Know Your Healthy Berries

Berry Boosters

Berry Boosters

Acai, Maqui And Many Other Popular Berries That Will Change Your Life And Health. Berries have been demonstrated to be some of the healthiest foods on the planet. Each month or so it seems fresh research is being brought out and new berries are being exposed and analyzed for their health giving attributes.

Get My Free Ebook

Antioxidants from fruits and berries overview

Fruits and berries are good sources of antioxidants, including carotenoids, ascorbic acid, tocopherols, flavonoids and phenolic acids. It has been known for a long time that the phenolics, as well as some of the other antioxidant components, are closely associated with the sensory attributes of fresh and processed fruits, berries and other plant foods. Especially, the contribution to colour by carotenoids (yellow to orange and red) and anthocyanins (red to purple and blue) is well known. Also the specific involvement of some of the phenolic substances in flavour development and taste sensation is amply documented.1 Phenolic compounds, including those having potent antioxidant activity, are also substrates for undesirable, oxidative browning reactions occurring during bruising of fruits, when fruits are cut or during their processing. The possible beneficial biological functions of the traditional antioxidant vitamins, i.e. ascorbic acid, a-tocopherol and to a certain extent...

Functional Phytochemicals from Cranberries Their Mechanism of Action and Strategies to Improve Functionality

7.2.1 Phenolic Phytochemicals from Related Phenolic Phytochemicals from Cranberries 166 Phenolic compounds or phenolic phytochemicals are secondary metabolites of plant origin which constitute one of the most abundant groups of natural compounds and form an important component of both human and animal diets (1,2,3). These phenolic metabolites function to protect the plant against biological and environmental stresses and are therefore synthesized in response to pathogenic attack, such as fungal or bacterial infection, or high energy radiation exposure, such as prolonged UV exposure (4,5). Because of their important biological functions, phenolic phytochemicals are ubiquitous in plants and therefore find their place in almost all food groups. Common fruits such as apples, cranberries, grapes, raspberries, and strawberries, and fruit beverages like red wine and apple and orange juices, are rich sources of phenolic phytochemicals. In addition to fruits, vegetables such as cabbage and...

Habitat and feeding ecology

As in all other aspects of their biology, the habitats (and associated diets) of Gruiformes are quite variable. The families can be roughly ordered from wet-loving to dry-loving groups. The sungrebes and finfoots are primarily aquatic, inhabiting marshes, lakes, and streams, and feeding upon small insects, aquatic animals, and some seeds and leaves. The sun-bittern lives near water in dense tropical forests and swamps. There the birds can be seen walking slowly while they stalk insects and small fish or crustaceans. The limpkin is found near wetland areas, such as in marshes or wooded swamps, where the birds feed on apple snails, as well as insects and some seeds. The cranes frequent freshwater and saline wetlands and open upland country, taking a wide variety of seeds, tubers, and other vegetable and animal matter. The rails also live mainly in or near swamps, marshes, and lakes, and eat a wide variety of vegetable and animal foods. The trumpeter species are found in tropical...

Feeding ecology and diet

The diets of all members of the family consist primarily of insects, other arthropods, and especially spiders. Other prey items include crustaceans, snails, and harvestmen (Opiliones). Sap (golden-crowned kinglet) and nectar (several African and Asian species, especially Prima) are occasionally consumed. Prima hodgsonii and Orthotomus sutorius are known to carry pollen attached to the feathers of the throat and forehead it and other nectar-feeding species may be important pollinators in the tropics. Some of the larger reed-warblers (including Acrocephalus arundinaceus, A. rufesecens, and A. stentoreus) occasionally take small frogs and fish. Young sylviids are fed almost exclusively arthropods, usually soft-bodied larvae and small insects, but in some cases receive berries as well. Variation in prey size and type is found among sympatric foraging guilds. During the pre-migratory period of Palearctic Sylvia warblers, individuals shift their diet from largely insects to largely berries...

Unique Kiwi Parenting

Little spotted kiwis have a way of raising their young that is unique among kiwis. The male incubates the eggs for seventy days. Once the chicks hatch, the female helps in the rearing. Adult little spotted kiwis do not feed their young but the males and females escort their chicks into the forest to search for food, mainly berries and worms. With other species, the chicks are left on their own to find food after hatching. The little spotted kiwi is one of the most endangered of all kiwis. Human destruction of their habitat is the primary reason for their decline. Once common on the mainland of New Zealand, only about 1,000 remain off the mainland on Tiritiri Matangi Island, Red Mercury Island, Mana Island, Long Island, Hen Island, and Kapiti Island. They also survive on the Kaori Kiwi Reserve in Wellington as part of the government's captive breeding program. centipedes, spiders, cockroaches, praying mantises, snails, locusts, crickets, grasshoppers, and insect larvae. They will eat...

