Understanding Autism

Parenting Children With Asperger's And High-functioning Autism

Mark Hutten, M.A is a practicing counseling psychologist and a professional parent-coach with experience of over 20 years in the field of High-Functioning Autism (HFA) and Asperger's. being the executive director of online parent support, LLC, Hutten presents several workshops and conducts numerous training courses for both professionals and parents dealing with HFA and Asperger's; besides, he works with hundreds of teenagers and children with HFA and Asperger's. Hutten is also an author of several articles that highlight parenting techniques based on highly effective research for dealing with children with HFA and Asperger's. The founder of the support group has published 'My out of control Child' and 'My out of control teen' eBooks. Most of Hutten's columns and articles discuss several ways of parenting young ones with conduct disorder, ODD, ADHD, Autism, Asperger's syndrome, Bipolar disorder, reactive attachment disorder, and many more conditions. The helpful parenting toolkit is all about a system that enables parents to minimize the child's meltdowns, low frustration tolerance, and tantrums, physical and verbal aggression, school-related behavior problems, social skills deficits, picky eating, attention difficulties, rigid thinking, problems completing homework, sleep problems, rituals and obsessions, and many more behavioral problems. The eBook is available for download. More here...

Parenting Children With Aspergers And Highfunctioning Autism Summary

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Author: Mark Hutten
Official Website: parentingautisticchild.com
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Highly Recommended

This is one of the best e-books I have read on this field. The writing style was simple and engaging. Content included was worth reading spending my precious time.

All the testing and user reviews show that Parenting Children With Asperger's And is definitely legit and highly recommended.

A Parent's Guide For Reversing Autism

Whilst best results are seen in younger children the seven step plan I have outlined in this book, including the diet, can be applied to any autistic person of any age. Step One details the gluten free/casein free diet and why it is so important for recovery to begin. It also explains why, after only 6 weeks, a particular type of cows milk can be included back into the diet. This milk has a different molecular structure than other milks. You are unlikely to hear about this milk anywhere else in the autistic community as we have been told that all casein is bad. This is simply not true. Your child may be similar to mine and have no reaction to this milk casein whatsoever. I explain how to test your child for this and other food intolerances in step one. If you have a child who is a 'picky eater' or skeptical family members, then doing step one correctly will put an end to all that. This diet is strict and has to be done properly or you will not get the results you are longing for. If you follow my recommendations for diet outlined in this chapter you could see significant improvements in your child in as little as a week.

A Parents Guide For Reversing Autism Summary

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Author: Donna Blackmore
Official Website: www.autism2recovery.com
Price: $19.00

Eric Chessen's Autism Fitness Assessment Toolbox

Eric Chessen takes you step by step using his easy to follow Manuals, Assessment Grids and Videos to better prepare you to understand your participants abilities and help you create outstanding fitness programs. The Big 5 Movement Patterns- Each of the major ways in which we perform physically. The Big 5 include: Pushing (Movement away from the body) Pulling (Movement towards the body) Rotation (Movement around the torso or hips) Bending (All squatting or pick-up activities) Locomotion (Movement from one point in space to another) The Big 5 are all multi-joint movements, meaning they do not isolate a specific muscle. They will often be used in combination, for example, a scoop throw is a combination of bending (hips moving down/back) and pushing (throwing the to a partner) Behavior-Specific Praise (Bsp)- A technique derived from the science and practice of Applied Behavior Analysis (Aba). The instructor provides positive feedback immediately following the individuals action. Rather than saying Great job!, a more effective response would be Great job bending knees and jumping! This tells the individual exactly what they did well. Increasing Duration of Activity- For individuals who baseline at low or intermediate. levels of Adaptive ability, one of the goals will be to increase the time they are able to attend to an activity. This is not a measure of physical endurance, but developing the skills of patience and resilience. If Chris Pac assessment shows that he is only able to perform activity for ten seconds before running away from the instructor, the current goals will include being able to perform exercise for a longer time period (20 or 30 seconds) before gaining access to a secondary reinforcer (2nd R+).

