cingulated gyrus and the inferior temporal lobe. In fact, the highest activation was observed in the temporal lobe (Park et al., 2001a). It is not entirely clear what kind of meaningful information these data might contain. None of the structures showing enhanced blood flow during exposure to the pornographic movie has been attributed any particular role in female sexual behavior in non-human females. On the contrary, those structures known to be important for non-human female sexual behaviors failed to show increased blood flow. Another, very complex experiment involving disgust-evoking pictures in addition to sexually arousing ones, and employing both male and female subjects, reported that sexually arousing pictures caused...

Sensitization of sexual responses

Regarding sensitization in the human, we are in a most unusual situation. The only experimental studies I know of were performed in women The purpose was not at all to study sensitization of sexual responses, but instead to determine the effects of activation of the sympathetic nervous system or the influence of anxiety on sexual arousal. The stimuli or actions employed for generating sympathetic activation and or anxiety were completely irrelevant as far as sex is concerned. Yet they were found to enhance responses to sexually relevant stimuli. This coincides perfectly with the definition of sensitization given earlier in this chapter. Thus, although the scientists performing the studies I soon will mention did not interpret their results in terms of learning, I will use their data as evidence in favor of sensi-tization of sexual responses. sexual arousal. The women having viewed the anxiety-producing movie showed a larger vaginal response to the pornographic movie than women having...

The Oxytocinergic System

Oxytocin affects species-specific social and reproductive behaviors (for an overview, see Heinrichs and Domes, 2008, Heinrichs et al, 2009). Warm social contact with the partner, sexual arousal, orgasm, and attachment as well as regulation of parturition and lactation have been related to oxytocin actions in women. Oxytocin interacts with the HPA axis and has stress-reducing effects in both men and women During laboratory stress, oxytocin was found to diminish cortisol responses, which is most likely due to a central inhibition of the HPA axis, involving reduced amygdala reactivity.

Empirical support for an explanation of samesex preferences in incentive motivational terms

When discussing human sexual incentives in Chapter 4, I mentioned that sexual incentive stimuli in the form of pornographic movies are efficient for enhancing genital blood flow, the classical indicator of sexual arousal. The genital response is an example of the visceral reactions produced by incentive stimuli through their actions on the central motive state. Provided that the responsiveness of the central motive state is kept constant, it can be assumed that the magnitude of the genital response is determined by the incentive stimulus' efficiency. In all the studies that were mentioned in Chapter 4, the incentive stimuli depicted either in sexual activities produced a penile response that was not much different from baseline. Again, film fragments where a man is present are efficient enhancers of genital responses in gay men, while a film showing only women having sex is inefficient for activating sexual arousal. The conclusion we can draw from the gay men's responses is quite...

Organ Systems Affected By Low T Levels

T also appears to be essential for development and maintenance of libido or sexual desire. Males with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism have minimal libido. This is increased by therapy that increases their T levels. Reduced libido also is observed in men with acquired hypogonadism, and clinical trials with replacement doses of T in young and middle-aged men usually show improved libido.

Sexual function and dysfunction

In addition to impotence, there is another condition, also considered a sexual dysfunction according to recent editions of the diagnostic manuals, named hypo-active sexual desire disorder. That disorder is not characterized by an inability to obtain sexual reward through genital stimulation. It consists of a lack of interest in obtaining such rewards. A lack of interest for engaging in behaviors leading to an unnecessary reward is usually not considered dysfunctional. In fact, to attribute the notion of dysfunctionality to a lack of interest in the execution of copulatory behaviors is quite recent. Independently of this, the absence of sexual behaviors cannot be considered a dysfunction of these behaviors. They are simply not expressed and that should be the end of it. However, this does not seem to be correct. In order to apply the diagnostic label of 'hypoactive sexual desire disorder' to an individual, that individual must consider that the lack of sexual interest is a problem and...