Antioxidants from vegetables overview

The antioxidants present in commonly consumed vegetables include ascorbic acid, tocopherols, carotenoids and phenolic compounds such as flavonols and phenolic acids (Table 3.3). In comparison to fruits and berries, vegetables generally contain much lower amounts of antioxidant compounds. A large amount of vitamin C is found in sweet red pepper (1850mgkg-1) and significant amounts in Brussels sprouts (up to 900mgkg-1) and broccoli (750-830 mg kg-1), while

Effect of different processing technologies on antioxidant activity

Food processing involves changes in structural integrity of the plant material and this produces both negative and positive effects. When the negative and positive effects counterbalance each other, no change in the antioxidant activity occurs.115 The antioxidant activity is diminished owing to inactivation of antioxidant compounds caused by oxidation, for example, by enzymes (polyphenoloxidase and others) or leaching into the cooking water. Both negative changes have a greater impact on the water-soluble antioxidants, vitamin C, flavonoids and phenolic acids, than on the lipid-soluble antioxidants, carotenoids and tocopherols. The positive effects of food processing include transformation of antioxidants into more active compounds, such as the deglycosylation of onion quercetin,106 as well as an increase in the antioxidant activity owing to inhibition of enzymes.81 Peeling and juicing result in substantial losses of carotenoids, anthocyanins, hydroxycin-namates and flavanols as the...

Sources of further information and advice

Effect of an elevated intake of natural antioxidants when they are consumed in their concentrated form, even when extracted from natural sources of fruits, berries and vegetables. Much more research is therefore needed on the anti-oxidant effects of natural antioxidant mixtures, on the influence of various types of processing on natural antioxidants and on the possible influence of the natural matrix on the antioxidant and nutritional effects.

Plant Originated Glycosidases

Most work has been devoted to grape glycosidases because the first evidence of multiple forms of glycosi-dic flavor precursors was found in this fruit. ft-Glucosidase (55, 56, 69, 67, 68), a-arabinofuranosidase (56, 59), a-arabinopyranosidase (19), a-rhamnopyra-nosidase (56, 69), and ft-xylosidase (51) activities were detected in grapes of various cultivars. The presence of ft-apiosidase in grapes has not yet been confirmed. On the basis of glycosidase activity determinations with pNP-glycosylated substrates, ft-glucosidase activity is considered the most important. Multiple forms of ft-glucosidase exist in grape berries (51, 55, 59) and are also found in almond emulsin (69) but not in papaya fruit (54). The enzyme from papaya fruit, unlike that from grapes, is readily soluble and does not require the use of detergent for extraction. Glycosidases are found predominantly in grape skins (67, 68), although contradictory results may arise owing to the enzyme extraction method employed...

Physical characteristics

Naturalists have long puzzled over the significance of the toucan's large bill. Originally, observers suggested that the bill was a weapon used to defend the nest cavity. This is not so when toucans sense danger, they come out of the cavity entrance in a hurry, threatening the enemy only out in the open, if at all. Instead, a long bill enables these rather heavy birds to pluck berries from the tips of branches without leaving a stable perch. A thin, dark-colored bill would, however, be just as useful for this purpose. Possibly the toucan's bill plays a role in pair formation and in the social life of the group. According to E. Thomas Gilliard, it acts as a signal. However, toucans can also use their bills to threaten those birds whose nests they plunder. Tyrant flycatchers and even small raptors are frightened by the giant bill, which is even more effective because of its lively colors, and they fly about helplessly while the toucans devour their young or eggs. Other birds will attack...

Pathogens Targeted For Bcpd Of Fruits

Significant successes were achieved with biocontrol of latent infections caused by Colletotrichum spp. on mango and avocado (Korsten and Jeffries 2000), and to a lesser extent by B. cinerea on strawberries (Helbig 2002 Ippolito et al. 1998 Peng and Sutton 1990 Takeda and Janisiewicz, unpublished results). Biological control of these diseases must start in the field, relies on multiple application of the antagonist, and is generally more difficult to achieve.

Quality deterioration of fresh produce fungal and bacterial pathogens

Only a small number of fungal pathogens are capable of direct penetration of the undamaged skin of the produce. On the whole, these latter pathogens are particularly problematic owing to the fact that they may infect produce before harvest but remain quiescent in the tissues until conditions become favourable for growth. This phenomenon is largely seen in fruits, where initial pathogen development and subsequent quiescence occurs in the unripe fruit. As the fruit ripens, quiescence is broken and the pathogen colonises the fruit tissues (Swinburne, 1983). Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is a common pathogen showing this behaviour on a number of tropical fruits such as mango and papaya. Typical symptoms on ripe fruits are sunken, lens-shaped lesions, which may develop salmon-coloured sporing structures. Colletotrichum musae causes similar symptoms on bananas. Botrytis cinerea may also show quiescent behaviour on certain fruits, for example, in strawberries, fungal spores contaminate the...

Rats mice and relatives I

A meadow vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus) eating strawberries. (Photo by Dwight R. Kuhn. Bruce Coleman, Inc. Reproduced by permission.) A meadow vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus) eating strawberries. (Photo by Dwight R. Kuhn. Bruce Coleman, Inc. Reproduced by permission.) The bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) harvests seeds, berries, and nuts and stores them in underground caches. (Photo by Ernest A. Janes. Bruce Coleman, Inc. Reproduced by permission.) The bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) harvests seeds, berries, and nuts and stores them in underground caches. (Photo by Ernest A. Janes. Bruce Coleman, Inc. Reproduced by permission.)

