Biofeedback Mastery

Biofeedback Mastery

Have you ever wondered what Biofeedback is all about? Uncover these unique information on Biofeedback! Are you in constant pain? Do you wish you could ever just find some relief? If so, you are not alone. Relieving chronic pain can be difficult and frustrating.

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The field of behavioral medicine was initiated in part because of the scientific and public interest in the reported success of biofeedback as a treatment modality. Biofeedback of EEG contributed to this initial enthusiasm and continued to be an important modality for biofeedback treatment. Our search terms yielded a relatively small number of applications of EEG biofeedback to physical disease. EEG biofeedback often is offered as a relaxation technique. Indeed our review suggests that EEG biofeedback assists patients with coping with their disease, although specific changes in the EEG do not seem to mediate this. Biofeedback has application to cardiovascular disease, but feedback of cardiovascular rather than EEG measures is more common. EEG biofeedback studies typically focus on patient stress rather than on cardiovascular outcomes. A case study by Norris and colleagues (2001) seems to typify the area and it also cites a number of excellent early reviews of EEG biofeedback. In their...

Alternativecomplimentary Treatment

Alternative medicine has been defined as the use of various treatment modalities that are not usually used in traditional medicine, taught in medical schools, or covered by insurance companies. Terminology, however, is changing and these treatments are being incorporated more and more into traditional therapies and hence the term complimentary medicine is now used more frequently (Complimentary-Alternative Medicine CAM ). In 1991, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) established the office for Alternative Medicine to address the growing use of these treatments. It has been estimated that two-thirds of the American population has used some form of CAM (59). Of importance, 70 ofthose patients using CAM did not disclose this use to their physician (60). In 1998 the Alternative Medicine office changed its name to the National Center for Complimentary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM). Alternative therapies include things such as imagery, biofeedback, acupuncture, reiki, dietary...

Functional Anorectal Disorders Constipation

These behavioural treatments must be provided by experts and comprise a multimodal approach, consisting of habit training, biofeedback (teaching the patient to normalise pelvic floor function while watching real time feedback of sphincter function) help in decreasing the use of laxatives and psychological support. Such treatment will be effective in about two-thirds of patients.

Neuroimaging and Treatment

Neuroimaging techniques may also develop into treatment tools. Medical investigations, including brain scans, may have intrinsic therapeutic value imparted by a reduction in diagnostic uncertainty or in educating the patient with respect to the absence or likely consequences of neuropathology (something that can be repeated over time). Beyond this though there has been a concerted effort to apply brain imaging technology to behavioral interventions. In the last few years real-time (rt) imaging with functional (f)MRI is being developed as a means to train the modulation of brain activity for therapeutic benefit (deCharms, 2008 Weiskopf et al, 2003). A second wave of research papers on this topic, and brain computer interfaces more generally, is anticipated to emerge very soon, but technical obstacles are now largely overcome and proof-of-principle studies using rtfMRI for pain (deCharms et al, 2005) and emotion regulation (Caria et al, 2007) have been well received by the neuroscience...

Bloodinjury And Injection Phobia

Hypnotherapy (relaxation reinforced with suggestions) or behaviour therapy (relaxation, exposure to anxiety provoking hierarchy, biofeedback) systematic desensitisation (SD) (to graded video scenes, relaxation, EMG biofeedback) alone or SD and 'cognitive coping' SDCC, challenging negative self-statements)

Four Categories Of Psychophysiological Relationships

Noted in discussions of the scientific method and is perhaps equally often violated in scientific practice (Platt, 1964). Skin conductance, forinstance, has been a major dependent measure in psychological research because emotional arousal is thought to lead to increased skin conductance. Similarly, EMG activity over the forehead region has been a frequent target measure in relaxation biofeedback because tension has been found to increase EMG activity over this region. As noted in the previous section, however, simply knowing that that manipulating a particular element in the psychological domain leads to a particular response in the physiological domain does not logically enable one to infer anything about the former based on observations of the latter, because one does not know what other antecedents might have led to the observed physiological response. Procedures such as holding constant any variations in the elements in the psychological domain that are not of interest, measuring...

Theoretical Formulations

The evidence is largely limited to CBT as this form of psychotherapy has been the main focus of evaluation in randomised controlled trials. A few non-CBT psychotherapies have been evaluated but only in the context of control conditions for testing the efficacy of CBT against non-specific treatment effects Most of the early trials compared 'cognitive-behavioural' therapies (cognitive restructuring, relaxation training, biofeedback, systematic desensitisation, anxiety management training) with no treatment, waiting list or psychological placebo. More recent trials have employed more complex and sophisticated combinations of behavioural and cognitive therapies with a more specific focus on worry. Direct comparisons of psychological therapy with pharmacotherapy are very few in number, most notably a comparison of diazepam, CBT and placebo, each alone and in combination (Power et al., 1990), and a comparison of drug and psychological therapy for GAD, panic disorder...


Insomnia-related symptoms Fragmented sleep with difficulty in sleep onset and sleep maintenance Nonpharmacologic measures Avoidance of nighttime alcohol, caffeine, tobacco Increase in daytime physical activity and ensuring exposure to daylight Psychological therapies relaxation training, cognitive therapies, biofeedback training Pharmacologic strategies Short-acting benzodiazepines clonazepam, temazepam, diazepam Nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics zopiclone


Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) is frequently, but not universally, associated with internal intussusception or full-thickness rectal prolapse. SRUS without full-thickness prolapse usually responds to dietary and biofeedback treatment however, an abdominal procedure is usually indicated if there is associated full-thickness prolapse.

Anal incontinence

Loperamide reduces the force of bowel contractions and enhances absorption of water from the stool. It may also increase the resting pressure in the anal canal. It can be effective in patients with faecal urgency or leakage and the dose should be titrated to achieve control of symptoms. Dietary modification may also be helpful. Additional behavioural interventions, with bowel focused counselling (biofeedback), including advice on resisting urgency and titrating loperamide can lead to marked improvement in the symptom sometimes even when there is structural damage to the sphincter.


The impact of antihypertensive medication on coronary heart disease has been less than expected, however, most likely because of the influence of adverse side effects and poor compliance. There has led to renewed interest in the non-pharmacological management of hypertension, with the aim of reducing stress by focusing on cognitive and behavioural stress coping strategies and reducing sympathetic arousal. Psychological interventions to date have tended to focus on either one or a combination of biofeedback, relaxation and stress-management techniques. An early meta-analysis purporting to assess the efficacy of cognitive behavioural techniques for hypertension included biofeedback, meditation and relaxation as forms of CB therapies, concluding that there was a lack of support for such interventions (Eisenberg et al., 1993). However, Linden and colleagues have suggested that there is such a varied interpretation of the term 'stress management', ranging from transcendental meditation to...


They found only 12 studies of sufficient quality to include in the review. The interventions used included relaxation, autogenic therapy, biofeedback, hypnosis, CBT and psycho-educational programmes. Many studies combined more than one of these techniques making it even more difficult to come to any conclusions about what might be helpful.