A short note on nonhuman mammals

Since the definition of dysfunctional found acceptable for human use is inapplicable to non-human mammals, we need another under the condition that something possible to regard as dysfunctional sexual behavior exists in these mammals. Indeed it does. I mentioned somewhere that a small proportion of rats, and certainly also of most other mammals, will not show any sexual behavior in the usual laboratory conditions and some are also unable to sire offspring even when given prolonged opportunity to do so. They seem to suffer from a condition similar to hypoactive sexual desire disorder in the way that sexual incentives are unable to activate sexual motivation. So far as we know, there is no evident disturbance in these animals' endocrine system and no observable peculiarities in their central nervous system. In that way, they are similar to humans suffering from hypoactive sexual desire disorder. It is not impossible that we should consider the sexually inactive, unmanipu-lated mammals...

Some rat data supporting the incentive motivationlearning model and a note on the relationship between desire and

In the clinical literature, the term motivation is rarely used in the sense it has in experimental psychology. In experimental psychology, the term desire is never used. Yet the meaning of 'motivation', in experimental psychology, is very similar or identical to the meaning 'desire' has in the clinical literature. I do not know why clinicians have chosen to employ the term desire rather than motivation. It would be unfair to suggest that clinicians are ignorant of psychological terminology, so that explanation must be rejected. In any case, I have convincingly argued for the equivalence of the terms 'motivation' and 'desire' elsewhere (Agmo et al., 2004). Briefly, according to the Merriam-Webster online dictionary (http www.m-w. com cgi-bin dictionary) the word desire has several meanings 1. Conscious impulse toward something that promises enjoyment or satisfaction in its attainment 2. Sexual urge or appetite 3. A usually formal request or petition for some action. The first...

Crosscultural Issues In Assessment Of Personality And Psychopathology

Issues of whether a personality trait is maladaptive or causes functional impairment or subjective distress are obviously related to the cultural context. Different cultures have tended to emphasize different traits as ideal. Buddhist monks in Asian countries are valued and highly respected for their behavior. Their essential traits include solitary activities, lack of emotional expression, lack of sexual desire, indifference to praise and criticism, and constricted affect all traits that fall within the definition of a schizoid personality disorder in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV). They would not be regarded as personality-disordered people in their own society. The shamans in different cultures believe in magical thinking, enhance unusual perceptual experiences, show odd and eccentric behavior and inappropriate abstract speech, but are not regarded as schizo-typal...

Other potential causes

The presence of the premenstrual syndrome, oral contraceptives, hysterectomy, ovariectomy, perimenopausal or menopausal states has been invoked as possible causes for low sexual desire. There is no evidence that any of them is a significant eti-ological factor (Warnock, 2002). They may be important in some exceptional cases, though. Generalized anxiety has been proposed as a factor contributing to low sexual desire in men and women, and comorbidity such as depression and diabetes have also been suggested to be a factor (Bozman and Beck, 1991 Trudel, 1991 Spector et al., 1993 van Minnen and Kampman, 2000). As we know, all these states can be included in the combined variant of hypoactive sexual desire disorder. There is no doubt that all these factors, and probably many others, can play a role in the manifestation of low desire. It is far more doubtful whether they can be the original cause. Treatment with the SSRI antidepressants is frequently associated with sexual side effects,...

Psychotherapeutic procedures

As so many times before, I need to point out that there is an impressive discrepancy between the efforts invested in finding a suitable treatment for hypoactive sexual desire disorder in women and that invested in searching for treatments of the disorder in men. I do not know if the real reason for this is known, but a feminist would certainly sustain that male malevolence is at the root. Since most researchers are men, and since most sufferers of the disorder are women, it is quite natural that the male scientists want to find a cure for an annoying state in their wives. Be it how it may with this, we have to admit that there is no known psycho-therapeutic treatment program with controlled outcome data for low sexual desire in men. Despite my very best intentions I am, therefore, obliged to limit the following account to treatments for female hypoactive desire disorder. There is no psychotherapeutic treatment for female hypoactive sexual desire disorder among the therapies with...

