The development of cognitive therapy over several decades has drawn on other therapeutic modalities, the extensive accumulated clinical expertise of cognitive therapists, increasingly sophisticated and fine-tuned theory and a large body of research. This has led to the development of a wide range of cognitive and behavioural therapeutic strategies on which a cognitive therapist can potentially draw. The main cognitive approaches involve teaching clients to be able to identify, evaluate and challenge cognitive distortions (such as all-or-nothing thinking) and maladaptive beliefs ('I have to be upbeat and bubbly at all times to be liked'). The main behavioural approaches involve increasing positively reinforcing behaviours (for example, behaviours that are pleasurable and generate a sense of mastery in people diagnosed with depression) and extinguishing or replacing negative behaviours (such as 'safety behaviours' that maintain a fear in people diagnosed with an anxiety disorder).
The interventions selected will depend on the client, the nature of the difficulties, the goals, the therapeutic relationship, previous experience of therapy and the therapist's expertise. The cognitive case formulation provides a rationale for selecting interventions from this increasingly large and complex array (Needleman, 1999) and the focus of the work is provided by the nature of the difficulties. For example, for people diagnosed with depression, initial work often focusses on behavioural activation (Beck et al., 1979).
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EFT stands for Emotional Freedom Technique. It works to free the user of both physical and emotional pain and relieve chronic conditions by healing the physical responses our bodies make after we've been hurt or experienced pain. While some people do not carry the effects of these experiences, others have bodies that hold onto these memories, which affect the way the body works. Because it is a free and fast technique, even if you are not one hundred percent committed to whether it works or not, it is still worth giving it a shot and seeing if there is any improvement.