Reproductive biology

Other structures built by birds are unrelated to either brooding or sleeping, and these might be the oddest of all. Bowerbirds (Ptilonorhynchidae) of Australia and New Guinea are, as a group, uniformly plain-looking birds. This has not, however, been an insurmountable problem for male bower-birds that have turned to constructing elaborately decorated bowers, or secluded retreats, in order to attract and court females through visual stimulation. Gill reports that some researchers seem to have identified an apparent relationship between the absence of showy plumage and the ornate, somewhat fussy constructions fashioned by bower males. It seems that the plainer the plumage of the species, the more exquisitely bedecked the bower. Bowers come in two types simple to complex mats of sticks built around a slender sapling, called maypole bowers, and bizarre tower structures that line the south side of a display court, called avenue bowers. The bowers, and the paths leading up to them, might be...

Maintaining the quality of fresh produce controlled atmosphere CA storage

High levels of CO2 can also have a direct inhibitory effect on certain pathogens. The upper limit for CO2 levels depends on the sensitivity of the crop. Many berry crops have a high tolerance for CO2, for example, blackcurrants destined for processing into juice are often held under 40 CO2. Levels above 15 will significantly reduce incidence of grey mould on strawberries, raspberries, cherries and grapes (Kader, 1997) and small scale CA storage structures are in increasing use with these crops.

Advantages of timeresolved optical methods

Different non-destructive techniques have been proposed to probe a variety of quality-related factors in fruits.1 For example, anthocyanins in strawberries have been detected by photoacoustic techniques.2 The artificial nose, with its potential to detect small quantities of released chemicals, may prove useful for those aspects of quality related to aroma production3 even though few data on such applications are currently available. Ultrasounds cannot penetrate deeply into the pulp of most fruits owing to the porous nature of the tissue, yet some promising results have been obtained using low frequency ultrasounds.4 Nuclear magnetic resonance appears promising in terms of specificity and spatial resolution,5 but is not suitable for in-the-field or mass applications.

Importance To Food Quality And Food Processing

Polyphenol oxidases are very important enzymes in determining the quality and economics of fruit and vegetable harvesting, storage, and processing (17-19). Bruises, cuts, and other mechanical damage during harvest, storage, and processing that allow O2 penetration result in rapid browning in many fruits and vegetables. Up to one-half of some tropical fruits are lost for consumer consumption owing to browning, since the off-color, off-taste, and loss of nutritional quality are unacceptable to consumers. Apricots, apples, peaches, grapes, strawberries, and bananas (among others) and several tropical fruits and juices therefrom become brown, as do Irish potatoes and some lettuces

Purplebreasted cotinga

Males are predominantly navy blue in color, with black wings and tail, and violet on the throat and breast. Their subcutaneous and perivisceral fat often takes on the blue color of the berries they prefer. Fruit and berries are consumed, often gorging at a masting tree or bush such as mistletoe. The fruits are often plucked on the wing. Although the seeds of larger species (e.g., mistletoe) might be regurgitated, smaller seeds are often swallowed. Insects are also taken.

Megalaima haemacephala

Diet Their diet consists of figs, custard-apples, guavas, mangos, and papal fruits, along with smaller berries and many types of insects such as beetles, crickets, mantids (plural of mantis large, predatory insects), and various insect larvae. They tap and chip away tree bark in order to find invertebrates (animals without a backbone).

Pogoniulus chrysoconus

Diet Yellow-fronted tinkerbirds eat small berries and bright red, orange, and purple fruits, such as mistletoe berries and figs, as well as insects, beetles, and other invertebrates. They move quietly through foliage and dead leaves while pecking at prey or taking off berries and fruits. Yellow-fronted tinkerbirds eat small berries and fruits, as well as insects, beetles, and other invertebrates. (P. Ward Bruce Coleman Inc. Reproduced by permission.) Yellow-fronted tinkerbirds eat small berries and fruits, as well as insects, beetles, and other invertebrates. (P. Ward Bruce Coleman Inc. Reproduced by permission.)

Behavior And Reproduction

Members of larger species do not breed until they are three or four years old. Males often court females by feeding them berries. Often, the pair also preens one another. Most toucans nest in tree holes. They may remove chunks of very rotten wood but do not really dig a hole like woodpeckers do. Large toucans often use natural holes. Small toucans use abandoned woodpecker holes. One pair may use the same hole year after year. Both parents incubate the white eggs for about sixteen days. They also share the work of brooding the nestlings and bringing insects. The young birds fledge, grow their flying feathers, after about fifty days, but the parents keep feeding them for another eight to ten days.

Gases And Modified Atmospheres

Ozone (O3) is a strong antimicrobial agent with numerous applications in the food industry. It has been used for decades in many countries and was recently given GRAS status in the United States. Ozone in the aqueous or gaseous phase is active against a wide range of bacteria, molds, and yeasts. Most applications are targeted to decontamination of fruit and vegetable surfaces by washing in ozonated water (Xu 1999). A second application is fruit and vegetable storage. Barth et al. (1995) assessed ozone exposure on storage of blackberries stored at 2 C in air with 0.3 ppm ozone. Fungal development was suppressed while 20 of the control fruits showed decay. The effectiveness of ozone is influenced by the intrinsic factors of a food. It also oxidizes food surfaces when used at high levels. Further research may reduce some of these concerns so ozone can be used in broader food applications.