Survivorship Issues And Hrql

To understand the magnitude of HRQL issues among cancer survivors, we have classified these concepts into discrete domains, however it is understood that they represent a highly interrelated and dynamic system. Adhering to this model of self-reported health, the late effects of cancer can have wide spread ramifications. For example, many of the late physical effects (e.g., pain, fatigue, urinary incontinence, infertility) can also have significant emotional and social consequences. Since those with increasing age also represent a large segment of cancer survivors, it is sometimes difficult to determine whether physical changes are predominantly age or cancer related (e.g., fatigue, decreased libido, weakness). Apart from the observed physical changes, the psychosocial and existential issues acknowledged by survivors

Pharmacological treatments Hormones

Men Men complaining of low sexual desire because of hypogonadism have been successfully treated with androgens (Bancroft, 1984 Burris et al., 1992). The effectiveness of this treatment is not surprising. We learned already in Chapter 5 that adequate functioning of the central motive state requires stimulation of androgen receptors in the brain and that this stimulation is insufficient in men with very low blood androgen concentrations, as is the case in hypogonadal men. However, since it is quite likely that most men suffering from hypoactive sexual desire disorder have blood testosterone concentrations within the normal range, it is not evident that they would benefit from treatment with testosterone. Nevertheless, it would be interesting to have empirical data with regard to the effects of supplementary testosterone in such men. It seems that most clinicians regard the possibility of such an effect remote, at least too remote for trying treatments with androgen. There is, to my...

Iiioccurrence Of bMannanases

P-Mannanase activity has also been detected in several plant seeds, which is correlated to their germination (26, 27). For example, p-mannanase activity has been detected in seeds of tomato (28-30), Coffea arabica (31) carob, and fenugreek (32). Low levels of p-mannanase activity were detected in banana fruits during ripening (33). The p-mannanase encoding gene from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) has been isolated (17). Several tomato p-mannanase isoforms have been observed during germination (29).

The search for diagnostic criteria

The ICD-10, in the 2006 version mentioned above, is not very explicit with regard to the diagnostic criteria corresponding to the label 'excessive sexual desire'. Actually it says nothing. Its companion 362 pages publication entitled The ICD-10 Classification The lack of clarity concerning the empirical content of the term 'excessive' is not the only problem with the diagnostic category we are discussing here. The notion of 'drive' is also ambiguous. In old behaviorist literature, drive was the term used for motivation. It always referred to a bodily necessity generated by deprivation. The existence of conditioned drives was suggested, but never proved for anything except fear. As a scientific term, 'drive' was abandoned many years ago. Nevertheless, in popular writings and in the writings of those unfamiliar with contemporary behavior theory it may still appear. Although obsolete, expressions like 'hunger drive' may have some meaning, since the mental state called hunger somehow is...

A proposal for diagnostic criteria

It is not self-evident that it is worth the trouble to establish diagnostic criteria for a state that might be completely unproblematic for the individual. This was the implicit basis for my extensive criticism of the category of 'excessive sexual drive' and its subcategories. In contrast, if the state causes personal distress or interpersonal difficulties, then it might be worthy of consideration. In the case of hypoactive sexual desire disorder, the diagnostic criteria require both absence of desire for sexual activities and the experience of personal distress or interpersonal difficulties caused by this absence. The absence of sexual desire is by itself no problem. We even know that it may represent the highest of virtues. It becomes a problem only when the afflicted individual perceives it as such. With regard to the opposite condition, hyperactive sexual desire, it appears that the preoccupation has been concentrated on finding an objective limit above which the intensity of...

Epidemiology and etiology

It is impossible to make any kind of informed speculation as to the prevalence of hyperactive sexual desire since there has been no agreement around a definition of it. We can repeat that Kinsey et al. (1948) found that 7.6 adult of men had seven or more sexual outlets per week, and we could try to find similar data for women. However, that would be of little use, since the amount of sexual activity per se is not the crucial element. Rather than presenting irrelevant data, I prefer to claim that we first need an acceptable and accepted set of diagnostic criteria for hyperactive sexual desire disorder, under the condition that the clinical community finds that of interest, obviously. Then we need decent population based studies. Until such studies have been performed, there is nothing more to say than that we do not know. The etiology must also remain unknown. Most scientists would consider it absurd to try to describe the etiology of a disorder before the disorder has been discovered....

