Physical Modalities

Kinesio Taping Increase Lymph Flow

The physical modalities involved in the management of pain include several management approaches performed by physicians, physical therapists, occupational therapists, and other health professionals. The efficacy of these individualized therapies is enhanced by an interdisciplinary team approach and direct patient education. The debate over heat and cold is as old as the modalities. The advantage of cryotherapy appears to be in its rapid analgesic effect, reduction of acute inflammation, and...

Nutraceuticals

Nutraceuticals, which are used as nutritional and health supplements, are naturally occurring products from plants or animals. These supple ments do not require the same study as drugs under federal Food and Drug Administration regulations. However, claims for the treatment of any disease states with these products cannot be made. The manufacturers are allowed to describe physiological actions of the products and market them on that basis. In a US survey, one in four adults took at least one...

References

Barry KL, Fleming MF, Greenley J, Widlak P, Kropp S, McKee D. Assessment of alcohol and other drug disorders in the seriously mentally ill. Schizophr Bull 1995 21 313-321. 2. Hancock D, Kennington JM, Beckner RR, Quick G. Emergency department medication and drug interaction evaluation. Hosp Pharm 1992 27 129-132. 3. Klungel OH, de Boer A, Paes AH, Herings RM, Seidell JC, Bakker A. Influence of question structure on the recall of self-reported drug use. J Clin Epidemiol 2000 53 273-277. 4. Lu...

Intradiscal Electrothermal Annuloplasty And Nucleoplasty

The interior nucleus pulposus of a disc can bulge out of its tough outer annulus fibrosis, creating what is commonly known as a herniation and Fig. 10. Anterior posterior view of intradiscal electrothermal annuloplasty treated disk. Fig. 10. Anterior posterior view of intradiscal electrothermal annuloplasty treated disk. more properly called a disc protrusion. When this protrusion compresses a nerve root, it can cause serious problems. Two new minimally invasive techniques, intradiscal...

Nerve Destruction

Neurodestruction has a prolonged effect and is generally reserved to treat cancer pain. Several techniques are used to destroy nerves. Cryoablation can be accomplished by touching a nerve with a -60 C cryoprobe. This degenerates the nerve axons without damaging surrounding tissue. Nerves can also be destroyed by applying heat, phenol, or alcohol, or they can be cut with a surgical implement. With few excep- Fig. 4. (A) Anterior posterior view of lumbar sympathetic block. (B) Lumbar sympathetic...