Eric Chessens Autism Fitness Assessment Toolbox Summary

Contents: EBook
Author: Eric Chessen
Official Website: pacprofile.com

Clinical Involvement Among Carriers of Premutation Alleles of the FMR1 Gene

It is now clear that some carriers of premutation alleles do experience various forms of clinical involvement on the fragile X spectrum such involvement can include mild physical features (prominent ears, hyperflexible finger joints) (Riddle et al. 1998 Hagerman and Hagerman 2002b) and or emotional problems (Loesch et al. 1994 Franke et al. 1998 Hagerman and Hagerman 2002b, Sobesky et al. 1996). These problems, which are more likely to occur for FMR1 alleles exceeding 100 d(CGG) repeats (Johnston et al. 2001), probably reflect the moderately reduced FMRP levels found in the upper half of the premutation range (Tassone et al. 2000a, b Kenneson et al. 2001). The association between lowered FMRP levels and mental retardation (and or autism) in the premutation range was first noted by Tassone et al. (2000). Not surprisingly, these forms of mental impairment appear to be more common in male carriers, likely due to the presence of a second X chromosome and random X-inactivation in female...

Examples of use of stereotaxic injection for psychiatric research

Taken together, CD38 has a key role in oxytocin release, thereby critically regulating maternal and social behaviors, and that disturbance of oxytocin secretion in hypothalamus may explain some forms of impaired human behavior in the spectrum of autism disorders (Jin et al., 2007).

Relevance for vertebrate systems

To link sexual karyotype to the development of sex-specific characteristics. Arnold has proposed that regulatory genes on the X (that escape dosage compensation) and Y chromosomes may directly organize sex-specific CNS characteristics (Arnold, 2004). Indeed, there is some evidence that the Y-chromosome sex-determining gene Sry has such a role in the nervous system (Dewing et al., 2006). However, such a model may capture only one aspect of this process. It is also quite possible that sexual karyotype controls much more complex regulatory networks, such as those characteristic of C. elegans and Drosophila sex determination, that read the sex-determining signal and set into motion a cascade of interactions that only very indirectly lead to sex-specific gene expression. The potential existence of such a pathway in the mammalian nervous system has intriguing implications for the mechanisms that bring about sex differences in neuroanatomy and neural function moreover, genes in such a...

Historical Perspectives

With the approach of the 21st century, clinical cytogenetics found itself at yet another crossroads, defined by a powerful new diagnostic assay that truly blurs the line of demarcation between molecular genetic and cytogenetic analysis. Chromosome microarray analysis, or microarray CGH, is akin to a multiplex FISH experiment utilizing thousands of individual DNA probes arrayed to a glass slide. The microarray era has witnessed a substantial improvement in the diagnostic capability for identifying small (less than 5 Mb) unbalanced constitutional chromosomal rearrangements and has found great utility in the workup of children with developmental delay, mental retardation, autism autism spectrum disorder, and multiple congenital anomalies 12, 13 . Recent literature has also demonstrated that this technology (using SNP arrays) will have a significant impact on the cytogenetic workup of hematolymphoid disorders, permitting detection of molecular mechanisms of tumorigenesis such as...

The MHC and disease general considerations

Tiwari and Terasaki's book published in 1985 (Tiwari and Terasaki, 1985), listed hundreds of HLA-associated diseases, even though the first demonstration of a strong association, that of HLA-B27 and ankylosing spondylitis (AS), came only a decade earlier. Meanwhile, many more associations have been added to the list but, apart from Narcolepsy, which shows an almost absolute association with DQB1*0602, none have been as strong as the association of HLA-B27 with AS (Lechler and Warrens, 2000). There are conflicting reports for many of the weaker associations, which include everything from aging and dyslexia to autism and sleepwalking (Lecendreux et al., 2003). In some of these studies insufficient numbers of cases and controls were examined to obtain

Project Title Developing Cellular Cardiomyoplasty For Injured Heart

Conditions and because of the limitations of definitive therapeutic interventions. R02MH49428 There is abundant evidence to suggest that neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism are caused in many cases by genetic abnormalities that affect development and function of forebrain neural systems involved in cognition and emotion. The largest structures of the forebrain are the cerebral cortex and the striatum both have been implicated as having a role in neuropsychiatry disorders. The goal of my research is to understand how genes regulate development of the striatum. To this end, my laboratory has identifies the D1x genes, which encoded a family of homeodomain transcription factors that are candidates for having a central role in striatal development. There are four known D1x genes that are expressed in the embryonic forebrain. The aims of the experiments proposed in this grant application are focused on (1) elucidating the sequence of these genes and their encoded...