North American porcupine

Porcupines are vegetarians, dining on foliage for much of the year and turning to the inner bark of oaks and pines in the winter months. They are also known to eat seeds, fruits, nuts, berries, and plant stems. Their chisel-like teeth scrape away the tougher, outer bark, then slice off even bits of inner bark for consumption. Cellulose-eating bacteria in the porcupine's gut assist the digestion of plant material. Mothers and young feed together, but they are otherwise solitary feeders. Feeding generally occurs at night, but occasionally they will feed during the day.

Waxwings Silky Flycatchers And People

Scientists have noted that waxwing tail bands have been both yellow and orange for the last thirty years. Prior to that time, their tail bands were always yellow. The scientists believe that waxwings have been eating a lot of berries from the introduced (not native) European honeysuckle, which was introduced about then. Scientists think that the birds are being affected by pigments in the orange fruit.

Products Available

Cranberry is available in a variety of forms such as fresh or frozen cranberries, cranberry juice cocktail, other cranberry drinks, cranberry sauce, and powder in hard or soft gelatin capsules (2,10). Cranberries are approx 88 water and contain flavonoids, anthrocyanins (odain), cetechin, triterpinoids, y-hydroxybutyric acid, citric acid, malic acid, glucuronic acid, quinic acid, benzoic acid, ellagic acid, and vitamin C (2). Fresh or frozen cranberries are a good source of cranberry because they contain pure fruit however, because of their high acidity and extremely sour taste, they are less readily used in clinical practice (1). Pure cranberry juice is tart like lemon juice because of the high citric and quinic acid content (2). Cranberry juice cocktail is more palatable, but is only 25-33 juice and contains corn syrup as a sweetener (2,10), whereas other cranberry juice drinks contain as little as 10 juice (2). These sweetened beverages are relatively high in calories (approx 140...

Pharmacological Toxicological Effects 41 Antimicrobial Activity

Controversy exists on the pharmacological mechanism of cranberry. In the mid-19th century, German researchers discovered hippuric acid in the urine of people who ate cranberries (2). From the 1920s through the 1970s, many researchers thought that hippuric acid produced a bacteriostatic effect by acidifying the urine (11,14,15). The ability of cranberry to prevent renal calculi has also been attributed to its ability to decrease urine pH and inhibit bacterial growth (7,8,16). Not all studies documented a change in urinary pH with cranberry administration, so a parallel line of thinking suggested that E. coli is responsible for 85 of urinary tract infections (20). Virtually all E. coli express type 1 fimbrae, and most uropathogenic E. coli express P fimbriae, which are responsible for mediating the adherence of the bacteria to uroepithelial cells (18). Fructose is responsible for inhibiting the adherence of type-1-fimbriated E. coli, whereas a polymeric compound inhibits P-fim-briated...

Troglodytes troglodytes

Diet The winter wren is primarily an insectivore, or insect-eater, but it is occasionally known to eat spiders and rarely known to eat juniper berries. These birds feed on the forest floor and sometimes along stream banks, scurrying through leaves and brush in a mouse-like manner.

Pharmacological Toxicological Effects 51 Cardiovascular Effects

Hawthorn extracts purportedly dilate coronary blood vessels, decrease blood pressure, increase myocardial contractility, and lower serum cholesterol (9). Benefits have been demonstrated in patients with heart failure (10). In patients with stage II New York Heart Association (NYHA) heart failure, doses of 160-900 mg day of the aqueous-alcoholic extract for up to 56 days showed an increase in exercise tolerance, decrease in rate pressure product, and increased ejection fraction (11). Degenring and colleagues, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, studied a standardized extract of fresh Crataegus berries (Crataegisan ) for the treatment of patients with Tincture of Crataegus (TCR), made from hawthorn berries, was shown to have a hypocholesterolemic effect on rats fed 0.5 mL 100 g body weight for 6 weeks. These findings prompted a study that examined the ability of TCR to increase low-density lipoprotein (LDL) binding to liver plasma membranes in rats fed an...

Regulatory Status

Originally, all preparations of hawthorn were approved under one German Commission E monograph based on historical experience. However, in 1993, the preparations were reevaluated and it was concluded that sufficient scientific evidence was lacking to justify use of the flowers, leaves, and berries as individual compounds. As a result, there are currently four hawthorn monographs three Unapproved monographs for the berry, flower, and leaf individually and an Approved monograph for the flower with leaves. In addition, the Approved monograph has only one approved indication treatment of decreasing cardiac output according to functional stage II of the NYHA (11). In Canada, hawthorn carries new drug status and is not approved, as self-treatment of cardiovascular conditions is deemed inappropriate. Hawthorn is not on the General Sales List in the United Kingdom. In France, the flower and flowering top are permitted for oral use, and in Switzerland, the leaf and flower are permitted as...

Pectin Methylesterase

Apart from the presence of many genes encoding putative pectin methylesterases (PMEs), these enzymes have also been detected in various plants by their activity, which confirms their wide distribution. They have been identified in higher plants, particularly in apple, banana, berries, citrus (lime, orange, grapefruit, and mandarin), cherry, grape, mango, papaya, passion fruit, pear, plum, beans, carrot, cauliflower, cucumber, leek, onion, pea, potato, radish, and tomato. Within each species multiple forms of PME can be present as was shown for example for citrus fruits (2, 3), mung bean hypocotyl (4-6), and flax seedlings (7). In general, basic, neutral, and acidic isoforms are found, which differ in various biochemical properties, such as relative molecular mass and pH optimum. PMEs are found in various tissues and are mainly associated by ionic interactions with cell wall proteins, although some soluble forms have been detected as well. Their exact role is not known, but since they...

