Ayurveda the Science of Life

Modern Ayurveda

This easy program presents a great deal of information packed in less than 8 hours of knowledge that was gathered by one of the world's most recognized people on spirituality andAyurveda. Cate Stillman dedicates 8 hours of deep knowledge about spirituality and enlightenment that will greatly enhance your life in many ways. You will experience a lot of joy in life and fulfillment, as well as getting rid of the insecurities and frustrations that you might be facing in today's world. It will save you the trouble of having to spend years and years in the schoolsof chakras and energy in very little time that will cover all you need, you will get to know your body's rhythms and how to fix them, how to balance your energy, the ways of healing, yoga practices, ways of eating and even practices you should be doing every day that will correct your body's circadian rhythms for the day. That way, you will become the master of your own body and mind, you will finally achieve satisfaction and fulfillment. You can get all the three tracks and the free mat to practice instantly once you make a successful purchase, that way, you will be able to access the information that you need in no time. Read more...

Modern Ayurveda Summary


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Author: Cate Stillman
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Ayurvedic Medicine

Ayurvedic medicine is the traditional medical system in India, which has existed for over 5000 years. The term Ayurveda literally means science of life or life knowledge. PD is documented to have existed in ancient India and was called Kampavata. Similar to the TCM system, physical illness is thought to result from emotional imbalance, unhealthy lifestyle, and toxins that ultimately upset the balance of the three doshas or regulatory systems of a person (5). These three doshas are vata, which symbolizes physical movement, pitta, which represents heat, metabolism, and energy, and kapha, which stands for physical structure and balance. Although all three systems may be affected in PD, therapy focuses heavily upon treatment of the vata disturbance through oleation with massage along with enemas and ingestion of oils. Proper harmony of the three doshas is achieved by specific diet and nutrition, a number of herbs, meditation, breathing exercises, massage, and yoga poses. Stress reduction...

Socioeconomic Position

In general, those of lower socioeconomic position tend to consume poorer diets than those of higher socioeconomic position (Diez-Roux et al, 1999). For example, cross-sectional data from the Netherlands demonstrated that men and women in the lower socioeconomic groups (defined according to education, occupation, and occupational position) tended to have dietary patterns less conducive to good health, including greater intakes of sugars and sweets (Hulshof et al, 2003). Similarly, findings from the Australian National Nutrition Survey found men and women of higher socioeconomic status (defined according to occupation) more frequently consumed foods promotive of good health such as breakfast cereals and wholemeal bread (Mishra et al, 2002). A Swedish study found many differences in associations between dietary intake and socioeconomic position across two different measures of socioeconomic position, educational attainment, and occupational status (Galobardes et al, 2001). For instance,...

Epidemiological Models

The health profile for countries in Africa and Asia during the acute phase of a conflict or war is usually identified by moderate or severe malnutrition, outbreaks of communicable diseases, and often both. Three-fourths of all epidemics of the last decade took place in the context of a CE. Epidemiological indicators show high crude mortality rates and, if disaggregated, expose the vulnerability among the populations as to age (children under 5 years and the elderly) and gender (women and female-headed households). There is a linear relationship between under age 5 childhood mortality (per 1000) and the percentage of nations engaged in armed conflict. The worst conditions and highest mortality rates are recorded among orphaned and unaccompanied children. High case fatality rates were common among malnourished children in Somalia, with measles contributing to between 50 and 81 of deaths. As such, all children in developing countries in conflict should receive measles vaccine and vitamin...

Health benefits of whole foods over isolated components

Few, of the hundreds of components present in a diet containing a variety of fruits and vegetables.27 Compounds isolated from plant foods, or synthetic copies of compounds that can be found in these foods, are promoted and used for their putative medicinal or health promoting properties. The literature that accompanies their sale can be very convincing to those who want to stay healthy. For those with a diagnosed condition, these compounds can appear a more natural and safer alternative to drug therapy and certainly a much easier option than trying to change the dietary habits of a lifetime.

Phytochemicals And Functional Food

The use of foods and food components such as phenolic phytochemicals as medicine has had an extraordinarily long history in the East and is still practiced successfully in many countries in Asia with Ayurvedic Medicine in India being one of many examples. However, the origin of the modern concept of 'functional foods as a separate and government regulated category of foods is quite new and was first developed in Japan in the 1980s. Faced with inflationary health care costs, the Japanese government instituted a regulatory system to approve certain foods with documented health benefits in order to improve health. These foods have a special seal and are known as Foods for Specified Health Use (FOSHU) (1). According to a recent report, as of September 2001, 271 food products had FOSHU status in Japan (58).

Increasing consumption what is being done

In several programmes, emphasis is placed on the education and involvement of children, because many of the processes linked to the development of chronic disease begin in childhood. Evidence from the Bogalusa Heart Study, tracking early risk of heart disease among American children, suggests that eating habits in childhood have a potential lifelong effect on cholesterol levels and on adult coronary heart disease.32 A study of British schoolchildren found that children who ate fruit more than once per day had better lung function compared with those who did not. The difference was evident even after controlling for possible confounding factors such as social class and passive smoking.33 A further study in Italy found that even low intakes of fruit can reduce wheezing and asthma with effects being most noticeable in children with a history of respiratory problems.34 Continued attention to increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in children is viewed as a practical and important way...

Differing types of claim nutritional and health claims

Claims that suggest that foods or food components have an impact on health - in improving good health or a condition related to a disease - have been called health claims.5,10 An important subgroup of claims are disease-risk reduction claims. They state that a food or its component may help to reduce the risk of a disease. Examples of such claims include 'Adequate intake of calcium may help to reduce the risk of osteoporosis', 'Adequate intake of folate by women may reduce the risk of having children with neural tube defect', 'Food low in fat and cholesterol can help to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease'.

Dairy consumption energy intake and body weight

In contrast, a link between increased dairy product consumption and healthier body weight has been suggested in several reports. An inverse association has been reported between ready-to-eat breakfast cereal consumption and the BMI of 4-12-year-old children (Albertson et al., 2003) and between the number of servings of dairy products and body fat in pre-school children (Carruth and Skinner, 2001). Similarly, in a large multi-center, population-based, prospective observational study, the number of dairy servings consumed was inversely related to the ten-year cumulative incidence of obesity and to the insulin resistance syndrome in adults (Pereira et al., 2002). The association between increased dairy product consumption and healthier body weights has been attributed to several milk components, including conjugated linoleic acid (Wang and Jones, 2004), medium-chain triglycerides (St-Onge and Jones, 2003), and particularly calcium (Heaney et al., 2002 Zemel, 2004). Surprisingly, the role...