The Risks Posed by Prenatal and Perinatal Infection

There has also been a long-standing suspicion that prenatal infections and obstetrical complications may play a role in certain neurodevel-opmental disorders and psychiatric conditions (Mednick et al, 1998). Viral infections have been implicated as possible causative agents for both autism and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), although both of these pediatric conditions are obviously very complex and can be caused by other factors as well. Even more has been written about the possible involvement of prenatal infections as the reason for the brain dysfunction underlying schizophrenia (Brown, 2006 Byrne et al, 2007 Torrey and Torrey, 1979 Yolken et al, 1997). Concerns about exposure to influenza during pregnancy have been

Information from Human Studies

Due to the powerful multisystem effects linked to oxytocin and vasopressin in regard to social phenomena, intervention research examining effects of increases in oxytocin in humans has recently burgeoned, including studies linking oxytocin to increased interpersonal trust, greater recognition of faces and decreased fear (Meyer-Lindenberg, 2008). For example, Ditzen and colleagues (2009) compared effects of intranasal oxytocin versus placebo in couples during conflict discussion, finding that oxytocin reduced cortisol and increased positive communication. Zak and colleagues observed that intranasal oxytocin increased experimentally assessed trust, reciprocity, and generosity behaviors (assessed by monetary transfer to strangers), and they also found that exposure to either deep massage or empathy-evoking film clips likewise increased both circulating oxytocin levels and such reciprocating or generous money sharing (Barrazza and Zak, 2009 Morhenn et al, 2008 Zak et al, 2007). As...

Typical Paternal 15q11q13 Deletion

The molecular mechanism of three patients with de novo dup(15) was studied and was particularly supportive of the mechanisms of deletions in the PWS AS region. The patients, two males and one female (ages 3-21 years), had autistic behavior, hypotonia, and variable degrees of mental retardation. The extent, orientation, and parental origin of the duplications were assessed by fluorescent in situ hybridization, microsatellite analyses, and methylation status at D15S63. Two patients had large direct duplications of 15q11-q13 dir dup(15)(q11-q13) that extended through the entire AS PWS chromosomal region. Their proximal and distal breaks were comparable to those found in the common AS PWS deletions (Repetto et al., 1998). This suggests that duplications and deletions may be the reciprocal product of an unequal recombination event. These two duplications were maternally derived in one patient, the duplication originated from two different maternal chromosomes, while in the other patient,...

Specific language impairment SLI

SLI is estimated to affect 2-7 of pre-primary school children and is diagnosed if significant language deficits are present despite adequate educational opportunity and normal nonverbal intelligence (Law etal., 1998). Alternative diagnoses of medical and developmental disorders such as deafness and autism must be excluded before a diagnosis of SLI is given. Features such as the orofacial dyspraxia found in the KE family would exclude a diagnosis of SLI. A continuum of language impairment exists, depending on the level of articulation and verbal expression, the ability to produce speech sounds, and verbal comprehension of others. SLI has been classified into subtypes, but it is possible that the variability seen in the phenotype reflects severity of impairment and the developmental stage of the child rather than an expression of specific deficits. Early evidence from a longitudinal study of language-impaired twins found that the majority (65.9 ) of individuals diagnosed with early...