Conservation status

Phainopepla (Phainopepla nitens) male at nest with mistletoe berries. (Photo by Anthony Mercieca. Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.) Phainopepla (Phainopepla nitens) male at nest with mistletoe berries. (Photo by Anthony Mercieca. Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.)

Occurrence and dietary intake of anthocyanins

The red, violet or blue anthocyanins, found in most berries and fruits, belong to the group of flavonoids. The anthocyanins consist of an aglycon, the antho-cyanidin, linked to a sugar moiety. The six most frequently found aglycons in fruits and berries are seen in Fig. 9.3. These aglycons may be glycosylated or acylated by different sugars and acids in different positions. The most common glycoside moieties found in anthocyanins are the 3-monosides, 3-biosides, 3-triosides and 3,5-diglycosides (Strack and Wray, 1986).

Endogenous Pectate Lyases In Plants

Based on the presence of cDNA-encoding putative pectate lyases, these activities have also been inferred in the ripening of strawberries (20) and bananas (19) and in the development of pollen in lily (18), tobacco, and Arabidopsis (21). Thus, although endogenous pec-tate lyases seem to be important for plant and fruit development, the appreciation of their role(s) is in its infancy.

Growth Factor Signaling

Phytochemicals may provide a partial defense against angiogenesis. Green tea, flax-seed, and numerous berry extracts decrease the expression of inducible VEGF. Green tea (in particular epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) has been extensively studied in numerous cell types including the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line, which constitutively expresses high levels of VEGF (124,125). EGCG ultimately blocks VEGF expression through the inhibition of the EGF receptor, which regulates NF-kB and STAT-3, two signaling proteins which have been demonstrated to impact the VEGF promoter. Green tea catechins in endo-thelial cell lines also appear to block VEGF induced tubule formation through the regulation of VE-cadherin and the inhibition of Akt activity (126). Fruits such as Gleditsia sinensis effectively control VEGF in the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line (127), and other berries (cranberry, raspberry, strawberry, blueberry, elderberry, and bilberry) appear to significantly reduce VEGF...

Use Of Glycosidases For Aroma Enrichment

Fermentation trials with various Muscat grape juices, in the presence of different levels of glycosidase activities, showed that several hundred nanokatals of -glucosidase, a-arabinofuranosidase, -apiosidase, and a-rhamnosidase activities per liter of grape juice are needed to efficiently hydrolyze monoterpenyl glycosides (10, 109). These activities are much greater than those found in grape berries (55, 56) or produced by S. cerevisiae (80) during alcoholic fermentation.

Heat treatment blanching and canning

Heat treatments are responsible for irreversible denaturation of cellular tissue in fruits or vegetables causing softening and juice loss. Vacuum infusion technology was consequently used before heat treatment such as blanching, pasteurising and canning with an aim of limiting thermal damages in the product. It is of particular interest to note the treatment of button mushrooms (McArdle et al., 1974 Gormley and Walshe, 1986 Demeaux et al., 1988), strawberries (Main et al., 1986), apricots (French et al., 1989) and turnips (Moreira et al., 1994). Calcium lactate infusion in fresh whole or sliced strawberries improved their texture and reduced their weight loss measured after canning (Main et al., 1986) owing to the presence of calcium which reinforces the cell wall structure by forming pectates (see above). This improvement in texture by calcium infusion was also observed by French et al. (1989) on canned apricot - Patterson cultivar fruits - even if the chelator effect of exogenic or...

Raccoons and relatives

Raccoon Eating Humans

Procyonids evolved in the tropical environments of South and Central America. Their morphology and habits reveal numerous adaptations for warm climates including naked soles, long digits, diet relying heavily on fruits and berries, and tree climbing skills. Several aspects of their phylogeny (origin) remain unresolved. First, the position of the red panda, Ailurus fulgens, with the Procyonidae (but the giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca in the Ursidae) is not universally accepted. In the past, the red panda has been considered under a separate family Ailuridae with the giant panda. Second, the number of species of raccoons (genus Procyon) seems to vary as many previously recognized island species such as Bahaman raccoon (Procyon maynardi), Guadeloupe raccoon (Procyon minor), and the extinct Barbados raccoon (Procyon gloveralleni) have recently been reconsidered variants of the northern raccoon (Procyon lotor). Similarly, five species of olingos (genus Bas-saricyon) are currently...

Systematics of lower Metazoa

The triploblasts, or Triploblastica (Greek triplo three, blast bud), refer to phyla that possess three embryonic germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm) formed during gas-trulation, though mesoderm is probably not homologous between protostomes and deuterostomes. Prior to 1985, the phylum Ctenophora was generally considered a diploblastic phylum because true mesoderm (entomesoderm) was not found however, subsequent studies have revealed the presence of mesoderm during embryogeny. Ctenophora is considered the most primitive of the triploblastic phyla because it is hypothesized to have originated prior to the evolution of the bilateral body plan. Ctenophora is a small phylum of approximately 80 gelatinous animals known as comb jellies and sea gooseberries. Their paleontological history extends back to the Cambrian. The phylum is well defined by the presence of adhesive colloblasts, eight rows of ciliary plates, a unique apical sense organ, and a cydippid larval stage....