Vitamin E and atherosclerosis in clinical studies

Observational studies just look at the association between vitamin E status (either in the diet or in blood samples) and clinical measures of heart disease such as myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke. These studies are summarized in Table 4.1 and generally support the idea that vitamin E helps prevent heart disease. Observational studies do not, however, show cause and effect and have many major limitations. For example, people who are health conscious in general may exercise, maintain an ideal body weight, have a low-fat diet, and also take vitamin E supplements. In this case, vitamin E consumption is just a marker for a healthy lifestyle.

Coping and Health Behavioral Pathways

Does with the intent of diminishing distress can legitimately be called emotion-focused coping. Some of these responses themselves have effects other than the desired one. Indeed, some can promote health problems. Maladaptive coping is partly doing behaviors that are inimical to health. It is partly abandoning behaviors that are beneficial to health. For example, maintaining an exercise regimen and a well-balanced diet is important to maintaining good health. Yet exercise and proper eating are often the first things to be disregarded when stress arises. Abandoning these health-promoting activities prevents the person from gaining incremental benefits he or she would otherwise experience (Smith and Leon, 1992). Abandoning those beneficial behaviors thus can be considered maladaptive coping.

Psychophysiological Pathways

To warrant a meta-analysis (Penley et al, 2002). This analysis found that certain kinds of problem-focused coping (self-control and use of social support) related positively to diverse kinds of good health outcomes (ranging from self-reports of symptoms to objective illness-related measures), while other types of coping (e.g., confrontive coping and wishful thinking) related to poorer health outcomes. There were also cases in which the controllability of the stressor and whether the stressor was acute or chronic moderated the relationship between coping and outcomes. For example, distancing was related to poorer health outcomes when the stressor was chronic and controllable taking responsibility was related to poorer outcomes when the stressor was acute and uncontrollable.

Suggested Readings

Illness behavior in later life. In R. H. Binstock and L. K. George (Eds.), Handbook of aging and the social sciences (3rd ed., pp. 227-244. San Diego Academic Press. Lieberman, F., & Collen, M. F. (1993). Aging in good health A quality lifestyle for the Iater years.

Sexual selection and the evolution of species and their attributes

Not lessen their attractiveness as large antlers indicate that the males that harbor them are able to find resources to grow and carry heavy antlers, and thus indicate that they are in good health and have good genes. The extinct Irish elk possessed the largest antlers ever. They were up to 6 ft (1.8 m) in length. However, the purpose of these was not to fight. It is unlikely they could be used for this purpose as they were too big. These massive antlers seem to have evolved because of runaway sexual selection. Females prefered males with larger and larger antlers, so the antlers got bigger and bigger.

Mechanisms Linking Social Networks to Health Outcomes

Hol consumption declines (Eng et al, 2005).2 Just the opposite is observed among women - that is, their level of drinking decreases when they become widowed or divorced, but rises when they re-marry (Lee et al, 2005). From the foregoing examples, it is evident that social influence does not uniformly promote healthier behaviors, and the intriguing gender differences may partly explain why the health benefits of marital ties have been reported to be stronger for men than for women (House et al, 1988). friends tend to share access to the same information, whereas novel information is likely to originate from more remote sources. In other words, social networks do not represent an undif-ferentiated source of host resistance to illness. Different aspects of social network promote health through distinct mechanisms. Thus, when a person is in need of emotional support, having strong social network contacts (e.g., confidants) matters the most, but when one is unemployed and seeking work,...

Power Of Decision Making

Standard of treatment, that of stopping rather than continuing treatment and (3) there is as great an obligation to prevent a lingering, painful, or degrading death as there is to promote health and life. However, there are a few major problems with decisions to terminate treatment. These are how and when to use available technology that could sustain the life of a patient how and when to turn upside down the traditional standard that when in doubt, treatment should be provided and how to determine when to invoke the duty of the physician to help the patient avoid a poor death. Many of these decisions can only be made with a clear understanding of the patient's whole self, his or her external and inner self, his or her spiritual dimension. Ethics is much more than politics and economics. Ethics represents our values and goes to the very core of our spiritual being. 1. Know yourself. Healthful living and stress reduction decrease need for medical care. Know the medical problems of your...

An unkind note on sociobiology or evolutionary psychology

Sociobiology, under the name of evolutionary psychology, has become a frequent topic in popular magazines and in some psychology courses. This unfortunate state of affairs obliges me to dwell on the subject a little more. In addition to the criticisms of the analysis of alleged male promiscuity versus female purity already made, I will mention another popular notion in sociobiology that is equally entertaining and equally illustrative of the role of social stereotypes the ideal of female beauty or attractiveness. The most attractive female body has a waist to hip ratio of 0.70 (Singh, 1993) according to sociobiology. The body shape associated with that ratio is assumed to be indicative of good health, which in turn is a result of good genes. The crucial importance of that figure for female attractiveness has been confirmed in a couple of empirical studies (e.g. Furnham et al., 1998). One of these assumptions is that determinations of fertility could be replaced by determinations of...

Pathways from Psychosocial Factors to Health and Illness

A final area that holds much opportunity for future investigations is to more comprehensively examine the pathways by which psychosocial factors influence health and illness. Psychosocial factors may operate through direct mechanisms, such as alterations in sympatho-adrenal-medullary functioning or brain neu-rotransmitters (e.g., serotonin, dopamine), or they may operate indirectly through behavioral pathways (e.g., poorer health habits related to diet, activity, and smoking). Few studies have comprehensively examined both behavioral and pathophysiological pathways and their interactions. Greater knowledge about such pathways will serve to inform interventions that can reduce psychosocial risk and promote health.

Relative or Absolute Differences

Some argue against using relative difference measures such as rate ratios to measure and monitor inequalities, as relative inequalities tend to increase when overall mortality decreases (Scanlan, 2000). There are mathematical reasons underlying the observation that relative inequalities using the rate ratio tend to be larger at lower mortality levels (Houweling et al, 2007). This problem is avoided when using absolute measures of inequality like rate differences (Clarke et al, 2002). However, others argue the low relative ratios (small relative differences between social groups) at high levels of mortality are not a result of equitable policies, but a function of the necessity that in order to have high overall mortality rates, all social groups contribute to high mortality. Houweling et al (2007) provide examples of countries where declining relative inequalities are coupled with improving health (in terms of mortality rates for children aged under 5) and argue that both absolute and...

