Assertiveness

Your Perfect Right

Your Perfect Right

Always wondered if you could use assertiveness and equality in your relationships and in your life? Here are some great information on how to be more assertive! Do you want to improve your career and the amount of money that you bring home? Do you want to break all the sales records in your office? Do you want to bring home more money? Do you feel as though you are just short of reaching all of your goals?

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Significance To Humans

Where they occur, jungle leeches are among the most self-assertive and omnipresent elements of a rainforest. Although it is unlikely that anyone would bleed to death from the dozens of leeches that find their way into socks or under shirts and trousers, many have been driven to distraction by their tenacity, the inability to escape their attentions, or the itchy welts that may arise from their bites. Occasionally featured in motion pictures (e.g., Apocalypse Now).

The Structure of Cognitive Therapy Behavioural Techniques Cognitive Techniques and Homework

The first class of therapeutic approaches focus on the client's behaviour. The rationale is that for some people behaviour monitoring, behavioural activation and behavioural change can lead to substantive gains. For example, people with more severe depression often become withdrawn and inactive, which can feed into and exacerbate depression. They withdraw and then label themselves as 'ineffectual', fuelling the depression. By focussing on this relationship and gradually increasing the person's sense of daily structure and participation in masterful and pleasurable activities the person can take the first steps in combating depression (Beck et al., 1979). Other behavioural strategies include scheduling pleasurable activities, breaking down large tasks (such as finding employment) into more manageable graded tasks (buying a newspaper with job advertisements, preparing a resume ), teaching relaxation skills, desensitising a person regarding feared situations, role playing and...

The Therapeutic Relationship

A 46 year-old woman suffered from social anxiety and agoraphobia. Initially, treatment (exposure in vivo) appeared to be going smoothly, but as the exercises progressed treatment halted. The patient started cancelling appointments and when she did show up she had not completed the assignments. In view of the initial smooth progress, the therapist hypothesized that the stagnation might have to do with fears associated with definitive improvement of the complaints. Inquiry revealed that the patient dreaded having to go back to work for her father, whom she described as an authoritarian man whom she felt unable to stand up to. As a result of this discussion, the functional analysis and treatment plan were revised and patient and therapist agreed to include assertiveness training as part of the treatment.

Communication Training

The main objective of communication training is to teach couples how to improve their communication. Partners receive training in skills that enable them to talk to one another more effectively. The following skills are instructed in a structured fashion active listening, expression of empathy, expression of emotion, and assertiveness. When the partners have adequately mastered these skills they can apply them when discussing their specific relationship issues. The therapist also applies the systematic problem-solving training as part of the course. Modelling, feedback, shaping and role playing are specific techniques used in communication training. Prior to formulating the treatment plan, the therapist will make a functional analysis of the relationship problems. A number of studies have demonstrated the efficacy of behavioural communication training among couples with relationship distress (Emmelkamp, 1988).

The Personality Hierarchy Reconsidered

In the case of Neuroticism, the Angry Hostility facet marked the first genetic factor, and the second factor influenced all facets except Angry Hostility and Impulsivity. With Extraversion, the most salient component of the first genetic factor was Gregariousness in both samples. All facets except Gregariousness and Excitement Seeking loaded on the second factor. Although this factor appeared similar in the two samples, in the Canadian sample the factor emphasized Warmth and Positive Emotions, whereas in the German sample it emphasized Assertiveness and Activity. The first general genetic factor contributing to the Openness to Experience domain was defined by the Fantasy, Aesthetics,

Personality Characteristics

With some of the adjectives, you are not likely to experience much difficulty in answering these two questions. In one large study of college students from 30 countries across the world, the respondents consistently checked the following adjectives as descriptive of men adventurous, strong, dominant, assertive, task-oriented, aggressive, enterprising, and independent. Women, on the other hand, were consistently described as sensitive, gentle, dependent, emotional, sentimental, weak, submissive, and people-oriented (Williams & Best, 1990). Other studies have found girls and women to be more empathic and sensitive to other people (Eisenberg & Lennon, 1983). They are also viewed as more dependent, fearful, irritable, and demanding, but less self-confident than males. Males, on the other hand, are characterized as more active, exploratory, and impulsive than females (Feshbach & Weiner, 1991). In As discussed at length in Chapters 5 and 7 of this book, women are more relationship-oriented...

