Holistic Treatment to get rid of Candida Overgrowth

Yeast Infection No More

The creator of this unique online course Yeast Infection No More is a woman called Linda Allen. Linda in this guide has greatly emphasized on the importance of a good diet which is extremely necessary in order to eradicate yeast infection from the body. This book contains a simple and fast treatment for mild to moderate type of yeast infections. All the treatments mentioned about are given by Linda herself. The treatment is based on natural remedies that are easily available and are scientifically proven to work on all types of yeast infections. I personally believe that Yeast Infection No More by Linda Allen is the best system to eliminate yeast infection available today for people who are looking for real solution and not just a quick fix. Read more here...

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Clinical Features of Oral Candidiasis

All Candida species form the same type of oral lesions clinically (Redding, 2001). However, recent evidence suggests that mixed infections with more than one species may be associated with more severe symptoms and are more difficult to treat (Redding et al., 2002). There are three main clinical variants of oral candidiasis the pseudomembranous (also known as thrush), the hyperplastic, and the erythematous (Axell et al., 1997). The hyperplastic form is accompanied by extensive epithelial hyper-plasia and hyperkeratosis, also termed can-didal leukoplakia. The erythematous form has been the predominant clinical form in HIV+ patients with CD4+ lymphocytes > 400, whereas as the lymphocyte counts drop, the lesions appear to become more of the pseudomembranous type (Weinert et al., 1996). Frequently all three forms coexist and the term multifocal candidiasis is used to describe the lesions. Candida is also frequently responsible for inflammatory lesions found between the lips (angular...

Host Factors Predisposing to Oral Candidiasis

Oral candidiasis is a superficial mycosis and can present in a variety of clinical forms. The presence of Candida alone is not an indication of disease since yeasts can be found as a commensal in approximately 40 of the population. Candidiasis is essentially a disease of the diseased and reflects as much changes in host defences as increased pathogenicity of the organism. Oral can-didiasis has been associated with a variety of predisposing factors and these are summarised in Table 3.1.

Thrushes Chats And People

And offered on restaurant menus and sold in supermarkets, either bottled or as thrush pate. The practice has been going on for centuries. While no exact determination has been made regarding the threat this might be to the species, none are in short supply. Elsewhere in Western Europe, people prize such features as the song of the nightingale and have honored the birds through song and poetry. Many of these birds are among the best-loved garden birds throughout the world.

Spotted Quailthrush Cinclosoma punctatum

Physical characteristics Spotted quail-thrushes range in length from 10.2 to 11 inches (26 to 28 centimeters), and weigh between 2.4 and 3.1 ounces (67 and 87 grams). Their plumage is a mottled blend of white, buff, rust or reddish brown, brown, and black. They have light brown heads with a white brow stripe. Their throats are black with a white patch, and their breasts are a pinkish tone. Geographic range The spotted quail-thrush can be found in southeast Australia, Tasmania, and in the Mount Lofty Ranges, in south-central Australia. Spotted quail-thrushes prefer living on the ground, and are sedentary, secretive, and shy. (Illustration by John Megahan. Reproduced by permission.) Habitat Spotted quail-thrushes live in eucalyptus forest with a littered, open floor, and prefer areas on rocky hillsides. Diet Spotted quail-thrushes tend to be insectivores, eating insects and other invertebrates, but they also eat small vertebrates and seeds at times. They pick their prey from the ground...

General Considerations for Oral Mucosal Immunity to Candida

Theoretically, SIgA, serum IgG transu-dating through the mucosa, and cellular immunity might all play a role in protection of mucosal surfaces against Candida infections. Animal models have largely concentrated on systemic candidiasis possibly because of the difficulties in obtaining reproducible and relevant models of mucosal candidiasis. Evidence suggests a role for CMI, even at mucosal surfaces. Infection with C. albicans is an almost universal finding in patients with severe immunodeficiency of the T cell type. It is, however, rarely seen in patients with B cell defects in the absence of concomitant T cell defects. Oral Candida infections are found in about 40 of HIV-infected individuals and in over 75 of patients who suffer from the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (Palmer et al., 1996). Both erythematous and pseudomembranous candidiasis is found, particularly in association with low CD4 counts. However, in IgA-deficient individuals, a markedly increased prevalence of...

Humoral Immunity against Oral Candidiasis

Studies of antibodies in humans in oral candidiasis have used both serum and saliva, with the main objectives of identifying responses in relation to clinical disease or sometimes using antibodies to identify individual genes expressed (Cheng et al., 2003). A non-specific role of IgA has been suggested by the finding that in patients who are Candida positive, the carriage rate of Candida is inversely proportional to the non-specific secretory IgA level whereas serum levels are unrelated (Kurnatowski and Kurnatowska, 1999). In addition to secreted aspartyl pro-teinases (Saps), other specific antigens of Candida have been examined including heat shock mannoproteins. Antibodies in saliva and in serum have been reported against these mannoproteins in patients with oral or vaginal candidiasis (Ivanyi and Ivanyi, 1990 Swoboda et al., 1993 Polonelli et al., 1994). Kozel et al. (2004) used serum to identify antibodies reactive with C. albicans mannan and showed a normal distribution in 34...

Functional Aspects of Serum and Salivary Antibodies to Candida

There have been many attempts to identify functional activity of serum or salivary antibodies in vitro and in addition some conclusions can be drawn from in vivo models. (Table 3.4) Thus Holmes et al. (2002) showed that while whole saliva promoted the binding of C. albicans to epithelial cell lines, human Candida-specific IgA antibodies could inhibit the adhesion. These antibodies could be absorbed by both Candida or by an anti-IgA. These findings seem to suggest that IgA in the human oral cavity could be functional. This concept is reinforced by the observation that saliva also promotes the adhesion of C. albicans to polystyrene and that salivary IgA antibodies inhibited this adhesion (San-Millan et al., 2000) and the mechanism appeared to be blockage of the adhesins in the cell wall. Interestingly, these authors reported that while saliva increased the adhesion of whole cells of C. albicans to polystyrene, they inhibited the germinated cells, suggesting that function of antibodies...