Diagnostic criteria and general description

It must immediately be observed that no overt behavior is required according to these criteria. Mental representations of exposing genitals to strangers are sufficient as long as they produce sexual arousal. The concept of 'sexual urge' is quite mysterious. I assume it refers to the conscious

Etiology and epidemiology

It seems most unlikely that the causes for the attraction to children or adolescents are to be found in factors unrelated to sexuality. Instead, I suggest that children, for some reason or another, have acquired sexual incentive properties for those expressing pedophilic behavior while they do not have such properties for others. Adult individuals, of the same or of the opposite sex, are also sexual incentives for the pedophile exactly as they are for almost everyone else. This simple suggestion can easily be subjected to experimental test. We could, for example, expose pedophiles to pornographic movies depicting sexual interaction between adults. To these movies, the pedophiles should show exactly the same response as non-pedophiles, that is an erection. Both groups could then be exposed to a pornographic movie depicting sexual interactions between a child and an adult. In this case, we would predict that the pedophile would respond with erection whereas the non-pedophile would not....

General conclusion

Hyperactive sexual desire and the paraphilias represent aspects of human sexual behavior that are morally questionable in contemporary Western society. We saw very clear examples of that when we reviewed the efforts that have been made with the aim of establishing criteria for hypersexuality. A frequency of sex far above average was, by itself, enough for talking about hypersexuality. Despite the absence of a rational criterion for distinguishing this condition from something I called eusexual-ity, I suggested that hyperactive sexual desire could be given a diagnostic category based on the same principle as other categories of sexual disorders, namely that the condition is experienced as a problem of sufficient magnitude for causing marked distress. The rationality of this principle is open to discussion. There are many situations in life, lasting for more than 6 months, that cause marked distress or interpersonal difficulty without benefiting from a diagnostic category in the DSM-IV...

Stress and Elicitor Induced Sprouting

In many legumes such as soy (192), pea (193), fava bean (194), mung bean (195) and fenugreek (196), sprouting in combination with biological, chemical, and physical stress linked elicitation can stimulate phytochemicals relevant in chemoprevention. Preliminary results have provided empirical evidence for a link between proline biosynthesis and oxidation, as well as stimulation of G6PDH during phenolic phytochemical synthesis (180,188,197-199). In light mediated sprout studies in peas (Pisum sativum), acetylsali-cylic acid in combination with fish protein hydrolysates (a potential source of proline precursors) stimulated phenolic content and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) activity during early germination, with corresponding higher levels of proline and G6PDH activity (200). In other light mediated studies in peas, low pH and salicylic acid treatments stimulated increased phenolic content and tissue rigidity, with concomitant stimulation of G6PDH and proline (199). This work supports the...

A curious observation of some consequence

Two most remarkable studies were published quite recently. They were remarkable first because they included groups of women diagnosed with hypoactive sexual desire disorder or female sexual arousal disorder according to the criteria established in DSM-IV. This is certainly admirable, but the diagnosis was not complete. There is no indication whatsoever neither with regard to life-long or acquired disorder, nor to generalized or situational disorder. These omissions are most unfortunate. The second reason making these studies remarkable is that they included an objective measure of sexual arousal in response to a sexual incentive. This is exceptional indeed. Changes in vaginal blood flow, determined by photoplethysmography, were the dependent variable. A pornographic movie segment depicting precopu-latory, heterosexual behaviors followed by penile-vaginal intercourse was the sexual incentive stimulus. The final remarkable aspect of these studies is the result. It turned out that women...