Function Of The Medical Examiner

Medical examiners investigate deaths due to homicide, suicide, or accidental violence, and deaths of persons unattended by a physician, or who succumbed to a contagious disease. They also intervene in cases where death occurs amid suspicious circumstances. Examples of the latter include the sudden death of persons in apparently good health, or who die while in the custody of law enforcement officers. The medical examiner is empowered to overrule family members or legal guardians who refuse permission for an autopsy however, in cases where the cause of death becomes obvious upon preliminary review, the medical examiner, at his sole discretion, may decline the case and allow family members to claim the body without an autopsy.

Crosscultural Issues And Spirituality

In the Native American population, healing, spirituality, and culture are closely intertwined. Intuition and spiritual awareness are a healer's most essential diagnostic tools. Therapeutic methods include prayer, ceremonies, music, herbalism, and massage. Participation of family and friends is a large component of these healing interventions (21). Native American healing is based on wholeness, balance, harmony, and meaning (22).

Health Gaps or Gradients

Graham describes three different ways that health inequalities have been conventionally described in the literature (Graham, 2004). The health disadvantage disparities approach describes differences between social groups, without any explicit reference to social injustice or a moral dimension. The health gaps approach focuses on the very poorest vs the rest of society. This approach may or may not assume that everyone who is not the poorest enjoys good health, but it is mostly concerned with levelling up the good health among the most disadvan-taged in society. The social gradient in health approach describes health inequalities across the whole of the population, not just the most deprived. This means a focus not just on the second-most deprived group, but also on groups in the population who may not be considered deprived at all, but who are relatively doing worse off in terms of their health than those at the very top.

Estimations of the health impact of environmental factors

First, the environment may be deficient in something necessary to good health. Examples include dietary micronutrients, such as iodine or selenium. Second, a mismatch may have arisen between a particular local environment and the people now living in it. For example, migration may cause people with an ancestry long-adapted to high sunlight levels to suffer from vitamin D deficiency when they migrate to high latitudes where there is insufficient ultraviolet radiation for their pheno-type. The impact of the environment in such cases is less easy to define, because it is not always clear what corresponds to zero exposure to the environmental hazard.

Future Research Directions

(1) Investigating health-promoting factors. While much of the existing research on race ethnic disparities in health has taken the glass half empty approach, we suggest an expansion in focus to include a complimentary glass half full approach. In other words, future research should investigate factors contributing to better health among various race ethnic groups. Ideally, this approach will lead to greater understanding of factors that preserve and or promote health for specific populations. For example, blacks in the USA have lower lifetime prevalence of major depressive disorders compared to other race ethnic groups (Williams et al, 2007). Future investigations of individual and environmental factors that are protective for black mental health are needed to advance the literature on this topic.

Health Literacy Interventions

Promoting health literacy means helping individuals better comprehend health information, make appropriate decisions, and ultimately take action. Over the past decade, few interventions have been formulated to address the problem of limited health literacy. The majority of interventions have focused on rewriting health materials at a simpler reading level or following other design techniques to improve patient reading comprehension (Davis et al, 1998 Gerber et al, 2005 Pignone et al, 2005 Rothman et al, 2004). While there is a need for additional research on how to appropriately respond to limited health literacy, certain health communication best practices have been recommended. These are relatively simple steps that will assist healthcare providers in identifying patients at

Significance to humans

In Australia, where the return of waders coincides with the first rains of the wet season and is thus associated with good health, one Aborigine tribe carries out sandpiper dances as part of its initiation ceremonies. Other species may be associated with sexual appetite, and in the Russian Far East, the lekking behavior of ruffs has impressed the local people of the Chukchi Peninsula so much that they celebrate it with an imitative dance.

Interventions to Promote Uptake

A more recent series of reviews in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine evaluated interventions to increase client access to and demand for cancer screening services (Baron et al, 2008a, b), and provider recommendation and use of cancer screening tests (Sabatino et al, 2008). For client-based interventions there was strong evidence to support the use of reminders, small media interventions (video and printed materials), one-on-one interventions, and reducing structural barriers or out of pocket costs. For providers, offering feedback was an effective strategy (Task Force on Community Preventive Services, 2008).

Project Title Genetic Regulation Of Coronary Heart Disease Susceptibility

Summary Atherosclerotic coronary heart disease (CHD) is the number one public health problem in the United States. CHD has been increasing in prevalence and with the aging of the baby boomers and the increase in major cardiovascular risk factors in the population (smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity) over the last 10 years the problem will be even worse in the 21st century. This is not just a U.S. problem, but is occurring world wide. The WHO has recently predicted that by 2020 heart disease will replace infectious disease world wide as the number one cause of disability expressed as years of healthy life lost to death or disease. CHD is a complex genetic disease with many genes involved and important gene-environment interactions. In this proposal we will use the facilities of the Rockefeller Hospital GCRC to identify and study genes and gene-diet interactions that are important in determining CHD susceptibility.

Preoperative Education

It is important to have a complete medication list from the patient including not only prescription drugs but OTC medications, vitamins, as needed drugs, as well as herbal supplements and preparations. The medication list should be reviewed at every visit with the patient and changes made as necessary. Aspirin and aspirin containing preparations, anticoagulants, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs), and vitamins, minerals, and herbal medications should be stopped prior to surgery. The length of cessation varies from physician to physician and individual institutional policies. Anesthesiologists are conducting research to determine exactly how certain herbals interact with certain anesthetics. They are finding that certain herbal medicines may prolong the effects of anesthesia other medications may increase the risks of bleeding or raise blood pressure (7). Certain oral hypoglycemics also need to be discontinued at some point prior to surgery, depending on the individual drug, and...

Privacy a role for the law

The public private distinction is central to Western liberal society, arising from the pre-eminence within the latter of individualism. A private sphere embodies areas of life in which individuals are not subject to scrutiny, restraint or interference by society. The boundary between the public and private areas requires careful policing, for the division is in a constant state of flux. The law is crucial to this policing role and, also, to the very existence of the division itself.94 Indeed, the question of the existence of the public private distinction in Western life and the problem of the sustainability of a division between the two spheres is, in essence, a debate about the limits of law. The law has little part to play in the private sphere so long as it is characterised by non-interference, nonintrusion and non-action by others.95 However, the law has a significant role as the prime motivator and regulator of human action in society in delimiting that sphere of life.