Salivary IgA Subclass Antibodies to Candida

IgA subclass antibodies have been reported in a few studies in patients with CAC. IgA antibodies and IgA1 antibodies were increased in comparison with the controls (Ivanyi and Ivanyi, 1990). However, it is possible that some of this IgA1 antibody might have been derived from inflammation in the oral cavity itself. However, Coogan et al. (1994) showed that in HIV infection IgA1 and IgA2 subclass antibodies against Candida were raised in both whole and parotid saliva compared with controls. This suggested that patients with HIV were not significantly immunocompromised when compared with controls and that Candida infection could induce subclass responses in these patients. More recently, Wellington et al. (2003) have demonstrated enhanced phagocytosis of Candida by polymorphonu-clear leucocytes (PMNs) mediated by a recombinant human antibody single chain. This demonstrates another mechanism that may be operative in vivo, especially considering that PMNs are a major cell type around...

Yellowthroated laughing thrush

English Yellow-bellied laughing thrush French Garrulaxe a gorge jaune German Gelbbauchhaherling. 9.1 in (23 cm) 1.75 oz (50 g). Elegant thrush-shaped bird with brown mantle, black mask, and yellow throat and underparts. Sexes monomorphic. Nominate subspecies, from the western part of the range, has an olive green nape and crown, while the two isolated eastern subspecies have brilliant dark blue napes and crowns instead. Jiangxi population has a clear, brilliant yellow chest, while birds from Yunan have yellowish gray chests.

Classification of Oral Candida Infections

Candida species can be found as commensals in the mouths approximately 40 of normal subjects in amounts up to approximately 800 colony forming units (CFU) ml. There is usually some underlying precipitating factor for oral candidiasis, often an immunodeficiency and in patients with various forms of candidiasis (Table 3.2), salivary counts of greater than 20,000 CFU ml may be found. Oral candidiasis is a common condition, especially in patients with xerostomia, those taking immunosup-pressive drugs, those with other oral diseases, and in patients with HIV infection where approximately 40 may have oral candidiasis. All forms of candidiasis are Table 3.1. Host Factors Predisposing to Oral Candidiasis strongly associated with smoking. Oral can-didiasis is most commonly caused by the yeast Candida albicans, and to a far lesser extent by C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. pseudotropicalis, and C. guilliermondi (Odds and Webster, 1988). More recently oral candidiasis...

Candidiasis

Candidiasis is an infection with yeast-forming fungi. Of the 150 Candida species known to date, only approximately 20 cause disease. By far the most frequent species is C. albicans. Other species such as C. tropicalis, C. glabrata and C. krusei are rare, but may respond less readily to treatment with azoles. Although it is commonly assumed that azole resistance is a problem particularly with albicans strains, this has not been the case to date (Sanglard 2002). Candidiasis is an important indicator of immunodeficiency and should be seen as a reason to consider starting HAART, even with a good immune status. Esophageal candidiasis and even oral thrush often occur following other OIs. Fever, which is not a classic symptom of candidiasis, is a particular indication to be on the alert. If immune status is good, it must be remembered that there are also other reasons for thrush - alcoholism and steroid treatment are just two. In addition to candidiasis of the oropharynx and esophagus,...

Gene Structure Of Uropathogens

However, capsules are also important virulence factors of gram-negative uropathogens. The flagella seem to play a role in the virulence of Proteus strains9. Proteases are necessary for full virulence of Candida albicans. The analysis of the newly established Proteuspenneri strains exhibit an array of new important virulence factors, such as IgA proteases and ureases2. With the help of the newly established techniques in molecular biology and on the basis of the emerging genome sequences, new virulence factors will be identified and analyzed within the next few years.

Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor

Ment, and an increase in the proportion of Gr-1+ cells that have initiated apoptosis as detected by mercocyanine 540 staining (42). G-CSF deficiency results in increased susceptibility to pathogens including Listeria monocytogenes and Candida albicans (43). Surprisingly, despite the unexpected impairment of monocyte macrophage responses in G-CSF- - mice during Listeria infections (40,44,45), Mycobacterium avium infections were not exacerbated in G-CSF- - mice, and high levels of interferon (IFN)-y production accompanied infection with this pathogen (46). Candida infection of G-CSF- - mice was accompanied by a vigorous neutrophilia, exceeding the magnitude of that in wild-type mice, and early control of the pathogen load. However, after 1 wk of infection, deep tissue infection with high Candida pathogen loads persisted in G-CSF- - mice at a time the infection was resolving in wild-type mice (43).

Neurocognitive Changes in AIDS Evolution of Treatment of HIV Infection

The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was first identified as a distinct clinical entity in June 1981 when the CDC reported the occurrence of five cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), accompanied by severe wasting, in young men who had sex with men (MSMs) in Los Angeles (1). This was quickly followed by reports of several cases of Kaposi's sarcoma, also associated with severe wasting, in 25 young MSMs in New York City and California (2). Of these cases, six developed pneumonia (confirmed in four cases as PCP), one had central nervous system (CNS) toxoplasmosis, and another had cryptococcal meningitis and extensive mucosal candidiasis. Since past experience with both Pneumocystis pneumonia and Kaposi's sarcoma in young individuals was almost entirely limited to persons with severe immunodeficiency, these observations suggested that immunodeficiency, of uncertain origin, provided the background for development of these usually fatal illnesses in previously healthy young men....

Trihydroxytoluene oxygenase

This reaction has been observed with protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase from Hydrogenophaga palleronii J218 , and catechol 1,2-dioxygenases from Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes eutrophus, Trichosporon cutaneum, Rhizobium trifolii, Aspergillus niger, Candida tropicalis, Rhodococcus rhodochrous and R. erythropolis A3769, B754, C84, C342, D247, D672, E204, G647, J703 . Candida tropicalis catalyzes this reaction A943 , and many reports suggest that this reaction may be common in microorganisms.