Glossary Clinical terms

Aspergers' syndrome - Autism with no language delay or general intellectual impairment and a range of milder or atypical manifestations. Autism - The core triad of behaviors characteristic for autism includes impairments in verbal and non-verbal communication, deficiencies in reciprocal social interaction and restricted activities and repetitive movements. Autism can be described as belonging to a spectrum of developmental disorders with overlapping clinical features. Pervasive developmental disorder - Individuals may be diagnosed as having pervasive developmental disorder when the criteria for autism are not reached in all domains or where atypical symptoms are present.

DISC1 analyses in flies

Illnesses, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression, and autism spectrum conditions (Harrison and Weinberger, 2005 Ishizuka et al., 2006 Chubb et al., 2008 Kilpinen et al., 2008 Jaaro-Peled et al., 2009). DISC1 was originally identified as the gene located on chromosome 1 and interrupted by a balanced translocation t(1q42.1 11q14.3) that is linked to psychopathology including schizophrenia, depression, and bipolar disorder in a large Scottish family (St Clair et al., 1990 Millar et al., 2000). Cellular and molecular studies have revealed that the DISC1 protein has multiple functions and is located in several distinct domains in cells, including the centrosome, the postsynaptic density, the mitochondria, and the nucleus (Millar et al., 2005 Kirkpatrick et al., 2006). DISC1 has specific protein interactors, which correspond to each subcellular domain, including NudE-like (NUDEL NDEL1) at the centrosome and activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) CREB2 in the nucleus...

Consent to Treatment

Equally, there are probably also many occasions on which people with disabilities or mental disorders appear to consent to treatment (or at least do not actively refuse it) without having understood fully what is involved. Consent is assumed to be valid simply because the decision seems sensible to a medical practitioner or another powerful professional. This outcome approach to capacity is also inappropriate and, in a recent English case (R v. Bournewood Community and Mental Health NHS Trust, ex parte L 1998 3 All ER 289), the Court of Appeal ruled that an NHS trust acted illegally in detaining a man with autism, because he lacked the capacity to give or withhold consent (Eastman and Peay, 1998). The House of Lords overruled the Appeal Court but its decision has been heavily criticised as being based more on the likely financial and resource issues than ethical treatment, particularly in relation to the probable costs in relation to people with dementia (Shah et al., 1999 Mukherjee...

Overview

The fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene, responsible for fragile X syndrome (FXS), is a paradigm for trinucleotide repeat expansion disorders. A particularly intriguing and important aspect of the FMR1 gene is that it gives rise to diverse clinical syndromes, affecting different groups of people, depending on the size of the d(CGG) repeat expansion in the 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR) of the gene. On the basis of the repeat expansion, individuals are classified as having normal alleles 5-44 d(CGG) repeats , intermediate or gray zone alleles 45-54 d(CGG) repeats , premutation alleles 55-200 d(CGG) repeats , or full-mutation alleles more than 200 d(CGG) repeats . Whereas full-mutation expansions generally result in FXS, and often in autism, smaller repeat expansions in the premutation range give rise to at least three separate forms of clinical involvement (1) behavioral, physical, emotional, and cognitive problems in some children who are premutation carriers (2) premature...

Fragile X Syndrome

FXS is the leading heritable form of mental retardation (Hagerman and Hagerman 2002a), with a prevalence for cognitive impairment of approximately 1 4000 men and 1 6000 women (Turner et al. 1992 Sherman 2002). FXS is almost always due to expansion of a trinucleotide d(CGG) repeat in the 5'-UTR of the FMR1 gene (Verkerk et al. 1991 Pieretti et al. 1991 Oberle et al. 1991 Yu et al. 1991 Fu et al. 1991). FMR1 alleles with more than 200 d(CGG) repeats generally become hypermethylated in the promoter region, with consequent transcriptional silencing and loss of the FMRP (Pieretti et al. 1991). Although FXS is typically described as a mental retardation syndrome (with mild physical features generally thought to reflect connective elastic tissue laxity Hagerman 2002), it is actually a spectrum disorder, with associated disorders of mood, behavior, and socialization. Patients with the most severe clinical involvement tend to be autistic and nonverbal (Hagerman 2002). However, not all...