Psychological Wellbeing And Quality Of Life

Decreased psychological well-being has been reported in hypopituitary adults despite replacement of all hormone deficiencies with the exception of GH (2). In studies comparing adults with long standing GH-deficiency with matched controls the patients reported lower openness, less assertiveness, less energy, greater emotional lability, more difficulties with sexual relationships and a greater sense of social isolation (2,3). Evi

Long TermCare Facilities

The negative perception that society, and older adults in particular, have of nursing homes is due in part to the desire of older adults to remain with their families in familiar surroundings rather than being placed in an unfamiliar environment to be tended by strangers and await death. Accounts of unsanitary and unsafe conditions and inadequate treatment of patients by nursing home staff during the 1970s and 1980s prompted a number of investigations of the entire nursing home industry. One result of these investigations and the attendant publicity was passage of the Nursing Home Reform Act of 1987, containing a set of regulations that apply to all nursing home facilities. This legislation resulted in the gradual phasing out of the distinction between nursing homes and intermediate care facilities, and, more importantly, to a greater respect for patients' rights. Nursing home patients are now more likely to be treated as individuals who merit respect and should be permitted and...

Instruments For Assessing Normal Styles And Dimensions

Aggressive, forceful, dissenting unconventional, dauntless, nonconforming Assertive and socially dominant, these individuals are adventurous, competitive, and nonconforming. They persevere in difficult circumstances but can be inconsiderate of others' needs. They are often brusque and insensitive in their tactics and downplay the value of tender emotions. The PD counterpart is antisocial.

Behaviour Therapy Rationale

Behaviour therapy concentrates on the present and sets specific, clearly defined treatment goals within a time-limited and structured intervention. Given the emphasis on engaging patients in rewarding behaviours and reducing punishing behaviours, one of the initial tasks is collaboratively identifying the impact of behaviour on depressive symptoms. Specific interventions are then scheduled to elucidate patterns of reinforcement, for example through monitoring daily activities and rating the associated mastery and pleasure. Tasks are then assigned to gradually increase mastery and pleasure and decrease negatively reinforcing patterns. Progress may be made through imaginal or in vivo exposure to problematic situations with the ultimate aim of identifying and implementing behavioural techniques for managing identified difficulties. Specific areas of difficulty are addressed through appropriate skills training, for example assertiveness or social skill training.

Theoretical Formulations

The standard therapies for GAD, evaluated in clinical trials from 1980 to 2000, have been broadly based on the procedures and principles of cognitive therapy as applied to the appraisal of threat (Beck, Emery & Greenberg, 1985) and behaviour therapy as applied to reducing muscle tension through relaxation training (Bernstein & Borkovec, 1973 Ost, 1987). These approaches will be familiar to therapists with a basic training in cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). The primary emphasis is on a process of self-regulation in which the sufferer learns to understand and then interrupt his or her particular cycle of anxiety triggers, bodily responses and worries with coping strategies based on either reducing arousal and muscle tension or changing the beliefs, and appraisal processes that underlie worrisome thinking. Clinical and research evidence suggests that confidence in either approach can bring about significant reductions in the severity of GAD but confidence in both is probably most...

What Constitutes Capacity to Consent to Sexual Relationships

To engage in sexual intercourse for a material object, such as cigarettes, they need to know how else these might be obtained). Realistically, to make a voluntary choice, many people would also need assertiveness training, so that they did not simply submit to sexual activity because of compliance.

Terminal Drop

The fact that cognitive abilities may show a general decline with aging is seen in the phenomenon known as the terminal drop. Research on this phenomenon, which is signaled not only by decrements in IQ, memory, and cognitive organization, but also in reaction time, assertiveness, and other sensorimotor abilities and personality characteristics during the last few months of life, was prompted by the observations made by a nurse in a home for the aged. She claimed that she was able to predict which patients were going to die soon, because they just seem to act differently (Lieberman, 1965, p. 181). Research studies initiated in response to the nurse's observations found that patients who died within an year after psychological assessments showed declines on various measures of cognitive and sensorimotor abilities and adaptation to the environment (Granick & Patterson, 1972 Lieberman & Coplan, 1969 Reimanis & Green, 1971 Riegel & Riegel, 1972).

Conservative Mode

The conservative mode is also one in which the environment acts as the source of criminal activity, but here changes to the internal state of the offender are sought. This operational style might give rise to crimes that are motivated by a desire for a sense of power or control. Individuals who commit burglary and or theft to fund a drug habit can also be seen to be operating in this mode, as can creators of computer viruses who derive no financial benefit from their crimes. Within other crimes it is also possible to find examples of criminals who derive psychological, as well as instrumental, gain from their illegal activities. Crime prevention measures directed at these forms of activity will need to recognise the psychological benefits perceived by the offender, and should seek to modify the target so as to deny these benefits. Alternatively, crime prevention measures operating at the individual level must attempt to reduce the perception of crime as a legitimate means to obtain...