Alcohol Oxidases and Dehydrogenases

In general, aldehydes are more potent flavor compounds than their alcoholic counterparts. Hence, alcohol oxidases are interesting enzymes for the in vitro production of flavoring preparations which, among others, can be applied in beverages. Typical examples include the use of methanol oxidase from Pichia, Hansenula, and Candida (17) for the production of natural acetaldehyde from ethanol. This enzyme is induced during growth on methanol. At the end of the logarithmic growth phase cells are harvested and incubated with ethanol. In this way concentrations of

Asymptomatic patients 200350 CD4 cellspl

On the other hand, a long-term risk of AIDS, especially with a high viral load, cannot be completely excluded. One should not feel too secure. We have seen a few patients, who have developed Kaposi's sarcoma, PML or a lymphoma with 200-350 CD4 cells tl. In EuroSIDA, the risk of developing PCP or esophageal thrush at more than 200 CD4 cells was 1.6 (Podlekareva 2006). In times of well-tolerated HAART combinations, an annual AIDS risk of 1 or 2 becomes relevant. What is really gained in quality of life if one waits and exposes patients to such a risk What is actually saved in long-term toxicity in these 1, 2 or 3 therapy-free years, which can perhaps be taken out It is clear that the less worries one has about long-term side effects, the earlier HAART will be used in the future. Are symptoma present which the patteno hev not yet noticed, oe which he ske finds not w orth mentioning - regular full examination OHL, oral candidiasis, seborrhoeic dermatitis, mycoses, etc

Colonization And Succession Of Human Intestinal Microbiota With

Group one is lactic acid-producing bacteria including Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Streptococcus (including Enterococcus), which may possess a symbiotic relationship with the host. Group two includes putrefactive bacteria such as Clostridium prefringens, Clostridium spp. Bacteroides, Peptococcaceae, Veillonella, E. coli, Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Others are like Eubacterium, Ruminococcus, Megasphaera, Mitsuokello, C. butyricum and Candida, group three. Normally, near-stability exists in these habitats and each person has an individually fixed microbiota as far as qualitative composition is concerned.

Conservation status

In 2000, the IUCN listed the rail-babbler and western whipbird as Near Threatened through loss of habitat. The population of the western whipbird in the southwest Australia is endangered. Inappropriate fire regimes are blamed for the small distribution and small numbers. From a low of 17 pairs or less in the 1960s, this species has been slowly recovered through dedicated conservation efforts. Restriction of burning, captive breeding, and transfer of individuals have brought the population to over 500 individuals. The subspecies of the spotted quail-thrush from the Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia, may have been extirpated through loss of habitat.

Current or prospective research into mothertochild transmission

Disruption of the epithelial integrity of the mucous membranes of the infant's mouth or intestine (caused by nutritional or infectious factors such as mixed feeding and oral thrush), nipple fissures or clinical or sub-clinical mastitis may increase the risk of transmission through breastfeeding. Current research is investigating this possible association, its strength, and its possible impact on public health.

Effect of the Thermodynamic Water Activity

It has been shown that the form of this relationship is rather lipase specific. For example, Rhizomucor mie-hei lipase has an optimum water activity 0.5 and still retains 40 of its maximum activity at water activities close to zero (27, 28). On the other hand, the lipases from Candida rugosa, Humicola,* and Pseudomonas cepacia not really showed a maximum, their activity

Modification Of Triglycerides A Modifying the Fatty Acid Composition

Chemical interesterification is one of the major modification techniques and basically involves a random rearrangement of the sn-1, sn-2, and sn-3 fatty acids over the triglycerides present in the mixture (Fig. 1). A similar result can be obtained when using a random lipase such as that from Candida rugosa* (38, 67), Pseudomonas fluorescens (68), or Pseudomonas cepacia (69). Using a 1,3-specific lipase, only the fatty acids on the outer positions of the triglyceride molecules will be randomized. In this case the sn-2 position remains intact, which implies that a different triglyceride mixture will result, as compared to the random process. * Candida rugosa, formerly referred to as Candida cylindracea.

Other routine checks what else should be monitored

Additional tests may also be necessary. A complete physical examination should be performed regularly, and this often leads to the discovery of important findings such as Kaposi lesions, condyloma or mycoses (thrush ). The lower the CD4 cell count, the more frequently patients should be examined.

Intravascular catheterrelated infection

Coagulase-negative staphylococci, S. aureus, and Candida are the most commonly encountered pathogens. Decisions regarding type and duration of antibiotic therapy depend on the patient's clinical condition, the organism grown, and the type of catheter. Whether or not a permanent line need be removed in the presence of a suspected infection can be a difficult decision. In the case of a suspected catheter-related infection, it is best to seek the diagnosis and request microbiology consultation for guidance of empirical therapy.

Physical characteristics

Birds in this family range in length from the 5 in (12.5 cm) goldenface to the 11 in (28.0 cm) rusty pitohui (Pitohui fer-rugineus). They are characterized by a robust body and large, rounded head, the latter the reason for the earlier name thickhead bestowed to whistlers and as a group name for the family. Legs and feet are strong, wings broad and rounded, and tail unadorned. The bills are robust, although often of moderate length and, in some of the larger species, rather imposing, especially when attached to the finger of an unwary handler. There is a shrike-like hook at the tip, part of the origin of the name shrike-thrush for the thrush-sized species in the genus Cotturicmda. Together with a well-developed notch, this makes the bill efficient at grasping prey. The most specialized bills are those of the shrike-tits and ploughbill. These are strongly laterally compressed, making them much deeper than wide. The shrike-tits, in particular, are endowed with powerful jaw muscles....