Introduction classification chemical structures and occurrence of flavonoids in plant foods

The flavonoids constitute a large class of polyphenols that are found ubiquitously in the plant kingdom and are thus present in fruits and vegetables regularly consumed by humans. They account for a variety of colours in flowers, berries and fruits, from yellow to red and dark purple. The flavonoids are biosynthesised from phenylalanine (ring B) and three acetate units (ring A), giving the chalcones as the first identifiable intermediate (see Fig. 9.1) (Herbert, 1989). Ring closure of the chalcones gives rise to the flavanones, which can be further oxidised or derivatised to flavanonols, flavones or flavonols. Reduction of the carbonyl group in the 4-position and subsequent removal of the hydroxyl group result in the formation of the catechins, whereas oxidation of the C-ring affords the anthocyanins. Rearrangement of the flavonoid skeleton by an intramolecular 1,2-shift of the B-ring gives the isoflavonoids. Substituents such as hydroxyl, methoxyl and sugar moieties give rise to a...

Phenolic Phytochemical Ingredients And Benefits

Phenolic phytochemicals are secondary metabolites synthesized by plants to protect themselves against biological and environmental stresses such as pathogen attack or high energy radiation exposure (1,2). These compounds involved in the plant defense response are one of the most abundant classes of phytochemicals and are also invariably important components of our diets (3,4,5). Commonly consumed fruits such as apples, bananas, grapes, and several types of berries and their beverages are examples of plant foods as sufficiently rich sources of phenolic phytochemicals. Similar phytochemicals in our diet are also obtained from diverse commonly consumed vegetables such as tomato, cabbage, and onions to grains such as cereals and millets as well as legumes such as soybean, common beans, mung beans, fava beans, and peas, depending on the specific regions of the world (4,5,6). In addition many different types of herbs and spices containing phenolic

Stone fruits

The extracts of two different varieties of sweet cherries were superior to various berry extracts (blueberries, raspberries, blackberries and strawberries) in inhibiting lipid oxidation in an in vitro phosphatidyl lecitine model system in contrast, the relative antioxidant activities of the same cherry extracts on human LDL oxidation in vitro were lower than that of blackberries and raspberries, but higher than that of blueberries and strawberries when evaluated at the same micromolar concentration of 10 M total phenols.29 The antioxidant activities of phenolic extracts of berries against lecithin liposomes were significantly positively correlated to the content of hydroxycinnamates, but the amount of flavanols correlated to the antioxidant potency of extracts of berries in neither the in vitro LDL oxidation systems nor in the lecithin liposome assay.29 Extracts of sweet cherries were found to be the best among a large number of other fruits in inhibiting oxidation in vitro of a pool...


Pygmy possums are only found in two small areas between 4,265 and 7,300 ft (1,300 and 2,230 m) on the peak of Mt. Kosciusko, the highest mountain in Australia. Its habitat mostly is subalpine, shrubland, and meadows. Burramys has to cope with at least three months of snow cover, during which time it tends to live under the snow, climbing within and between rock crevices, or climbing into bushes to collect seeds and berries. Burramys also stores fat under its skin, and develops a thick fur in autumn. The heaviest animal ever found in autumn weighed 3 oz (82 g). Adults tend to enter hibernation earlier than juveniles, and can remain torpid for periods of up to 20 days. Another means of energy conservation is communal nesting. These nests are normally of either all males or all females, and can be found throughout the year, except when females breed. The social organization of Bur-ramys is more complex than expected in such a small mammal. Up to 10 females (probably related kin such as...

Least chipmunk

Forages primarily for seeds, nuts, berries, and acorns. Fruit and berries are harvested only for their seeds, the rest is discarded. Also will prey upon insects, bird's eggs, and chicks. Instead of storing fat like other hibernating rodents such as marmots, least chipmunks store seeds in their winter chamber. They interrupt torpor throughout the winter to feed from these seed caches.

The Food Industry

Farming and food wholesaling are major businesses in the United States. In 2004, U.S. farmers harvested 279,253 bushels of barley (mostly for beer brewing), nearly 12 million bushels of corn, more than 115,000 bushels of oats, and more than 2 million bushels of wheat. In 2003, U.S. farmers produced more than 21.5 million hundred-weights of strawberries, nearly 18 million hundred-weights of dry beans, and nearly 20 million hundred-weights of broccoli (USDA, 2003). Food wholesaling accounted for 589 billion of sales in 1997. Dairy, poultry, meat, and fresh fruit and vegetable sales accounted for nearly three-fourths of this business packaged frozen foods accounted for the rest (USDA, 2005).

Forfcula auricularia

European earwigs and people This species is not considered to be much of a pest in Europe, but in the United States they will attack flower crops, butterfly bushes, hollyhocks, lettuce, strawberries, celery, potatoes, sweet corn, roses, seedling beans and beets, and grasses. They are considered helpful when they eat aphids and other plant pests.


Flavonols are the most ubiquitous flavonoids in plants, with the main representatives being quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, and isohamnetin, which are predominantly present as glycosides bound to a variety of sugar moieties. The richest sources are onions, curly kale, leeks, broccoli, and blueberries and are present at levels of approximately 30 mg kg fresh weight although in certain circumstances can reach in excess of 1.2 g kg fresh weight. Red wine and tea are also rich sources.