Copulatory behavior in men and women

Stages Coital

FIGURE 2.2 van de Velde's illustration of human coital interactions. (a) The changes in sexual excitation during an ideal copulatory encounter. With ideal is understood that the man and the woman reach orgasm at the same time. Excitation is defined as the summation of sexual desire and pleasure, bodily and psychic. (b) Similar to panel (a), but here the sexual interaction occurs with an inexperienced woman without adequate coital stimulation. (c) Similar to panel (a), but now the woman is sexually experienced. The prelude was omitted, but the woman's low initial excitation was compensated for by her experience. (From van de Velde, 1965. Copyright 1926. Reprinted with permission.) FIGURE 2.2 van de Velde's illustration of human coital interactions. (a) The changes in sexual excitation during an ideal copulatory encounter. With ideal is understood that the man and the woman reach orgasm at the same time. Excitation is defined as the summation of sexual desire and pleasure, bodily and...

Saint Augustine and sex the poena reciproca and the role of love

Many human behavior patterns, particularly those pertaining to the category of precopulatory behaviors, have not by themselves any specific meaning. They acquire a sexual connotation through social learning and they may be highly variable between one culture and another and they can also change their meaning within a culture over time. One pre-copulatory behavior common in Europe and some other places, mutual tactile stimulation of the rostral end of the digestive canal (an activity vulgarly known as kissing), has no sexual meaning at all in other cultures. Its capacity to enhance sexual arousal efficiently in most Europeans is a consequence of social learning. Likewise, where, with whom and when to execute copulatory behaviors are determined by social learning in the human. I will not pursue this discussion here, but we must have clear right from the outset that human sexual behavior is determined by social conventions far more than by biological factors. Any discussion of human...

Psychopharmacological treatments

The encouraging results reported in the clinical trials with androgens contrast sharply to the lack of progress with regard to psychopharmacological approaches. There is currently no established drug treatment for hypoactive sexual desire disorder, neither in men nor in women. Recent reviews of the treatment strategies for this disorder have focused on hormone treatments (Kohn, 2006 Nijland et al., 2006 Segraves and Woodard, 2006). No new data on the effects of drugs acting in the central nervous system seem to have appeared during the last few years, although the pharmaceutical industry is investing a considerable effort in search for effective drugs. A few data do suggest that some psychopharmacological agents may be effective, but these data do not seem to appear convincing enough for launching more extensive clinical evaluations. Nevertheless, I will mention some of them. Men A group of men suffering from impotence was treated with the a2-adrenergic antagonist yohimbine for 8...

Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland

The hypothalamus is the most inferior portion of the dien-cephalon. Located below the thalamus, it forms the floor and part of the lateral walls of the third ventricle. This small but extremely important brain region contains neural centers for hunger and thirst and for the regulation of body temperature and hormone secretion from the pituitary gland (fig. 8.17). In addition, centers in the hypothalamus contribute to the regulation of sleep, wakefulness, sexual arousal and performance, and such emotions as anger, fear, pain, and pleasure. Acting through its connections with the medulla oblongata of the brain stem, the hypothalamus helps to evoke the visceral responses to various emotional states. In its regulation of emotion, the hypothalamus works together with the limbic system, as was discussed in the previous section.

Variations in womens sexual behavior during the menstrual cycle

A large number of studies have addressed the issue of menstrual cycle-dependent variations in the intensity of sexual behavior in women. This is a well-liked issue that is discussed in popular magazines from one time to another, so I will not spend many lines on it. Data are conflicting and peaks of sexual intercourse frequency have been reported in the follicular phase just following menstruation (Spitz et al., 1975 Dobbins, 1980), in the periovulatory phase (Udry and Morris, 1968 Adams et al., 1978) and in the luteal phase, just preceding the onset of menstruation (McCance et al., 1937). To judge from the intercourse data, there is no systematic variation in sexual activity during the menstrual cycle. Instead of analyzing intercourse, some researchers have evaluated less tangible aspects of sexual behavior, such as sexual dreams and other mental representations of sexual activities (e.g. Schultz and Koulack, 1980). Frequency of masturbation and some more extravagant aspects of...