Feeding ecology and diet

Whistlers and their relatives are, for the most part, rather sedate feeders. They search foliage and limbs in a methodical fashion, gleaning prey from leaves or bark, and some pick items from the ground by pouncing. Because these species do not pursue flying insects, most lack rictal bristles of more aerial insectivorous birds. Most species feed in the top to middle of the canopy, but some like the rufous-naped whistler and olive whistler (Pachycephala olivacea) forage in low dense understory. The larger shrike-thrushes and, more frequently, the crested bellbird feed on the ground, hopping in a thrush-like manner. The ploughbill and shrike-tits use their strong bills to strip bark from branches, feeding on insects they expose. The main prey are insects and other small invertebrates. The mangrove-inhabiting white-breasted whistler frequently eats small crabs and small mollusks. The larger species of shrike-thrushes opportunistically take eggs, baby birds, and small vertebrates. Many...

Biocatalysts Entrapped By Prepolymer Methods

Lipases entrapped with hydrophobic photocross-linkable resin prepolymers (ENTP-2000 and ENTP-4000) have been applied to the hydrolysis and ester exchange reaction of triacylglycerides. Production of cacao butter-like fat from olive oil and stearic acid or palmitic acid by enzymatic ester exchange reaction has been successfully achieved with ENTP-entrapped Rhizopus delemar lipase in an organic solvent system (21, 22). Entrapment markedly enhanced the operational stability of the enzyme. In the case of the hydrolysis of olive oil to glycerol and fatty acids, Candida cylindracea lipase entrapped with ENTP showed high activity (23). Entrapment also made it possible to use the enzyme repeatedly or continuously. PU-entrapped Candida cylindracea lipase was used for optical resolution of dl-menthol through enantioselective esterifica-tion in an organic solvent (24).

Pharmacological Toxicological Effects

John's wort has been used topically for wound healing for hundreds of years. Antibacterial properties have been reported as early as 1959, with hyperforin found to be the active component. Using multiple concentrations, it was discovered that no hyperforin dilutions had antimicrobial effects on Gram-negative bacteria or Candida albicans. There was, however, growth inhibition for all of the Gram-positive bacteria tested, some with the lowest dilution concentration of 0.1 g mL. Hyperforin was also shown to be effective at inhibiting methacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (25).

Integrating Bcpd With Other Alternatives

Infiltration of apples with calcium chloride alone reduced blue mold decay by approximately half (Conway and Sams 1983), but in combination with the antagonist, P. syringae, resulted in greater reduction of fruit decay than either treatment alone (Janisiewicz et al. 1998). The effects of calcium treatment were greatest on more mature fruit, inoculated after 3 or 6 months in storage, when the effectiveness of biocontrol declines (Conway et al. 1999). Combining biocontrol with a calcium treatment complements each other to overcome the shortcomings of each, and may allow for reduced amounts of both products to be used without compromising decay control. In addition, applying lower calcium concentrations would reduce potential calcium injury, while maintaining other benefits, including alleviating storage maladies, such as bitter pit. The addition of calcium chloride to the yeast antagonist Candida sp. also improved control of blue mold and gray mold on apples (McLaughlin et al. 1990...

Benzpyrene hydroxylases

Several publications have briefly reported on benzpyrene hydroxylase without specifying the site of hydroxylation. Many publications (see 3,4-Benzpyrene) report on 3-hydroxylation, but a significant number additionally report hydroxylation at positions 1 (rat, man and sole, e.g A458, C473, J94 ), 4 (rat C204 ), 7 (rat, man, mouse and scup, e.g. A458, B122, D965, G445 ), 8 (rainbow trout A1424 ) and 9 (rat, monkey, hamster, rabbit, mouse, man and Saccharomyces, e.g. A458, A2327, A2379, A2814, A3326, A3412, A3681 ). 3-Hydroxylation (E.C. 1.14.14.2) occurs in a large range of species, including man, rat A13 , monkey A1869 , tree shrew, pig A1997 , rabbit A2729 , camel H103 , quokka, kangaroo, bandicoot, A2420 , mouse A3681 , guinea pig B82 , pigeon, crow, kite, egret C307 , trout A2145 , goldfish, bullhead D465 , bluegill E480 , scup D965 , sole G374 , killifish B259 , mullet C141 , barnacle B744 , Saccharomyces A3326 and Candida B775 .

Oral Microbial Ecology

The oral mucosa is colonized by over 200 microbial species. Thus, the potential for bacterial and fungal infections is high, with a need for innate defense mechanisms. The oral cavity is comprised of at least four microbial ecological niches with a certain degree of variability in the composition of their indigenous flora the saliva, the tongue, and the tooth-associated supragingival and subgingival plaques (Slots, 1992). The most predominant indigenous bacterial flora in saliva, tongue and supragingival plaque are members of the Streptococcus species. These commensal bacteria may modulate yeast colonization by competing for nutrients and adhesion sites. Evidence for a protective role of the oral bacterial flora against fungal infection is derived from the fact that use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in humans and animals promotes oral Candida infection (Samaranayake et al., 1994 Deslauriers et al., 1995). In fact, many animal and in vitro studies have shown that oral Candida...

Identification and Characterization of FET3

Other yeasts, aside from S. pombe and S. cerevisiae, show an oxidase permease-based iron-transport system. A ferroxidase was shown to be essential for iron transport in Candida albicans as deletion of the C. albicans FET3 prevents high-affinity iron transport (26,27). In one study, it was reported that the C. albicansfet3-deletion strain grew poorly in infected mice, suggesting that the FET3 gene may be a virulence factor (27). It is curious that the C. albicans FET3 when expressed in a S. cerevisiaefet3-deletion strain complements the low-iron growth defect (26). This result suggests that C. abicans Fet3p can form a complex with S. cerevisiae Ftrlp, whereas the FET3 homolog of S. pombe, fio1+, cannot. Biochemical studies have shown that P. pastoris also expresses a ferroxidase similar Fet3p (19). It may well be that a ferroxidase permease iron-transport system is common among yeasts.