The red to purple colored anthocyanidins are responsible for a good portion of color in fruits and flowers. They are only present as glycosides or anthocyanins and their color is pH dependent. In the human diet, anthocyanidins are present in red wine, certain varieties of cereals, certain leafy and root vegetables (e.g., aubergines, cabbage, beans, onions, and radishes) and most abundantly in fruit. The content is generally proportional to the color intensity and may reach values of 2-4 g kg fresh weight in blackberries and black currants. They are found mainly in the skin, except where the flesh is also colored.


Proanthocyanidins are dimers, oligomers, and polymers of flavan-3-ols and are formed by enzymatic or chemical condensation. These so-called condensed tannins contribute to astringent tastes in fruits (e.g., grapes, peaches, apples, pears, berries etc.), beverages (e.g., wine, cider, tea, beer etc.) and chocolate. At a lower degree of polymerization they are colorless and bitter to taste, but with greater polymerization the taste becomes astringent and the color yellow to brown. Proanthocyanidins purely consisting of catechin and epicatechin monomers are called procyanidins, which are the most common type of proanthocyanidins. Less abundant are the prodelphinidins, which include both epicatechin and gallocatechin monomers.

Rosethroated becard

Sits nearly motionless on a branch, hidden among leaves, watching for insects from the middle levels of clearings or forest edges. Sallies forth to snag insects from foliage or in flight and returns to same perch. Diet consists of insects, their larvae, and sometimes wild fruits and berries.

Banded cotinga

Weight for this genus is around 2.5-2.8 oz (70-80 g). This species is starling-sized. Males are predominantly ultramarine-blue coloration, with black on the wings and tail, and separate patches of violet on the throat and breast. Their subcutaneous and perivisceral fat often takes on the blue color of the berries they prefer. Fruit and berries are consumed, often gorging at a masting tree or bush such as mistletoe. The fruits are often plucked on the wing. Although the seeds of larger species (e.g., mistletoe) might be regurgitated, smaller seeds are often swallowed. Insects are also taken.

Turquoise cotinga

Weight for this genus is around 2.5-2.8 oz (70-80 g). This species is starling-sized. Males are predominantly ultramarine-blue in color, with black on the wings and tail, and separate patches of violet on the throat and breast. Their subcutaneous and perivisceral fat often takes on the blue color of the berries they prefer. Fruit and berries are consumed, often gorging at a masting tree or bush such as mistletoe. The fruits are often plucked on

Benzoic Acid

Benzoic acid also has widespread use in the food industry. It occurs naturally in raspberries, cranberries, plums prunes, cinnamon, and cloves (Doors 1993). As an antifungal food additives, the water-soluble sodium and potassium salts and the fat-soluble acid form are suitable for food and beverages with a pH below 4.5. Benzoates have little effect at neutral pH values. They are not as effective as sorbates at pH 5.0 (Table 2), but their effectiveness increases at lower pH values.

Pitangus sulphuratus

Diet Great kiskadees eat insects, but also will eat small fish, tadpoles, lizards, and mice. They will dive into the water after food, which they bring to their perch and beat against a branch until it is dead before tearing it apart. If they cannot find their preferred food, great kiskadees will eat fruits and berries.

Cotinga cayana

Spangled cotingas prefer fruit and berries, and often search for food in the same trees as other members of the cotinga family. (Illustration by Emily Damstra. Reproduced by permission.) Spangled cotingas prefer fruit and berries, and often search for food in the same trees as other members of the cotinga family. (Illustration by Emily Damstra. Reproduced by permission.) Diet Like all cotingas, these birds prefer fruit and berries. They often search for food in the same trees as other members of the cotinga family.

Lanai hookbill

Individual shot by Munro in 1913 had been feeding on fruit of the opuhe (Urera sandwichensis), Munro speculated it also fed on the akoko (Euphorbia lorifolia). Dissection of the stomach found native berries, but hooked bill and relatively weak jaw musculature suggest it may have fed mostly on land snails.

Hypocolius ampelinus

Diet Gray hypocoliuses eat mostly fruit, but sometimes insects as well. They rarely go to the ground, instead looking through foliage, leaves, for food. They are known for their careful and deliberate feeding behavior, using their long tails as a lever to balance as they extend their bodies to reach fruit and berries. When eating fruit, the bird chews the pulp and spits out pits, larger seeds, and skin.

Nitric Oxide

In terms of the regulation of developmental processes, NO has been shown to inhibit ethylene biosynthesis in pea leaves, bananas and strawberries and so can influence tissue senescence and fruit ripening (Leshem and Pinchasov, 2000). In addition, it has been found that ABA induces rapid NO synthesis in epidermal tissues and NO enhances ABA-induced stomatal closure (Schroeder et al., 2001). The demonstration that NO can reduce ethylene biosynthesis and interact with other hormones provides for many potential modulating roles for NO during the development of higher plants (see Neill et al., 2003).

Auriparus flaviceps

Diet Verdins eat invertebrates (such as insects and their larvae and eggs, and spiders), seeds, and fruits such as wild berries. Much of their water is obtained through the eating of fruits and insects. They actively forage for food among twigs, leaves, and buds, sometimes hanging upside down while clinging to twigs and leaves.