On the definition of sexual behavior

These definitions are probably useless in a scientific context. For example, the notion that sexual behavior is any activity that induces sexual arousal has several interesting implications, some of which are counterintuitive. Imagine a woman, comfortably seated on her favorite couch reading an old novel by David Herbert Lawrence. It so happens that she gets sexually aroused by a passage in The Plumed Serpent. Would that mean that reading is sexual behavior I could easily invent dozens of examples equally absurd, but this one should be sufficient to illustrate the point. Likewise, reproductive behavior is said to be any activity directed toward perpetuation of a species. Does this mean that the veterinarian inseminating a cow is displaying reproductive behavior Or the technician who diluted the sperm directly after collection from the bull, did she show reproductive behavior while doing so Yet both the veterinarian and the technician performed activities directed toward perpetuation...

Sexual Dysfunction

Though PD patients rarely complain of sexual difficulties, if specifically asked, dysfunction in this area is very common. Bronner et al. (65) performed a comprehensive assessment of sexuality in 75 patients (32 women, 43 men) with PD who did not complain of problems in this area. Using specific sexual function scales, they asked patients to rate their sexuality currently and retrospectively before the onset of their PD. They found that in men, 68 had erectile dysfunction, 65 were dissatisfied with their sexual life, and 40 had difficulty reaching orgasm. In women, the major problems were difficulty getting aroused (88 ), difficulty reaching orgasm (75 ), and decreased sexual desire (47 ). Comparing scores before PD onset to the present, most patients reported a deterioration in sexual functioning with the progression of PD. Using stepwise regression, the authors found that in men, associated disease, medications, and severity of PD predicted sexual dysfunction, whereas in women,...

B Male foodleaving

In laboratory culture, males in the absence of hermaphrodites will leave a food source, often lethally. As this behavior is exhibited only by adult males, and is not expressed when a hermaphrodite is present, it has been interpreted as a male mate-searching or sex-drive behavior (Lipton et al., 2004). While the specific signals that control this behavior have not been identified, one possibility is that the presence of a hermaphrodite inhibits a mate-searching drive state. Interestingly, the rate at which males leave food over time is constant, indicating that solitary males are constitutively in a mate-searching mode that can be expressed stochastically, possibly as result of random encounters with the edge of the food source. Recent evidence indicates that the ray sensory neurons are important for implementing food-leaving (A. Barrios and S. W. Emmons, personal communication), suggesting that tonic input from the male-specific nervous system regulates this behavioral state. Like the...

Menopause

Along with a drop in testosterone in approximately half of all meno-pausal women, the aforementioned changes presumably contribute to a decline in the sex drive reported by 30 or so women after menopause (Sheehy, 1993). Perhaps an even more important factor in the reduced sexual activity of widows, however, are social mores that view sex as something that older women should not be interested in. Despite the decline in sexual activity for most older women, the increased independence and assertiveness experienced by many postmenopausal women are often accompanied by a renewed interest in sex.

Love And Loving

Love is not merely the diversion or sublimation of the sex drive into more socially acceptable feelings of tenderness and affection. Rather than being a substitute for sex, feelings of love between two people are often kindled and intensified by sexual stimulation and intercourse (Dermer & Pyszczynski, 1978).

Studies in humans

In one of the first, if not the first, study specifically designed for evaluating habituation of sexual arousal in the human, 40 young male students were exposed to slides depicting heterosexual couples engaged in oral or genital sexual activity. Arousal, as always defined as erection, was quantified by penile plethysmography. One group of subjects was shown the same slide several times, either until there was no penile response or up to 27 stimulus presentations. Another group was shown five different slides an equal number of times. Results revealed a rapid decrease in response intensity in the group shown the same slide, while the response decreased much more slowly in the group exposed to five different slides (O'Donahue and Geer, 1985). The fact that the decline was slower in the group shown five different slides than in the group shown the same slide excludes the possibility that the reduced response was due to fatigue in effector systems. Both groups made the same number of...