Signs and symptoms

The oropharynx is usually affected, with taste disturbances and sometimes, a burning sensation on the tongue. White, non-adherent plaques on the buccal mucosa, tonsillar ring and tongue confirm the diagnosis. Involvement of the tongue alone is rare. Occasionally, there may be atrophic candidiasis, which presents only with an erythematous mucosa. Candida esophagitis usually occurs with oropharyngeal involvement, but in about one third of cases there is no oral thrush. It often presents with dysphagia (drinking is ok, but food can't go down) and retrosternal pain. Some patients complain of nausea, although vomiting occurs only rarely.

Histopathologic Characteristics

Chronic hyperplastic or pseudomembra-nous candidiasis is a form of infection with distinct clinical and histopathological characteristics. The histologic features of this infection include a hyperplastic and parak-eratotic response of the surface epithelium, which is invaded by hyphal organisms. The inflammatory infiltrate consists primarily of PMN, which form microabscesses within the epithelium, whereas very few PMN are found within the lamina propria in association with blood vessels (Eversole et al., In HIV+ patients, neutrophils appear to be a rare finding in oral candidiasis lesions and are only encountered in a limited number of erythematous forms. The inflammatory cell infiltrate is primarily mononuclear in both pseudomembranous and erythema-tous cases of HIV-associated infection (Romagnoli et al., 1997). Few Candida hyphae are associated with the atrophic epithelium in erythematous candidiasis, whereas numerous organisms are found invading into the prickle cell layer of oral...

Expression Vector and Identification of an Expression Strain

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were used to identify two alcohol oxidase-encoding genes in P. methanolica AUG1 and AUG2 (alcohol utilization gene Raymond et al, 1998). The alcohol oxidases encoded by these genes share 83 identity with one another. Auglp shares 84 identity with Moxlp from Hansenula poly-morpha, 72 identity with Aodlp from Candida boidini, and 69 identity with Aoxlp from P. pastoris. Three lines of evidence indicate that Auglp is the dominant alcohol oxidase in P. methanolica and therefore the AUG 1 promoter is appropriate choice to drive recombinant protein expression. First, amino-terminal sequence analysis of the alcohol oxidase induced by methanol in a high-cell density fermentation demonstrated that only Auglp was present. Second, an auglA mutant grows poorly in minimal methanol broth whereas an aug2A mutant has a wild-type growth phenotype (an auglh aug2A double mutant cannot grow at all). Finally, the levels of recombinant protein expression driven by...

Fermented Milk Products

To the aroma with Lactobacilli found in 108g21 (Mahmoud 1977) (b) Russian Kefir is an acidic, mildly alcoholic milk made from cow, goat, or sheep milk that is able to keep longer. The predominant yeasts involved in fermentation include T. holmii and S. delbrueckii although Candida kefir and S. cerevisiae are the yeasts that are commonly isolated (Marshall 1984). During the preparation of kefir, Kefir grains are added to pasteurized milk and incubated at 18-25 C for 1-2 days. The mixture contains Kefir grains, which consist of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria held together with the help of a polysaccharide gum and these are removed by sieving (c) Russian Koumiss This is produced from ass milk, camel milk, or mare milk. Lactic acid bacteria and the lactose fermenting yeasts Torula kumiss and Saccharomyces lactis cause fermentation (Kosikowski 1982). Fresh milk is first heated at about 90 C for 5 min and cooled before inoculation of starter and incubation at 28 C. The incubate is agitated...

Fruitbased Alcoholic Beverages

Jambal fruits are diluted and the must ameliorated with cane sugar. Diammonium hydrogen phosphate, sulfur dioxide, and pectinol enzyme are introduced, then follows fermentation with the yeast S. cerevisiae (Joshi et al. 1999) (c) Coconut toddy This is produced by naturally fermenting the influorescence sap of coconut palm in open pots for 2 days. Candida spp., Kloeckera javanice, Saccharomyces chevielier, S. exiguus, S. marxianus, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and Pichia ohmeri are involved in the fermentation process (d) Palm wine S. cerevisiae is the yeast usually instrumental in fermentation. Other fungi including Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Candida, Mycoderma, Aspergillus, Mucor, Pichia sp., and Rhizopus sp. are detected together with lactic acid bacteria in Nigerian wine (Faparusi 1977). Atputharajah et al. (1986) identified Candida, Pichia and Saccharomyces species as the major yeasts responsible for the natural fermentation of coconut palm sap. The wine is a milky suspension of...

Tuber Cropbased Fermented Food

Washed, cut up, soaked in water to release HCN into water, disintegrated, and sieved. The filtered starchy particles are allowed to settle and collected, rolled into balls, cooked, and formed into a paste called fufu. S. cerevisiae and various bacteria are involved in the fermentation (Padmaja and George 1999) (b) West African Gari This is made from cassava roots and eaten as a staple food. Candida sp. and bacteria are involved in fermentation. Roots are fermented, broken up, sun-dried, milled into flour and made into a paste with boiling water before consumption (Padmaja and George 1999). (c) Nigerian Lafun This is a fine, powdery cassava product. Candida sp. and bacteria are involved in fermentation (Padmaja and George 1999) (d) Indonesian Tape This is a staple food made from cassava roots. To make Tape, cassava roots are peeled, cut up, boiled to soften, cooled, spread in trays, inoculated, covered with banana leaves, and fermented for a couple of days. The microorganisms involved...

Gingival Crevicular Fluid

Oral Innate Effector Molecules with Anti-Candida Function Modulate adhesion, candidacidal activity via electrostatic interactions with yeast membrane Efflux of Candida ATP, deprivation of energy stores Pore-forming cationic peptides Candidacidal mechanism unknown In conjunction with PMN, the complement system may play an important role in the innate immune protection of the oral mucosa. Complement activation takes place in the gingival crevice via the classical and alternative pathways (Cutler et al., 1991). Although formation of membrane attack complex (MAC) on the surface of C. albicans has been demonstrated (Lukasser-Vogl et al., 2000), direct killing of pathogenic fungi through this mechanism has not been conclusively proven (Kozel, 1996). In addition, although C5-deficient mice were extremely susceptible to systemic challenge with C. albicans, they cleared the oral infection at the same rate as controls (Ashman et al., 2003). Therefore it appears that complement is...