Materials and Methods

Subjects were excluded from the study if they had any of the following Underwent prior experimental therapy for chemoprevention, evidence of PCA on initial evaluation (local, regional, and or distant metastasis), active systemic viral, bacterial, or fungal infections requiring treatment, a serious concurrent illness or psychological, familial, sociological, geographical, or other concomitant conditions which did not permit adequate follow-up and compliance with the study protocol, concurrent treatment with other investigational agents, were taking finasteride or T, herbal medicine or dietary supplements for prostate health, and had a history of thromboembolic disease.

Genes Predisposing To Exceptional Longevity

Discovering genes that could impart the ability to live to old age while compressing the period of disability toward the end of life should yield important insight into how the aging process increases susceptibility to diseases associated with aging, and into how this susceptibility might be modulated. Human longevity enabling genes are likely to influence aging at its most basic levels, thus affecting a broad spectrum of genetic and cellular pathways synchronously. The centenarian genome should also be an efficient tool for ferreting out disease genes. Comparing single nucleotide frequencies implicated in disease in centenarians with frequencies in persons with the disease should show clinically relevant polymorphisms. Another approach that researchers are in the early stages of understanding is differential gene expression in models suspected of slowing the aging process, such as caloric restriction. This might prove to be another potent tool for discovering longevity-enabling...

HAART Influence on muco cutaneous diseases

Eliciting the cause of a drug eruption can be challenging, especially if the patient is taking complementary medication not prescribed by a physician. It is necessary to ask explicitly whether any herbal medicines, vitamins, minerals, or food complements are being taken to improve the general health. Substances with a potential risk of sensitization or toxicity can be the cause of drug reactions (Witkowski 2003). Urticaria, angioedema, and exanthemas due to food complements are reported in the literature (GISED 1996).

Cough Cold Sinus and Allergy Medications

Ohkusa et al. (2005) used correlation analysis to study the relationship between sales of OTC cold remedies and influenza activity in Japan. They found a poor correlation, with the adjusted r2 never rising above 0.50. However, they performed the analysis at the national level with respect to geography, as opposed to other studies discussed in this chapter, which analyzed data at the metropolitan level. Also, the study included herbal remedies in the cold remedy category, a type of medication not included in other analyses. Finally, the authors caution that their results are preliminary, and that they plan to conduct additional analyses.

Preference versus orientation the role of will and other issues

The demise of the will as a scientific concept was much accelerated by Freud's conception of the human as a victim of forces from the id fighting against the censorship of the superego. In that fight, there was no room for a will. A consequence of this demise is that the subject of volition has become marginal, or survives as a kind of exoticism, in behavioral science. However, outside the circle of behavioral scientists, the concept of will and all of its philosophical, moral and political implications is still in good health. Because of that, it has been argued that the term 'sexual preference', suggesting a willful choice, should be abandoned and replaced by the term sexual orientation. According to those favoring this suggestion, orientation is necessarily deterministic. However, as we have seen, this distinction is untenable. Furthermore, the concept of sexual orientation gives no clue at all to the processes involved in orienting, while preference has both a theoretical and a...

Dna Damage Accumulation In T Cells As A Function Of

A more general approach to DNA damage and repair can also be informative in clonal models and ex vivo studies, several of which have shown that T cells in vivo accumulate DNA damage and mutations (point and chromosomal), for example, in free-living healthy humans aged 35 to 69 years. However, when the same genetic damage endpoints were examined in a group of healthy, older than average (75-80 years) humans, genetic damage levels similar to the levels present in subjects aged 35 to 39 years were found, and significantly less than in subjects aged 65 to 69 years (King et al., 1997). These and many other data support the importance of maintenance of genomic stability, as a determinant factor promoting health and longevity. This hypothesis is supported by the results of work from others in premature aging conditions or in groups of successfully aged humans (centenarians) (Franceschi et al., 1995).

Pharmacological Toxicological Effects 51 Pharmacology

(20) and are known to be involved in alternate metabolic pathways of common biogenic amines (21). Of the three active adrenergic molecules in C. aurantium, synephrine is present in amounts at least 100-fold greater than either octopamine or tyramine found in the fresh fruit, dried extracts, or herbal medicines (18).

Family Members and Friends

As the gatekeepers of the health care system in most areas, physicians are in a position to observe caregiving needs, to help lessen burdens, and to promote good health in the context of disease. It is helpful if physicians can be attuned to noting and, at a minimum, triaging caregiver needs. Some care-giver problems may be amenable to intervention by physicians, and others may require the input of other health professionals or support resources, including social support agencies and other individuals or groups in the community.

Definitions And Basic Concepts

Over the years, analysts have developed many measures of benefits, and new measures will emerge to fit the needs of different kinds of studies. The earliest economic studies expressed all benefit in purely monetary terms, converting all potential benefits of an intervention into dollars, pounds, yen, francs, etc. However, researchers soon found that they could not easily express all benefits in monetary terms. For example, they could not use monetary terms to capture completely the value of saving a life (e.g., a person contributes to society in many nonmonetary ways, such as providing emotional and psychological support to friends and families), so researchers began using life-years saved as a reward for some interventions. However, life-years saved could not adequately represent the benefits of some quality-of-life-improving interventions (e.g., pain medications, walking devices) that do not save lives or the suffering caused by non-life-threatening diseases. As a result,...

Quality of Life in Light of Appraisal and Response Shift

The accumulation of such advances in the development of QOL measures and of other patient-reported outcomes (PRO) is reflected in two major changes that serve as the foundation for the practical application of PROs in research and clinical care. The first is the 2006 publication of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Guidance on the use of PROs in medical product development to support labeling claims (Guidance for Industry, 2006). This Guidance formalized the use of PROs in drug development and emphasized the use of symptom and function measures in such research (Puhan et al, 2004). The Guidance also provided a clear and unignorable link between PROs and commercial products aimed at improving health (see Chapter 8).

Herbal extracts vitamins and food

Few data are available on interactions between antiretrovirals and herbal prepartions. Furthermore, interactions can be difficult to predict as the routes of metabolism of active constituants are rarely known. In many cases, theoretical investigations have to be taken into account. Therefore, caution must be excerised when considering coadministration of ART and herbal remedies. In the following table, the most widely studied interactions are shown.