Suicide

Regardless of age, depression is the most common factor in suicide (Carson & Butcher, 1992). However, it is not the only factor. Despite the fact that depression is significantly more prevalent among females than males, the suicide rate is substantially lower for females than males-whiteor black. Contributing to the higher rate for males is the fact that males who attempt suicide employ more lethal methods, such as firearms. Another factor contributing to the sex difference in suicide rate is that the more assertive, achievement-oriented, middle-aged man has greater difficulty than the more passive, nurturant, middle-aged woman adapting to role changes in later life. Women also tend to have more extensive social supports, which can act as a buffer against despair. Many older men, especially the less affluent, are unable to attain satisfaction in their new roles while retaining the macho myth that they can only maintain their dignity or manliness by keeping quiet about their problems...

Menopause

Along with a drop in testosterone in approximately half of all meno-pausal women, the aforementioned changes presumably contribute to a decline in the sex drive reported by 30 or so women after menopause (Sheehy, 1993). Perhaps an even more important factor in the reduced sexual activity of widows, however, are social mores that view sex as something that older women should not be interested in. Despite the decline in sexual activity for most older women, the increased independence and assertiveness experienced by many postmenopausal women are often accompanied by a renewed interest in sex.

Advance Directives

Ducting on the efficacy of advance directives, I find that even when the advance directive is in its proper place in the medical chart and is noticed, it still has little or no impact on clinical practice because physicians seldom acknowledge that the patient has the conditions designated (lines 4-7) to trigger the advance directive. The best hope for such patients is to have a strong, assertive proxy or agent acting on their behalf (L. L. Emanuel, et al., 1991 L. L. Emanuel & E.J. Emanuel, 1989 Heintz, 1997 High, 1993 Morrison et al., 1995).

Directed Questions

The key problem with directed questions is one of selectivity. A witness may be asked about the injuries to the child's left leg, but not to the right. The witness may have important evidence to give about the child's right leg, but not be given a question to answer about it. The witness may assume, reasonably it is suggested, that the lawyer will, to continue the example, move from the left to the right leg in due course. The lawyer is in charge of which questions are asked and in which order. So the witness may not be asked for information which might, on an impartial reading of the case, be critical. Without that information only part of the picture will have been presented to the jury. Of course the witness may be assertive enough to insist on giving that evidence, although the lawyer may object. Witnesses are often told, directly and indirectly, to answer the question, and only the question. The lawyer for the other side may provide the witness with an opportunity for the whole...

Casting Doubt

Few witnesses will be sufficiently assertive, prepared and competent to make such a response. Indeed, if the lawyer suspected that the witness was that competent then he or she will avoid asking such a question. The lawyer will have 'sized up' the witness in advance. And the witness, who does answer with such an assertive response, is liable to be accused of having been coached. While telling a witness what to say in a particular case, with reference to particular evidence, is objectionable, general training to be a skilful witness is not.

Behaviour Therapy

Argyle et al. (1974) found that these patients benefited from both social skills training and psychodynamic therapy Stravynski et al. (1994) compared social skills training conducted in the clinic with training in the clinic plus in vivo and found both equally effective, although dropout rates were much higher when in vivo work was included. Alden (1989) Cappe & Alden (1986) and Marzillier et al. (1976) evaluated social skills training, exposure and systematic desensitisation and found that patients with APD made modest gains with all three relative to a waiting-list control. Alden & Capreol (1993) concluded from a trial of 76 patients with APD that individuals presenting as angry and distrustful benefited more from exposure therapy while those whose primary problem was lack of assertiveness responded better to social skills training. Results suggest that patients with APD are likely to demonstrate only modest improvements in social functioning...

Counselling

The authors include a list of the 92 papers included in their meta-analysis of counselling. A quick review of these references shows that the studies in the meta-analysis included the following counselling techniques anger management, assertiveness training, social skills training, exposure treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder, desensitisation, relaxation training, cognitive therapy, group cognitive behaviour therapy, shaping, reinforcement of non-depressed behaviours and implosion. Hence, the possibility that the apparent effectiveness of counselling was due largely to the inclusion of traditional behaviour therapy cannot be excluded. At this time we must conclude that there are very limited data to support the use of counselling with people with intellectual disabilities.

Empirical Findings

Each of the assessment devices has yielded similar factor structures for the personality styles. In a large normal adult sample, PACL scales showed three bipolar dimensions labeled Neurotic versus Controlled, Assertive versus Compliant, and Introversion versus Extraversion (Strack, 1987, 1991b). Factor analyses of the MAPI (Hynan, Pantle, & Foster, 1998 T. Millon et al., 1982a), MBHI (T. Millon et al., 1982b), and MBMD (T. Millon et al., 2001) have been performed on clinical samples with symptom measures included. Nevertheless, their dimensional structure is comparable to that of the PACL. Recently, PACL and MIPS MIPS-R scales were correlated and factor analyzed together in a sample of 148 college students (Guevara & Strack, 1998). Scales measuring the same personality styles were moderately associated (Range of rs .35 to .71). Three of four varimax-rotated factors included basic personality styles. Factor 1, which was bipolar, linked three PACL introverted, neurotic personalities...