Fermented Meat Products Sausages

The starter culture used in meat fermentation may have bacteria, the yeasts Deboryomyces hansanii and Candida famata and the fungi Penicillium chrysogenum and P. nalgiovense. Yeasts encourage color development and improve aroma in sausages. Molds contribute to the characteristic aroma. During fermentation, the fall in pH due to glycolysis by lactic acid bacteria helps to preserve the fermented product and inhibit the growth of pathogenic microorganisms, and the production of nitric oxide due to activity of the nitrate and nitrite reducing bacteria results in the production of nitrosomyoglobin that accounts for the odor of the meat product. During ripening, proteolytic activity due to enzymes in meat and bacterial starter cultures, and lipolytic enzymes in molds and yeasts lead to products which may contribute to flavor (Hammes and Knauf 1994).

Innate Immune Effector Function

Activity, recently, a contact-dependent oral epithelial cell anti- Candida activity was described, which was significantly greater than that of vaginal epithelial cells (Steele et al., 2000). More specifically, primary human oral epithelial cells inhibited the growth of 40-85 of C. albicans at ratios ranging between 0.6 and 1, and 5 1 effector to target. This antimicrobial activity extended to other Candida species, including C. glabrata, C. dubliniensis, and C. krusei. Saliva appeared to have no effect on growth inhibition and cells isolated from HIV+ patients with OPC had reduced antifungal activity as compared to HIV+OPC- controls (Steele et al., 2000). Mechanistic studies also confirmed a growth inhibitory rather than a fungicidal effect (Nomanbhoy et al., 2002), and further demonstrated that an acid labile molecule was involved in the growth-inhibiting interactions (Steele et al., 2001 Yano et al., in press), although the specific molecule was not identified.

Virulence Characteristics Of C Albicans

Candida species are not highly virulent microorganisms, instead, they are ubiquitous human commensals, primarily residing in the gastrointestinal tract without causing any harm. Especially C. albicans readily colonizes host epithelia and is probably harboured by most individuals at some stage in their lives. As an essentially opportunistic pathogen C. albicans needs an immunocompromised host to do more than just colonize the epithelial surface. In hosts with defects in cell-mediated immunity it commonly causes superficial infections of mucosae, skin and nails but rarely penetrates beyond such sites to invade into deeper tissue. Disseminated infections predominantly occur in severely immunocompromised, neutropenic patients, for example organ transplant recipients or cancer patients. Yet, since C. albicans is by far the most frequent yeast species causing infections in such debilitated patients, it is conceivable that it must possess traits that make this species better adapted than...

Stage Specific Virulence Gene Activation by Host Signals

After the reliability of the reporter system had been confirmed in vitro, we used the reporter strain containing the SAP2P-FLP fusion in various experimental models of candidiasis to analyze the expression of the SAP2 gene at different stages of the infection process. In a model of oesophageal infection in mice in which C. albicans invades into the epithelium but does not disseminate hematogeneously into deep organs, significant SAP2 expression was not detected at any time point, indicating that activation of the SAP2 gene was not necessary for infection of the oesophageal epithelium. In contrast, in two mouse models of disseminated candidiasis in which the animals were infected either intraperitoneally or intravenously, a strong induction of the SAP gene occurred at late stages of systemic infection, after spread of the fungus into deep organs, but not before dissemination (Fig 3). These results suggest that the Sap2 proteinase has some function after the establishment of C. albicans...

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

A role for Cu,Zn-SOD in the free-radical theory of senescence was provided by the shortened lifespan of Drosophila with a mutational defect in Cu,Zn-SOD, and by Candida elegans, which had only half the normal complement of SOD (142,143). Mice lacking SOD exhibited a shortened life-span (144) but appeared normal while young and were less able to recover from axonal injury (133). A lack of Mn-SOD imposed more serious consequences by shortening the life-span and exhibiting faulty mitochondrial activities in several tissues, especially the heart (145,146). Thus, Mn-SOD may play a more critical role than Cu,Zn-SOD in antioxidant defense mechanisms under normal physiological conditions (147). This is supported by the findings that mice lacking Mn-SOD die at very young age (145,146).

Clinical Manifestationssystemic

An extensive discussion of the systemic manifestations of HIV AIDS would be quite lengthy and beyond the scope of this chapter. Note will be made of the PHI, which presents with fever, myalgias, pharyngitis, arthralgias, headache, and malaise. Nonpruritic maculo-papular rash of the face and trunk is reported in 30 to 70 of cases (10) Generalized lymphadenopathy, nausea, vomiting, neurological complications, oral ulceration, and candidiasis might be observed. Since PHI can present before antibody test seroconversion, diagnostic testing should utilize measurement of specific viral antigens or viral load for detection of HIV infection.

Methods for Yeast Characterization

The analysis of mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms (mtDNA-RFLP) has long been used as a method for characterizing wine yeast strains (Vezinhet et al. 1990). However, due to the complexity associated with the procedure required to isolate a sufficient amount of mtDNA, its use for routine analysis was limited until quite recently. The last decade has seen improvements in the process (Querol et al. 1992b), removing the need for specialized equipment and reducing the complexity and time scale, while retaining the discriminatory power and reproducibility (Figure 3). This simplified technique has been used successfully to characterize yeast strains of species belonging to genera Brettanomyces, Candida, Debaryomyces, Kluyveromyces, Saccharomyces, and Zygosaccharomyces (see Table 2). Chromosomal DNA profile analysis (electrophoresis karyotyping). The analysis of chromosomal DNA polymorphisms due to chromosome rearrangements has proved to be useful for the...