Disease Specific

Adjustments may need to be made in the patient's medication if a woman chooses to pursue pregnancy in order to eliminate drugs that may be teratogenic. Treatments and medications can also cause decreased libido and sexual dysfunction. Some patients may lose the desire for sexual relations as a result of fatigue, tumor location, treatment, medication, depression, or body image changes. Patients should be asked about this important aspect of their life so that adjustments can be made whenever possible to improve sexual function.

Human studies

There are no rat data concerning classical conditioning of erection or other sexual arousal responses and, likewise, there are none concerning conditioning of copu-latory reflexes like mount with pelvic thrusting. In the absence of useful rodent data on these viscerosomatic responses we have to turn to studies in humans. Classical conditioning of sexual responses is actually one of the few problems in the field of experimental sex research that has been more thoroughly studied in the human than in the rat. In fact, the first studies of conditioning of human sexual arousal (erection) were performed long before similar studies were undertaken in rats or other non-human animals. In one of the early studies, three adult psychologists were employed as subjects rather than the habitual psychology students. They were exposed to pairings of pictures of nude women (unconditioned stimulus) and a pair of black boots (conditioned stimulus). The unconditioned, as well as conditioned response, was...

Testosterone Decline

The decline in testosterone with age puts a greater number of elderly men at risk for developing hypo-gonadism. Rhoden and Morgentaler estimated that between two and four million men in the United States alone suffer from hypogonadism (defined as serum total testosterone levels lower than 325 ng per deciliter) (Rhoden et al., 2004). More alarmingly though, the same study reported that only 5 of these men are getting treatment for their symptoms, which include decreased libido and erectile dysfunction, loss of muscle mass and strength, weight gain, and declining cognitive function. Hypogonadism is also associated with type II diabetes, musculoskeletal frailty, cardiovascular disease, and the metabolic syndrome.

Diagnostic criteria

In order to receive the diagnosis 'hypoactive sexual desire disorder' (code F.520 both in the ICD-10 and DSM-IV), a person must satisfy three criteria The disorder may be life-long, with the start at the onset of sexual functioning, according to DSM-IV. I assume that 'onset of sexual functioning' is a euphemism for puberty, but I am not completely sure. Considering that it is an American text, it may also mean onset of marriage. There is also an 'acquired type' of the disorder, meaning that the afflicted individual had satisfactory sexual desire during some period of life. Furthermore, hypoactive sexual desire may be limited to particular situations, to particular kinds of stimulation or to particular partners. If so, it is then considered to be of the 'situational type'. If the lack of desire is omnipresent, then the disorder is of the generalized type. Finally, a good diagnosis should include some mention of possible cause and here the DSM-IV generously offers two alternatives,...

Epidemiology

Several studies have revealed an amazingly high prevalence of hypoactive sexual desire disorder. An American nationwide survey of 1622 women between 18 and 59 years of age found prevalence to be around 30 , independent of age. The corresponding value for a sample of 1249 men was 15 , again independent of age (Laumann et al., 1994, 1999). In the Valencia-Castellon area of Spain, 37 of the women asked and 25 of the men asked complained of low sexual desire (Arnal et al., 1995). There was no age effect in men, but in women there was a continuous increase between 14 and 40 years of age. Thereafter, prevalence remained stable. In Denmark, a representative sample revealed that 11 of Danish women and 3 of Danish men consider themselves to have low sexual desire (Ventegodt, 1998), independently of age. In Sweden, 34 of women between 18 and 74 years old reported a sexual desire sufficiently low to constitute a problem. In men, the figure was 16 (Fugl-Meyer and Sjogren-Fugl-Meyer, 1999). The...

General

There are many speculations and few data with regard to the causes of hypoac-tive sexual desire disorder. The name originally given to it, inhibited sexual desire disorder, suggested that the underlying sexual motivation was intact, but some processes blocked its expression. Such a distinction between a basic, unaffected sexual motivation system and the blockade of its expression has important consequences for treatment. If we believe in this hypothesis, a successful treatment should remove the inhibitions imposed on this intact motivation rather than trying to enhance it. On the contrary, if we suspect that the cause of the lack of desire resides in absent motivation, then we would need to find a way of enhancing that motivation rather than removing inhibitions, particularly since there are no inhibitions to remove, according to the suspicion determining our choice of treatment. In view of the therapeutic implications of the conflicting hypotheses, it becomes quite important to...