Pten Mutations In Cs

Abbreviations ASD, autism spectrum disorder BRRS, Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome CS, Cowden syndrome PHTS, PTEN hamartoma tumor syndromes PS, Proteus syndrome PSL, Proteus syndrome like SD, standard deviation VATER, vertebral malformations, anal malformations, trachea-esophageal atresia, radial renal malformations. Abbreviations ASD, autism spectrum disorder BRRS, Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome CS, Cowden syndrome PHTS, PTEN hamartoma tumor syndromes PS, Proteus syndrome PSL, Proteus syndrome like SD, standard deviation VATER, vertebral malformations, anal malformations, trachea-esophageal atresia, radial renal malformations.

Efrain C Azmitia

Involvement in specific brain disorders (e.g., depression, Alzheimer's disease and autism). A broader view has been rarely raised. Over the past 50 years, several scientists have proposed general organistic roles for brain serotonin (Brodie and Shore, 1957 Woolley, 1961 Scheibel et al. 1975). A more comprehensive theory that includes expanded functions proposes that serotonin acts as a homeostatic regulator which integrates mind and body with the outside world (Azmitia, 2001, 2007) . In reading this chapter, it is hoped that the reader will appreciate why serotonin came to be so important in the mental health of humans.

Consensus Panels

The New York Department of Health (1999a, 1999b, 1999c) conducted an expert panel review of the effectiveness of intervention for pre-school children with autism and pervasive developmental disorders. The guidelines were based on a systematic review of the scientific literature, involved operationalised criteria for including and excluding studies in the review and involved a panel of expert readers to identify and review the papers. A wide range of behavioural and non-behavioural interventions was identified. The review provided a rating of the status of their conclusions for example some were identified as panel consensus and others were identified as evidence based. They gave their conclusions in unequivocal terms by stating that certain therapies were recommended or not recommended. The panel concluded that early behavioural intervention for children was strongly recommended and should include at least 20 hours per week. Applied behaviour analysis was also identified as an...

Behaviour Therapies

Campbell (2003) conducted a meta-analysis of behavioural interventions of behavioural interventions for persons with autism using single subject designs. He identified 117 articles involving 181 individuals from 15 journals. Campbell again found strong evidence that behavioural interventions could reduce maladaptive behaviours in people with autism. Horner et al. (2002) review the existing literature on problem behaviour interventions for young children with autism. Reviewing peer reviewed research from 1996 to 2000, they used the following criteria for studies subjects with autism less than 97 months old problem behaviour as a dependent variable an experimental design that allowed identification of a causal relationship between reduction and problem behaviour and intervention data for individual subjects and at least three data points for pre-intervention and three data points for post-intervention phases. Nine articles were identified fulfilling these criteria with a total of 24...

Sensory Therapies

Mudford et al. (2000) reported a double blind, crossover trial of AIT in 16 children with autism. Measures included parent and teacher ratings of behaviour, direct observational recordings, IQ, language and social adaptive tests. The control condition was superior to AIT on parent behavioural measures. No significant differences were found on teacher measures. Parents could not detect when their children started on the AIT. There is no evidence that AIT reduces challenging behaviour and there are no reports of AIT causing harm to participants. However, the first author recalls that, during his training in the early 1970s, an outside expert attended a ward to review a multiply handicapped blind deaf young woman. During the course of the review he played excessively loud music through headphones in order to ascertain her sensitivity to sound and vibration. The woman became extremely excited by this procedure, which pleased the assessor because he had found some responsiveness and...

Inv Dup15

The smallest inv dup(15)s contain no duplicated material from the PWS AS deletion region between BP2 and BP3 and carry a low risk of adverse outcome, despite the presence of at least four protein coding genes in the region centromeric to BP2 (32,33) (Fig. 2). The largest interstitial and supernumerary duplications contain extra copies of the chromosomal material extending distally to the PWS AS BP3 region, and are associated with dysmorphic features, severe developmental delay, autism, seizures, strabismus, and abnormal dermatoglyphics (28). inv dup(15)s, because of their derivation from an imprinted region, can present an unusual situation in terms of gene activity. A PWS or AS phenotype has been found in individuals who, in addition to the inv dup(15), carry either a deletion or uniparental disomy for chromosome 15, leading to the parent of origin phenotypes associated with loss of one parental copy of imprinted genes (17,18).