Evolutionary Origins of the HO Gene and Other Components of the MAT Switching System

The evolutionary origin of HO is enigmatic because the gene has a very limited phylogenetic distribution. Apart from S. cerevisiae and its close relatives such as S. bayanus (the Saccharomyces sensu stricto group of species), the HO gene is present only in Candida glabrata, Saccharomyces castellii, and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii (Butler et al. 2004). In these species, mating-type switching probably occurs by HO-catalyzed switching between an active MAT

Relationship of HO to VDE

The HO protein has strong sequence similarity to inteins, which are unusual selfish genetic elements found primarily in bacteria (see Perler, this Vol.). Only two nuclear genes of eukaryotes are known to contain inteins (Perler 2002), one of which is the vacuolar H+-ATPase gene VMA1 of S. cerevisiae which contains the VDE intein (Gimble and Thorner 1992). HO has higher sequence similarity to VDE than to any other intein and clusters with it in a phyloge-netic tree (Dalgaard et al. 1997 Gogarten et al. 2002). This fact, together with their co-occurrence in S. cerevisiae despite the rarity of inteins in eukaryotes, suggests that HO shares a relatively recent common ancestor with VDE and is a sort of renegade intein. Although the VMA1 ATPase gene is a highly conserved gene with homologues in all eukaryotes, eubacteria and archaea, the distribution of the VDE intein is limited to a few hemiascomycete species closely related to S. cerevisiae. Among these species, VDE has a patchy...

Medium Chain Fatty Acids

Polyhydric alcohol fatty acid esters have great potential for use as emulsifiers in food formulations (Razani-Rohani and Griffiths 1994). They also possess antifungal properties and, therefore, may exert a preservative effect in foods. Kato and Shibasaki (1975) demonstrated strong fungistatic activity of glycerol monocaprate and glycerol monolaurate toward Aspergillus niger, Penicillum citrinum, Candida utilis, and Saccharomyces cervisiae. Sucrose monocaparte and sucrose monolaurate were found to be slightly inhibitory to a spoilage film-forming yeast inoculated into a soy sauce substrate (Kato 1981). Six sucrose esters substituted to different degrees with a mixture of palmitic and stearic acids were examined by

Engineering Homing Enzymes with Novel Functions

Domain shuffling between the Pl-Scel and its Candida tropicalis analog, Pl-CtrIP, was used to design altered specificity proteins (Steuer et al. 2004). Replacement of the Pl-Scel protein-splicing domain with that of Pl-CtrIP resulted in inactive proteins. Thus, proper register between domains is likely to be critical for domain shuffling to work. However, an active chimera results when the DNA recognition region (DRR) of Pl-Scel, which is a subdomain of the protein-splicing domain that makes some of the base-specific DNA contacts, was replaced with its analog from Pl-CtrIP. Interestingly, this protein displayed a small preference for the Candida tropicalis site, which differs from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae site at six nucleotide positions, suggesting that at least a portion of the specificity has been transferred to Pl-Scel (Steuer et al. 2004). Genetic screens and selections for homing endonucleases that cleave altered recognition sequences have been developed. In a study of...

Molecular Structure

Pancreatic Sus scrofa (pig) pancreatic Candida rugosa (yeast) (formerly Candida cylindracea) C. albicans (yeast) Moraxella sp Geotrichum candidum (Oospora lactis) Myocastor coypus (Coypu) (Nutria) pancreatic, pancreatic lipase-related protein Chromobacterium vis-cosum Rhizomucor miehei Rhizopus oryzae (R. dele-mar) R. niveus Staphylococcus epidermidis S. hyicus S. aureus Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) Photohabdus luminescens (Xenorhabdus luminescens) Yarrowia lipolytica (Candida lipolytica) Aeromonas hydrophila extracellular lipase Burkholderia cepacia (Pseudomonas cepacia) Ps. aeruginosa lactonizing lipase Pseudomonas sp. (strain KWI-56) Ps. fluores-cens Ps. glumae Ps. fragi Pseudomonas sp. (strain 109) lactonizing lipase Psychrobacter immobilis Canadida antarctica (yeast) (Trichosporon oryzae) Bacillus subtilis Vibrio cholerae lactonizing lipase. The crystal structures of a number of lipases have been solved, including those of Bos taurus (bovine) pancreatic lipase Sus...

Acyl Transfer Reactions

The acyl transfer reaction provides a novel use of lipases as catalysts in organic synthesis. Using amines as nucleophiles, esters can be converted to the corresponding amides in organic media at ambient temperature. For example, Candida antarctica lipase-catalyzed aminolysis of ethyl octanoate gives a 95 yield of octanamide (77). Peptide bonds can be formed among the triacylglycerol molecules is nonspecific with random distribution of the acyl fatty acids. By exploiting lipases as catalysts, it is possible to generate products enriched with the new fatty acids at specific positions, thereby changing the physicochemical properties of triacylglycerols (87, 88). For example, in the interesterification of a triacylglycerol fatty acid mixture catalyzed by 1,3-specific lipase, the product consists of novel triacylglycerols with the fatty acid selectively incorporated to the 1- and 3-positions, and no enrichment at the 2-position. Using Geotrichum candidum lipase which has specificity for...

Purification Of Lipase

Purification of extracellular lipases from microbial sources is less cumbersome than from animal tissues. Rhizomucor miehei lipase is purified by passing the culture supernatant onto an anion exchange column, following by affinity chromatography on Con A-Sepharose, hydrophobic interaction chromatography (Phenyl-Sepharose), and gel filtration (12, 13). The Geotrichum candidum lipases I and II have been obtained by ethanol precipitation, gel filtration (Sephacryl-200 HR), anion exchange (Mono Q), and chemofocusing (Polybuffer exchanger 94) (14). A similar scheme has been used to purify multiple isoforms of Candida rugosa lipase (25).

Lysozyme and Lactoferrin

The major sources of lactoferrin in the oral mucosa are the serous cells in salivary glands and the secondary granules of PMN. Although several antimicrobial mechanisms have been identified for lactoferrin, the classical mechanism involves high affinity for iron, which causes inhibition of microbial iron-dependent metabolism (Bellamy et al., 1992). While the iron-binding domain of this molecule is located at the carboxyterminus, the aminoterminus contains a microbicidal peptide sequence, known as lactoferricin (Bellamy et al., 1992). This peptide may be released by enzymatic degradation, which takes place in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and is active against fungi like C. albicans (Wakabayashi et al., 1996), although the exact mechanism of its fungicidal activity is still unknown. The fungicidal role of lacto-ferrin in saliva has been questioned by certain investigators since phosphate and bicarbonate ions at physiological salivary concentrations completely blocked its antifungal...