Sexual Functioning

Other findings suggest that impaired sexual functioning among survivors of testicular cancer may not be a permanent condition. For example, the findings from a prospective analysis suggest that while patients are significantly less satisfied with their status of sexual functioning 6 months after completion of treatment, this dissatisfaction is not observed at either 12 or 36 months after the completion of treatment.44 Similarly, a significant decrease in sexual desire and increased erectile problems were reported at 6 and 12 months after treatment when compared to baseline (prior to diagnosis). However, by 36 months post treatment, sexual desire and frequency of erectile problems were not significantly different from baseline.44 More recently published findings by van Basten and colleagues45 also appear to suggest that sexual functioning does recover following treatment. Their results, also from a prospective study, indicate that considerable sexual morbidity occurs during treatment...

Conclusion

To date, the etiology of hypoactive sexual desire disorder is badly understood. In fact, there is no generally accepted hypothesis as to its origin. A factor contributing to our ignorance is the sloppy diagnostic procedures employed in most of the clinical research. This seems to be a long tradition and there is no hope that it will change in the near future. Despite the paucity of empirical data, I would not be surprised if it some day was confirmed that the life-long variant of the disorder is related to a deficient androgen production. With regard to the acquired variant, I can find no better explanation than the incentive motivation learning proposal made in the beginning of this section. We will soon see that it receives ample support from the therapeutic procedures most successful for the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder.

Treatment

Since hyperactive sexual desire does not exist as a diagnostic category, I can present no trial where patients suffering from it have been included. The excessive sexual drive notion of the ICD-10 has not shown itself to be more successful in generating clinical research than in its conceptualization. Not a single study has included patients from that category. We are, then, in a situation where relevant empirical data are completely absent. It would not be particularly useful to analyze all the means by which sexual activity can be reduced. Already, in Chapter 5, we learned that reducing androgen concentrations in blood or blocking androgen receptors were efficient for reducing sexual behaviors, including desire, in men and women. There is no reason at all why this should not also apply to those having an unusually high level of desire. Thus, treatment for the potential disorder of hyperactive sexual desire should be easily accomplished by any means reducing the cellular actions of...

Etiology

Among the many suggestions as to causes of exhibitionism and other paraphil-ias is hypersexuality, as mentioned in a preceding section of this chapter (Kafka, 2003). The idea of exhibitionists' hypersexuality was actually launched quite early (East, 1924), but experimental support has been weak. A simple way to test the hypothesis of hypersexuality would be to expose exhibitionists to pornographic movies and compare the intensity of sexual arousal with that of a group of controls. If exhibitionists indeed are hypersexual, their response to a sexual incentive should be larger than that found in 'normal' controls. This was not the case, though. The enhancement of penile tumescence in response to pornographic movie fragments depicting women did not differ between groups. Like controls, exhibitionists did not respond to a male stimulus and not to pictures of children. It has also been suggested that exhibitionists get aroused by looking at their own genitals, while non-exhibitionists do...

On the omissions

Only a few of the sexual dysfunctions or disorders have been covered. Notable omissions are the sexual arousal disorders, so named in women, but called erectile disorder in men. Both conditions are characterized by a lack of enhanced genital blood flow in response to sexual incentives. I decided to omit these disorders because we have talked so much about sexual arousal in other chapters and the mechanisms controlling it have been analyzed in some detail. Again, the physiology of genital circulation was not adequately covered and the anatomical features of the genital vascular systems were not mentioned at all. This, in fact, would have become indispensable for a reasonable thorough discussion of the arousal disorders. Without these aspects, I could only have concluded that the impact of sexual incentives on the central motive state and the ensuing activation of visceral responses were deficient. Everyone could have figured out that by her himself, making it quite unnecessary to...

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