Non Coding RNAs

Recently, by studying the a-globin gene, Tufarelli et al. (65) described a novel mechanism of position effect-related gene regulation, antisense-mediated cis-acting methylation utilizing non-coding RNA (ncRNA), that is similar to the XIST TSIX-mediated X chromosome inactivation (66). It has been estimated that at least 20 of human genes have antisense transcripts (67,68). Several non-coding transcripts have been found associated with human diseases including B-cell lymphoma, lung cancer, prostate cancer, cartilage-hair hypoplasia, spinocerebellar ataxia type 8, DiGeorge syndrome, autism, and schizophrenia (69). ncRNAs-based gene regulation may be an important mechanism of cell function particularly in more complex organisms however, the molecular mechanisms still await elucidation.

Discussion

The identification of FOXP2 is a significant step forward towards understanding the neural mechanisms underlying speech and language, but does not appear to have a wider role in the genetic aetiology of SLI or autism. It is likely that the R553H mutation is unique to the KE family and any other missense mutations represent single mutational events. Techniques available from Mendelian disease genetics were used to identify FOXP2, but these are less applicable to multigenic disorders. The potential complexity of many genes interacting in SLI and autism requires the collection of large well characterised samples and the implementation of sophisticated statistical analysis. Because the genetic mode of transmission for SLI and autism is unknown, and may vary between families, model based analysis is both less powerful than for Mendelian diseases and repeated analyses with different models can also lead to multiple testing issues. A non-parametric qualitative approach is more appropriate...

Technical terms

Alarcon, M., Cantor, R.M., Liu, J., Gilliam, T. C. and Geschwind, D.H. (2002). Evidence for a language quantitative trait locus on chromosome 7q in multiplex autism families. Am J Hum Genet, 70, 60-71. Alarcon, M., Yonan, A. L., Gilliam, T. C., Cantor, R. M. and Geschwind, D.H. (2005). Quantitative genome scan and ordered-subsets analysis of autism endophenotypes support language QTLs. Mol Psychiatry, 10, 747-57. Andres, C. (2002). Molecular genetics and animal models in autistic disorder. Brain Res Bull, 57, 109-19. Auranen, M., Vanhala, R., Varilo, T. et al. (2002). A genomewide screen for autism-spectrum disorders evidence for a major susceptibility locus on chromosome 3q2527. Am J Hum Genet, 71, 777-90. Aylward, E.H., Minshew, N.J., Field, K., Sparks, B.F. and Singh, N. (2002). Effects of age on brain volume and head circumference in autism. Neurology, 59, 175-83. Bacchelli, E., Blasi, F., Biondolillo, M. et al. (2003). Screening of nine candidate genes for autism on chromosome 2q...

Bruce F Pennington

Fragile X syndrome, PKU, William's syndrome, and other neurogenetic disorders. Examples of the second strategy are genetic studies of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, dyslexia, developmental speech and language disorders, schizophrenia, Tourette's syndrome, and other psychiatric disorders. Because the details of most of the discoveries using each strategy are described elsewhere, we will not review specific discoveries except in an illustrative way. Instead, this chapter focuses on methods and the general implications of what has already been discovered for developmental cognitive neuroscience. It is now well established that many psychiatric disorders are familial. For instance, the value of X is 9 for schizophrenia, 8 for bipolar disorder, and 3 for major depression (Plomin et al., 1997). Similar values have been found for childhood psychiatric disorders X values are 6 for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (Faraone et al., 1992), 8 for dyslexia...

Funny Wiring Autism

Funny Wiring Autism

Autism is a developmental disorder that manifests itself in early childhood and affects the functioning of the brain, primarily in the areas of social interaction and communication. Children with autism look like other children but do not play or behave like other children. They must struggle daily to cope and connect with the world around them.

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