Measuring Patients Preferences and Utilities

Utility is measured on a scale from 0 to 1, where 0 denotes a health state ''as bad as death'' and 1 denotes a health state ''as good as perfect health.'' Values between 0 and 1 denote degrees between these extremes. A simple interpretation of a utility for a specific health state, A, is that the utility represents the amount of time in a state of perfect health that a patient values as equal to one unit of time in state A. For example, suppose that state A has a utility of 0.7. Then 1 month in state A is equivalent in value to 0.7 months of perfect health. This interpretation leads to the idea that quality-of-life-adjusted time can be obtained by multiplying a health state duration by its utility coefficient. For example, if a patient experiences 6 months of toxicity and has a utility weight of 0.8 for time with toxicity, then the quality-adjusted time spent with toxicity is 4.2 months. This adjustment allows treatments that have different impacts on quality of life to be compared in...

Intervention Sustainability in the Real World and Future Uptake of Interventions

Spending resources on modifying behavioral risk factors. The WHO has recognized the importance of reducing lifestyle risk factors in cost-effective ways, stating in their 2002 World Health Report that their ultimate goal is to help governments of all countries to raise the healthy life expectancy of their populations. However, the cost-effectiveness of lifestyle interventions to prevent mortality and morbidity from preventable chronic diseases should also be appropriately demonstrated in resource poor countries before recommending their scaling up.

Psychosocial Interventions Optimizing Health Survival and Improving Quality of Life

Several interventions have been specifically developed to target smoking cessation among cancer survivors (de Moor et al, 2008). The successful smoking prevention programs included such features as high intensity delivery and long-term intervention, ongoing reinforcement of the benefits of smoking cessation, and training participants to make overall healthy lifestyle choices. However, a number of smoking cessation trials reviewed by de Moor and colleagues did not show significant effects. The authors suggest that these studies were limited by various factors including small sample sizes and

Project Title Womens Heart Project

Conference is intended to follow a format of defining the problem of women and heart disease and updating knowledge of current prevention practices and barriers to implementation for improving primary and secondary prevention of heart disease in women in women in the primary care setting. A multi-disciplinary work group meeting on day two of the conference will synthesis the information presented at the conference and make recommendations for improving health services for women for the primary and secondary prevention of heart disease. Recommendations would address four main areas clinical practice, research, payers, and advocacy policy. The recommendations complied by the working group will be summarized into a final report. The report will include recommendations for improving clinical practice and will outline agendas for research and policy to increase the number of women who receive effective and appropriate preventing services (i.e. counseling and screening for known risk...

Behavioral Medicine and Health Behavior Change History and Paradigms

Almost 20 years after issuing Health and Behavior, the IOM published another groundbreaking report, Promoting Health Intervention Strategies from Social and Behavioral Research (Institute of Medicine and Committee on Quality of Health Care in America, 2001). This report described a profound shift in understanding what the targets of successful health behavior change The Promoting Health report underscored the need to modify important policies and environments at the organizational (e.g., school, worksite, health plan), community, and state and national policy levels. It emphasized that public health policies and environmental changes, such as tobacco tax increases, more stringent laws governing drinking and driving, or the creation of communities and neighborhoods with adequate sidewalks, bike paths, and healthy food access, were potentially much more powerful approaches to population-wide behavior change than those requiring active decision making by individuals. It concluded that...

The Need For Evidencebased Research

A challenge for researchers of CAM is that some therapies are difficult to study in the conventional double-blind, placebo-controlled design. For instance, how does one conduct a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of massage therapy, acupuncture, or reflexology Finally, many alternative healthcare providers would make the argument that there is no one specific therapy to treat a person with PD, but rather numerous therapies and the need for a specific life style long-term to positively impact or prevent any disease state. Eastern medicine operates on the assumption that if one supports the body, mind, and spirit by an array of healthy lifestyle behaviors and prescribed Eastern therapies, the individual will recover from or improve in his or her condition by allowing the body to heal itself. Then one could argue that in order to attempt to truly study the benefits of Eastern medical therapy and the impact upon PD, one would have to perform long-term studies using a combination of a...

Project Title Youth Take Heart Phase I Ii

Development testing of an interactive Internet and CD-ROM program titled Guy Simplant The Heart (the character Guy Simplant was created by UWEB to introduce biomaterials to middle school students) to teach about the anatomy and physiology of the heart, heart disease prevention, and newly emerging bioengineering solutions for repairing or replacing the heart 2. Development of a corresponding cardiovascular health laboratory kit and curriculum module by leading health science teachers and scientists 3. Development of a YTH public lecture and parent training series and 4. Creation of a YTH newsletter and brochures. Phase II will focus on the dissemination of the Guy Simplant game, curriculum, laboratory kits, newsletters, brochures, and implementation of the lecture series using a collaborative model of marketing and dissemination. We will primarily target approximately 5,000 MESA students (80 of whom are under-represented minorities and women). Our ultimate goal...

The Community Preventive Services Task Force CTF

The CTF reviews the evidence for preventive interventions designed to improve health across a wide range of topics, including the leading behavioral risk factors for disease (e.g., tobacco and alcohol use, sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy diet, violence, motor vehicle injuries) at the level of a community or population (Teutsch and Briss, 2005) (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009). Interventions to promote health that are reviewed range from health-care policy and system changes and supports to improve the delivery of effective USPSTF-recommended clinical interventions (e.g., patient- and provider-oriented screening reminder systems, insurance coverage for effective clinical preventive services) to broader changes in public laws and policies that target schools, worksites, other organizations, or entire communities (e.g., smoke-free indoor air laws, outreach and community- and street-scale urban design and land use policies). For alcohol, the CTF recommends a number of...

Multiple Risk Health Behavior Change

(PBRNs) to discover and test innovative ways to help patients improve their health behaviors. Investigators working in real world practice-based research networks (PBRNs) developed and tested varied methods that would link practice-based clinical health behavior change counseling with community-based follow-up care to help their patients change two or more health behaviors tobacco use, sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy diet, and or risky drinking. Projects funded in Round 1 demonstrated that practices could identify at-risk patients and motivate them to make changes (Cifuentes et al, 2005 Woolf et al, 2005). In Round 2, grantees created linkages between clinical practices and community resources to help patients adopt and sustain healthier lifestyle behaviors. Each project required policy and environmental changes in the practice (e.g., reminder systems, patient registries, performance incentives) to facilitate provider delivery of evidence-based counseling and related treatments and to...

Dairy products and probiotics in childhood disease

The development of probiotics for use in children is a challenging task. Due to the flexibility of the developing microbiota in early childhood there is a clear potential to influence and modulate the intestinal microbiota to achieve health benefits. Furthermore there are several defined applications where probiotics have been shown therapeutic benefit. The therapeutic applications include relevant disorders with high incidence like infectious enteritis, H. pylori infection or allergy. Already these few applications mean that probiotics could be relevant for potentially every child.