Diet mainly fruit and berries, some insects often caught on the wing. Phainopepla is closely associated with mistletoe, a parasitic plant that grows on many desert trees especially mesquite (Prosopis spp.). Phainopeplas have a specialized digestive system for consuming mistletoe berries. In the gizzard they remove the seed and pulp from the seed coat of the berries they then digest the pulp and defecate the seeds and seed coat separately, usually on the branch of the tree where the bird was perched. The seeds sprout in the tree, continuing their parasitic lifestyle, having been dispersed by the bird.

Melospiza melodia

Diet Song sparrows feed mostly on insects (and their larvae LARvee ) and other invertebrates in the summer, but switch to mostly seeds in the winter. They also eat grains, berries, and some fruits, mostly from the ground or by picking food off of trees, bushes, and other vegetation. Coastal species catch small mollusks and crustaceans (hard-shelled creatures).

Brown thrasher

Food is very varied many invertebrates including caterpillars, spiders, grasshoppers, and crayfish, also small frogs, snakes, and lizards vegetable matter, especially berries, but also acorns, corn etc. Feeds mostly on the ground, probing into soft soil, sweeping aside leaf litter with sideways movements of the bill.

Lonchura punctulata

Diet The birds eat grass seeds, especially rice, from off of the ground and on live plants. They also eat small berries. Sometimes, they eat dead animals along roadsides. When human trash dumps are available, they are seen removing scraps of food, such as bread, from the area.

Chlamydera maculata

Behavior and reproduction Spotted bowerbirds build avenue bowers beneath low bushes or shrubs. The nests are made from grasses and are often 3,300 to 6,600 feet (1,000 to 2,000 meters) apart from each other. The walls are about 7.8 to 19.7 inches (20 to 50 centimeters) high. Up to 1,000 or more decorations such as berries, seedpods, pebbles and stones, bones, snail shells, and glass are attached to the bowers. Adult males occasionally make loud, harsh churrings and other notes (including vocal mimicry) in order to make themselves known.

Postharvest storage

The dipping of whole fruits in aqueous preservative solutions, which is improved by vacuum application, has been used to prolong the post-harvest conservation of many products apples (Scott and Wills, 1977, 1979 Lidster et al., 1986) lemons (Valero et al., 1998a, 1998b), avocados (Wills and Sirivatanapa, 1988), mangoes (Tirmazi and Wills, 1981), tomatoes (Wills and Tirmazi, 1979), strawberries (Ponappa et al., 1993). The compounds used in the impregnation solution are usually calcium salts (mostly calcium chloride) and many plant hormones (polyamines). Vacuum infusion seems to be used as an alternative to the pressure infiltration process (Poovaiah, 1986 Wang et al., 1993). The benefit of calcium application is generally related to the ability of the cation to interact with cell membranes and walls, as well as to its regulatory role at the metabolic level. According to Poovaiah (1986), the beneficial effects of calcium enrichment of whole fruit after harvest have multiple causes....


The anthocyanins present in bilberry are thought to cross the blood-brain barrier (21). To date, no human studies have been published regarding the pharmacokinetics of the anthocyanins present in bilberry. However, studies have been conducted using other sources of anthocyanins, such as blueberries, elderberries, and blackcurrant juice. Mazza and colleagues (22) studied the absorption of anthocyanins from a freeze-dried blueberry preparation in five human subjects. Following administration of 100 g of blueberry supplement containing 1.2 g of anthocyanins, serum concentrations of 11 anthocyanins were measured at 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours postdose. Serum concentrations of each of the anthocyanins ranged from 0.23 to 3.68 ng mL, suggesting very low absorption of anthocyanidins from this preparation. However, urinary excretion was not measured, precluding an accurate assessment of absorption. The concentration of total anthocyanins ranged from 6.6 ng mL at 1 hour to 9.6, 12.1, and 13.1 ng mL...

Scarlet macaw

Feeds arboreally, taking mainly seeds, nuts, fruits, berries, and flowers, with large, rather soft fruits favored. In Brazil, important foods are Lecythis fruits, and fruits of juvia Bertholletia excelsa and Syagrus palms. With other parrots congregates at clay-licks on exposed banks purpose unknown, but suggestion that consuming mineralized clays may alleviate effects of toxic alkaloids in unripe fruit.

Polydesmus angustus

Flat-backed millipedes eat roots, dead leaves, and other bits of decayed plant materials, as well as strawberries and other fruits. (Illustration by Amanda Humphrey. Reproduced by permission.) Diet They eat roots, dead leaves, and other bits of decayed plant materials, as well as strawberries and other fruits.

Plumthroated cotinga

This species is starling-sized, and the males are predominantly blue in color, with a violet colored throat. Their subcutaneous and perivisceral fat often takes on the blue color of the berries they prefer. Fruit and berries are consumed, often gorging at a masting tree or bush such as mistletoe. The fruits are often plucked on the wing. Although the seeds of larger species (e.g., mistletoe) might be regurgitated, smaller seeds are often swallowed. Insects are also taken.

Picoides borealis

Diet Red-cockaded woodpeckers eat ants, beetles, caterpillars, roaches, wood-boring insects, and spiders found on tree surfaces, especially pine trees, and by scaling back loose bark. They eat earworms off of corn in the summer, along with berries and nuts. Males forage on limbs and trunk of pines above the lowest branches. Females forage on trunk below the lowest branch.