Cultural Behavioural Explanations

A variant of the cultural behaviours explanations is the hypothesis that intelligence is the root cause of social inequalities in health. This argument suggests that intelligence stratifies people into SEP groups as well as confers health benefits. Children with lower ability are not able to attain high SEP in adulthood and their lower ability also translates into greater health risk due to a lack of health literacy such as an inability to comprehend health education messages. Intelligence thus confounds the association between SEP and health. However, others contend that intelligence in itself is not the causal agent, but a product of poor SEP in childhood. Feinstein shows that family SEP is a strong determinant of changes in childhood ability. Children with high ability scores at 22 months who have a disadvantaged family background have lower than average ability by age 10. On the other hand, less able children at age 22 months from advantaged family backgrounds are able to attain...

Department Of Defense

The Army, Navy, and Air Force all have organizations dedicated to the health of their service members and families. The Army runs the U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine (USACHPPM) located at Aberdeen Proving Ground (Edgewood), Maryland. The Army Medical Surveillance Activity (AMSA) is part of the USACHPPM, and

Theories Of Biological Aging

As witnessed by the search for the fountain of youth and the time-honored popularity of tales and treatments concerned with the aging process, prolongevity has been a continuing quest since the dawn of human history. Although the commercial and health literature abounds with suggestions for staying healthy, looking good, and living as long as one can, the inevitability of corporeal existence is universally recognized. Acceptance of personal mortality does not mean, however, that the human life span cannot be prolonged. But in order to achieve prolongevity, if not immortality, we first need to know what makes us age.

Health And Health Care

Elderly ethnic minorities generally have greater health problems than their white counterparts. Moreover, minorities tend to have chronic disability at an earlier age than nonminorities (Hawkins & Kildee, 1990). Forty-one percent of elderly Latinos viewed themselves to be in poor or fair health, compared with 29.9 of all elderly (C. Lopez & Aguilera, 1991). Elderly Latinos also have disproportionately higher rates of disability than non-Latinos. Elderly minorities of color face serious problems in the arena of health care delivery. Many begin working at a very early age (often as young as 5 years of age) and are often employed in hard labor (factory work, farm work, or manufacturing) that leaves them with an assortment of work-related illnesses or disabilities. Access to the health care system (e.g., transportation, cost of care, communication) is another problem. Without adequate transportation, many Latino elderly have problems getting to their doctor's office, hospitals, or...

Pasteur and the Treatment of Rabies

On the 2 May 1885, Pasteur was informed of the presence of a patient named Girard in a hospital with a diagnosis of rabies following a bite by a stray dog in March. With the agreement of Dr Rigal, the head of service where Girard was admitted, Roux or a hospital assistant injected Girard with a preparation of an attenuated rabies virus, in fact, it was an emulsified spinal cord extracted from a rabbit dead of experimental rabies left to dry for 5 days in a dry bottle. The treatment of Girard was stopped after the first injection by the hospital authorities and after some days, Girard left the hospital apparently in good health 20 . Very probably, Girard had never been affected by rabies as the recovery from that disease is extremely rare and the treatment given by Pasteur was short both in quantity and in time. However, it is difficult to be sure of what really happened, except that Pasteur tried to save that patient with a treatment, which still had live virus as the two rabbits...

Humanistic Therapies Theoretical Basis

Gestalt therapy shares with person-centred therapy a concern with awareness of the self, of the environment, and of the person's internal processes. Imbalances in or between these areas are experienced as needs, the person becoming aware of a 'Gestalt' in which their dominant need is differentiated as a figure against the ground of their total experiencing. The tension associated with the imbalance leads the person to satisfy the need, thereby destroying the Gestalt, which is replaced by another concerned with the person's next most dominant need. This ongoing, homeostatic process, involving the maintenance of the person's equilibrium, characterises healthy functioning. Psychological problems occur when this process is interrupted, perhaps by individuals being constantly prevented from expressing or meeting their needs with a consequent build-up of incomplete Gestalts, or unfinished business. This is likely to be associated with persistent disturbances at the 'contact boundary'...

Preventing Promoting And Maintaining

Preventive medicine commonly speaks of primary and secondary prevention. Primary prevention seeks to ''prevent the onset of a disease.'' Secondary prevention ''aims to identify an established disease in a presymptomatic stage in order to cure or prevent its progression'' (Rubenstein, 1996-1997, p. 48). While some primary preventive measures (e.g., those aimed at preventing hypertension or diminishing certain cancer risk factors) are quite effective, medical prevention in mental health is more likely to be secondary prevention (e.g., medication to prevent the recurrence of depression).

Media Influence on Health Behaviors

Although the media contribute to undermining health, the media also provide support for a healthy lifestyle. Media depictions of aspi-rational peers engaged in healthy behavior can motivate behavior change. The influence of the media can be indirect, such as in Jackson and Aiken's (2006) intervention in which participants were shown that media norms had shifted towards favoring pale over tanned skin, which in turn, led to less positive attitudes to tanness and to greater sun protection. Alternatively, media influence can be direct, wherein aspirational peers are employed in active attempts to change behavior. For example, the Got Milk advertising campaign, launched in the United States in 1993 to encourage drinking of milk, often features extremely attractive female celebrities wearing a milk moustache, typically holding a glass of milk. Such media norms depicting aspirational peers engaged in health-protective behavior provide models for the adoption of healthier life styles.

Stage Models of Health Behavior

The SCMs considered above assume that the cognitive determinants of health behaviors act in a similar way during initiation (e.g., quitting smoking for the first time) and maintenance of action (e.g., trying to stay quit). In contrast, in stage models psychological determinants may change across such stages of behavior change (see Sutton, 2005, for a review). An important implication of the stages view is that different cognitions may be important determinants at different stages in promoting health behavior. The most widely used stage model is Prochaska and DiClemente's (1984) Transtheoretical Model of change (TTM). Their model has been widely applied to analyze the process of change in alcoholism treatment and smoking cessation. DiClemente et al (1991) identify five stages of change pre-contemplation (not thinking about change), contemplation (aware of the need to change), preparation (intending to change in the near future and taking action in preparation for change), action...

Neurophysiological Factors

It is arguable whether good health produces better cognitive abilities, or vice versa, but it is clear that poor health can lead to a loss of energy, depression, and less motivation to express oneself intellectually and socially (Perlmutter et al., 1987).


Physical activity and healthy eating are complex behaviors that are important predictors of a range of health outcomes and indicators. Despite recommendations that aim to promote these behaviors, a large proportion of the population fails to meet physical activity and eating guidelines. Given the importance of physical activity and healthy eating for good health, it is important to understand influences on these behaviors in order to develop effective interventions and strategies aimed at promoting health. While much past research has examined individual-level influences on physical activity and healthy eating, less is known about the influence of the broader social and physical environment on these behaviors. Social and physical environment influences offer significant public health prospects because of the opportunity to intervene upstream . Despite the potential offered by these factors, there are many methodological issues that need to be resolved in order to advance our...

Future trends

Functional foods have been expected to play an important role in modern nutrition, which is expected to promote health and reduce the risk of chronic diseases. Functional foods must fulfil all standards of food safety assessment. However, for this type of food, the concept of benefits versus risk of long-term intake has to be elaborated, developed and validated. The safety of intake of low or high amounts of nutrients and high amounts of non-nutrients related to long-term consumption of functional food, as well as interactions between food components and biological processes, have to be monitored. Protocols for premarketing nutrition studies on functional food and post-marketing monitoring are needed.

General Conclusions

Since the decline of behaviorism, habit has long been a forgotten concept in the social and behavioral sciences. This is the case in spite of the fact that many unhealthy behaviors are strongly habitual and that we would like to see healthy behaviors become habitual. The focus on deliberative thinking and motivated behavior such as represented by the prevalent socio-cognitive models may now be supplemented by the notion that these factors may wear off over time and be replaced by the more automatic and context-driven powers of habit (Dawes, 1998). The habit concept has much to offer to those who want to understand why people behave unhealthily, or why it remains such a challenge to establish healthier lifestyles. Researchers have now a choice of instruments at their disposal for measuring and monitoring habit strength. In all, habit theory seems a valuable contribution to the behavioral medicine field.


Saponins are distributed widely in plants, including many significant foodstuffs and medicinal plants. In traditional Chinese herbal medicine, saponin components are of special importance many of them exhibit various interesting bioactivities. However, research on saponins has been limited to the isolation of these compounds and the determination of their structure. Pharmacological evaluation of saponins has been mainly retained at the folkloric level. The difficulty in isolation of saponins from

Reproductive factors

Knowledge that the development of breast cancer is dependent upon functioning ovaries has led to a number of preventative strategies which aim to reduce endogenous oestrogen in those women believed to be at greater risk from breast cancer, for example those with a first-degree relative with the disease. These include the administration of the antioestrogen tamoxifen, reduction in dietary fat, increase in intake of vegetables and the administration of the retinoid fenretidine. Knowledge that maximum proliferative activity in the breast occurs during the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle has led to the suggestion that both oestrogen and progesterone are concerned with the development of breast cancer, leading to a feasibility study of reversibly ablating ovarian function in young women with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonists. A small 'titrable' amount of oestrogen, which on its own is believed to be safe, is given to maintain good health. Endometrial and ovarian cancer share some...


The centenarian genome should also be an efficient tool for ferreting out disease genes. Comparison of single-nucleotide polymorphism frequencies implicated in diseases in centenarians and in persons with these diseases should show clinically relevant polymorphisms. Another approach that researchers are in the early stages of understanding is differential gene expression in models known to slow the aging process, such as caloric restriction (Lee et al., 1999). This may prove to be another potent tool for discovering longevity-enabling genes. The hope, of course, is that these gene discoveries will help identify drug targets and create drugs that would allow persons to become more ''centenarian-like'' by maximizing the period of their lives spent in good health. Hitt, R., Young-Xu, Y., Silver, M. and Perls, T. (1999). Centenarians the older you get, the healthier you have been. Lancet, 354, 652.

Medical Futility

The Emanuels' deliberative model includes the features of the interpretive model and adds a physician obligation to help the patient achieve a type of moral self-development by instructing the patient in good health-related values. In discussing complementary therapy, this model would oblige the physician to discuss the rational basis and scientific justification for medical therapy. This model embodies most of the features patients and physicians value in their relationships. The emphasis on physician values, in particular, makes explicit the basis for specific recommendations. There is no pretense that a scientific recommendation is value free. The problem with the deliberative model is its complexity. This model of physician-patient relationships goes far beyond rules of nonmaleficence, beneficence, and respect for patient autonomy (Beauchamp & Childress, 1994). The deliberative model appeals to a consideration of virtue. Virtue, as used in the context of the physician-patient...


Indicator of his or her acquired skills and intellectual and cultural resources this in turn is likely to lead to better conditions in which people live and work and healthier lifestyles. Education thus combines dimensions of social status (through the prestige of having higher qualifications or attending prestigious educational institutions) as well as increases access to resources through enhancing ability to process information.

Sex Therapy

Like homosexuality, sex problems and their treatment are no longer taboo topics. They are widely discussed in the media, the movies, and by medical experts throughout the world. The importance of good health care, proper nutrition, and appropriate medications to the maintenance of an active sex life are generally recognized. Moderation in the intake of food, coffee, alcohol, and tobacco proper exercise protection against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and an awareness that if you do not use it, you will lose it are recommended ( Sexuality and Aging, 1997). Perhaps most important of all are love and respect for one's sexual partner and acceptance of sex as normal and desirable at all ages. Although initially the marital unit and their physician had fallen into the sociocultural trap of accepting the concept of sexual inadequacy as an aging phenomenon, the more Mr. and Mrs. A. considered their dysfunction, the less willing they were to accept the blanket concept that lack of...

Shelley ETaylor

Unfortunately, so does poor health. Low socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood and a harsh early family environment can adversely influence trajectories of health outcomes long into adulthood. It may come as no surprise that childhood physical and sexual abuse have negative mental and physical health consequences, both immediately and over the life span. These effects are well documented (e.g., Springer et al, 2003). What may be more surprising is that relatively modest family dysfunction that numerous people routinely experience can lead to adverse outcomes as well.

Virginias Story

Virginia was over 100 years old when she entered Spruce Hill Nursing Home. Coming there was not what she wanted. However, rather than upset her daughter and son-in-law, she agreed to go. Both in their 70s, they found it tiring to travel between Florida and Ohio, supervising and arranging Virginia's home care while still having a life of their own. On the other hand, Virginia enjoyed good health. She had no problems with any of her vital functions no heart disease, respiratory difficulties, or the like. However, two broken hips had limited her mobility, and Alzheimer's disease had left her often confused and forgetful. Because she was friendly and compliant with the wishes of others, Virginia quickly became a favorite of the staff at Spruce Hill Nursing Home. As she wheeled through the facility, they would stop their work and talk to her. Virginia's smile and soft voice were a welcome contrast to many other residents.


Traditionally simple sugars were thought to be absorbed quickly, thus rapidly increasing the level of blood sugars and so were forbidden. However, the ADA Position Statement 2002 has concluded that for people with diabetes it is the total amount of carbohydrates in meals and snacks, rather than the type, that determines the glycaemic response. Sugars, however, should be restricted in the diet, as a high intake usually increases triglyceride levels in the blood and may also contribute to the development of dental caries. Moreover, sugars are usually associated with high-calorie foods, which should be limited in order to maintain a healthy body weight. Their amount should not be more than 10 per cent of the daily total energy intake. Polysaccharides are preferred, especially those containing fibre, since the more fibre food contains, the more slowly it is digested, raising blood sugar levels at a slower rate.

Future Directions

We have come a long way in our understanding of BPD. Outcome data for the approaches described in this chapter have shown that while there is no cure for BPD, most people can be helped substantially (Clarkin et al., 1999 Eckert & Wuchner, 1996 Koerner & Linehan, 2000). Currently, there is an ongoing study that randomly assigns patients to Linehan's DBT, Kernberg's TFP, or a control group (Kernberg, 2002) this study should help us to understand more about the disorder by seeing the differential effects of different treatments. More studies that employ neuropsychological testing could greatly improve our understanding of how people with BPD process information. In his review, Soloff et al. (2000) concludes that many medications are being used without an adequate research base further research into the use of medications is not only warranted but, I would argue, an ethical necessity. To date, alternative medicine approaches, such as herbal remedies, acupuncture, and homeopathy, have...

Retirement Planning

Most business and industrial organizations provide some sort of formal retirement-planning programs covering finances, attitudes, and other matters of concern to retirees, but relatively few retirees who are in poor health and or have low incomes participate in such programs. Most of the participants are in good health, have moderate incomes, and have a higher than average occupational level (Campione, 1988).

Safety Evaluation

The study was performed according to ICH GCP guidelines under the direction of the Clinical Investigator. There were no significant deviations from the study protocol that could have affected the outcome of this study. All subjects met the inclusion criteria described in the study protocol. Foreseeable risks were weighed before study initiation. Rights, safety, and well-being of the study subject were considered the most important issues, prevailing over interests of science and society. All medical care and medical decisions were given on behalf of the subjects under the full supervision of the Principal Investigator. All the subjects were in good health before the initiation of the study. The clinical results of the screened laboratory examinations (biochemistry, hematology, serology, and urine analysis) were, occasionally, outside their respective normal ranges but not to an extent to be considered clinically significant by both the Clinical Investigator and the Principal...

Sex And Aging

The elderly of the future will have considerably more time to devote to interpersonal relationships, and there will, no doubt, be an increasing interest in personal appearance. Cosmetic surgery offers opportunities to maintain a personal image based on personal preference. After the age of 80, it appears that in terms of health care individuals seem to reach a plateau, and there are no serious disabilities for at least another decade. Since the elderly will have followed healthier lifestyles, their physical condition will be superior to that of the older population of today. Older persons today exhibit what can be termed as ''premature aging,'' brought on by stress, improper diet, unhealthful living conditions and habits, and unsound work patterns. An amelioration of the total environment will not only prolong life, but will add immeasurably to the maintaining of youthfulness. In some cultures long-living men who have led healthful lifestyles are found to possess viable sperm at the...


Herbal or alternative medicines are commonly used by patients with cancer.59 Many such medicines contain hormones, hormone analogues, or tissue extracts with the potential to affect hormonal pathways. PC-SPES is a widely used herbal medicine that contains several different compounds, including a phytoestrogen with proestrogenic properties that inhibits prostate cancer cell proliferation in experimental mod


Over 1000 naturopaths practicing in America. Naturopathy incorporates many of the modalities of TCM and Ayurveda, such as acupuncture, herbs, nutrition, massage, and homeopathy with the goal of achieving a balance between one's physical, emotional, mental, and spiritual health by allowing the body and mind to heal itself through its own natural mechanisms. Additional information can be found in Ref. (6).


Chiropractic theory is similar to TCM and Ayurveda in that it views the body as having an innate ability to heal itself and naturally adapt to changes in its internal and external environments to maintain a natural state of health. Chiropractic practitioners focus on the nervous system knowing that the brain sends messages through the spinal cord to all the organs, muscles, blood vessels, and cells of the body. The nervous system helps to coordinate and regulate a vast array of chemical reactions that affect how a person thinks, feels, sleeps, digests food, physically moves, etc. Chiropractic theory is based upon the belief that when bones of the spine become misaligned they block normal flow and communication of the nervous system to the entire body and thereby result in impairment of normal body function that leads to a variety of physical symptoms and possibly the development of disease states. Chiropractic literally means to be done by hand and it was founded in 1895 with the...


Acupuncture is based upon TCM and is one of the main therapies used by TCM physicians, but also practiced by naturopaths, osteopaths, and a variety of healthcare professionals. Acupuncture involves the placement of needles at specific points along meridians with the goal of restoring the balance of yin and yang and proper chi or qi flow to promote health. Persons with PD receiving acupuncture report a reduction in pain and sometimes improved sleep and mood and increased energy. Reduction of pain has consistently been reported by persons receiving acupuncture for a variety of conditions. Stimulation of the nerve fibers with the acupuncture needles is thought to activate the nervous, lymphatic, and electromagnetic pathways and result in a release of hormones that reduce pain as well as stimulate the immune system and improve circulation. Treatments often last 40 to 90 minutes while laying on one's back with needles in place and to be effective may need to be done a minimum of one to...

Massage Therapy

Massage therapy involves the use of a therapist's hands and sometimes elbows and knees or in some cases hand-held wooden thumbs or rocks along with special ointments and aromas that are directly applied to the body's muscles and soft tissues (5). Its origins date back to over 4000 years as a form of TCM therapy to promote health and prevent disease. It is also a primary treatment in the Ayurvedic system. Similar to acupuncture theory, the direct manipulation of the body tissues is thought to activate the immune system, clear waste products from the lymphatic system, increase endorphin production, and restore chi flow. Though massage therapy is not a proven therapy specifically for PD, the potential benefits often reported include stress reduction, emotional calmness, reduced muscle stiffness and associated pain, along with increased range of motion of the limbs, neck, and trunk and increased energy levels. These benefits are often immediate and relatively short lasting thus, similar...

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