Secretory Leukoprotease Inhibitor

Although the first report on the in vitro antimicrobial activity of SLPI was in saliva (McNeely et al., 1995), to date only one study has addressed the functional role of salivary SLPI during oral infection in vivo (Chattopadhyay et al., 2004). This report on HIV-associated oral candidiasis found significantly higher levels of SLPI among participants with a history of OPC as compared to those with no history of this oral infection, but failed to show significantly higher levels in individuals with current oral infection as compared to uninfected controls. In an attempt to explain these findings the authors suggested that elevated levels of SLPI in response to recurrent infection is an attempt of the host to limit oral infection, a response that may persist long after the infection is resolved (Chattopadhyay et al., 2004).

Summary and Future Directions

Oral candidiasis is characterized by a recurrent, persistent, acute inflammatory reaction to Candida infection, which is limited to the uppermost epithelial layers of the oral mucosa. The inflammatory response to this pathogen elicits chronic pain and discomfort upon mastication, but it may also be responsible for activation of immunoef- fector cells and the prevention of invasive infection. Although this chapter has concentrated on the innate immune and nonimmune mechanisms of the oral mucosal defense against Candida, it is well recognized that an intact arm of the adaptive immunity, represented mainly by Th1 cells, plays an instrumental role in regulating the clearance of this infection by innate immu-noeffectors. The mechanisms that trigger the acute inflammatory response in the oral mucosa are currently unknown. However, dissection of this process is critical to the understanding of the pathogenesis of this fungal infection and may be important for the development of strategies to...

Valvular heart disease

Valvular heart disease of HIV-infected patients occurs as a bacterial or mycotic endocarditis. In fact, the hypothesis that HIV infection alone makes a subject more susceptible to infective endocarditis could not be validated. However, intravenous drug abusers have a ten- to twelve-fold increased risk for infective endocarditis than non-intravenous drug abusers (Nahass 1990). The most frequent germ is staphylo-coccus aureus, being detected in more than 40 of HIV-infected patients with bacterial endocarditis. Further pathogens include Streptococcus pneumoniae and Hemophilus influenzae (Currie 1995). Mycotic forms of endocarditis, which may also occur in patients who are not intravenous drug abusers, mostly belong to As-pergillus fumigatus, Candida species or Cryptococcus neoformans and are associated with a worse outcome (Martin-Davila 2005).

Perspectives for the Future

J Biol Chem 268 7372-7381 Hall TM, Porter JA, Young KE, Koonin EV, Beachy PA, Leahy DJ (1997) Crystal structure of a hedgehog autoprocessing domain homology between hedgehog and self-splicing proteins. Cell 91 85-97 Hanada K, Yewdell JW, Yang JC (2004) Immune recognition of a human renal cancer antigen through post-translational protein splicing. Nature 427 252-256 Hirata R, Anraku Y (1992) Mutations at the putative junction sites of the yeast vmal protein, the catalytic subunit of the vacuolar membrane H+-ATPase, inhibit its processing by protein splicing. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 188 40-47 Hirata R, Ohsumi Y, Nakano A, Kawasaki H, Suzuki K, Anraku Y (1990) Molecular structure of a gene, vmal, encoding the catalytic subunit of H+-translocating adenosine triphosphatase from vacuolar membranes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem 265 6726-6733

Food and health applications of probiotics translational aspects

Lactic acid bacteria have been considered detrimental to oral health since they ferment sugars into lactic acid, but lactic acid production may not be the whole story. Unlike S. mutans, L. reuteri produces lactic acid, but its presence does not result in the release of calcium from hydroxylapatite (Nikawa, 2004). This difference may be caused by variations in bioavailability of lactic acid and other factors that may counteract or neutralize the presence of lactic acid. Also, many lactic acid bacteria are consumed in dairy products that have excellent buffering capacity and contain calcium to enhance remineralization of the enamel. Probiotic research in the oral cavity has focused on Bifidobacterium bifidum, L. acidophilus, L. casei, and L. reuteri. Some strains of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterum may lower the propensity of individuals to initiate caries formation, reduce the overall risk of dental caries, and act as a prophylactic agent for Candida spp. infection (Ahola, 2002...

Advantages over Antibiotics

Eliminating pathogenic groups with antibiotics is an obvious approach to beneficially modifying the intestinal microbiota. However, perturbation of indigenous microbial ecosystems caused by the collateral damage to desirable populations can lead to potentially serious side effects. These include antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis involving overgrowth of Clostridium difficile as well as oral or vaginal candidiasis (173-175). Prebiotics and probiotics can ameliorate the potential of opportunistic infections caused by disturbances to the microbiota by restoring populations of beneficial bacteria (176-179). No long-term side effects have been reported for either prebiotic or probiotic ingredients, enabling their safe long-term use in prophylactic strategies to minimize disease. In contrast, long-term use of antibiotics may elicit a range of side-effects including liver damage, hypersensitivity, sensitivity to sunlight, and increasing the risk of developing...

Benzyl 2methylhydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase

Reduction of benzyl 3-oxo-2-methybutyrate to (2R,3S)- and (2S,3S)-benzyl 3-hydroxy-2-methylbutyrate in Candida albicans, Endomycopsis fibligera, Hansenula anomala, Lipomyces starkeyi, Pichia farinosa, P. membranaefaciens, Rhodotorula glutinis, Saccharomyces cerevisia and S. acidifaciens has been detected K940 . This reaction has been found in Candida albicans, Endomycopsis fibligera, Hansenula anomala, Kloeckera saturnus, Lipomyces starkeyi, Pichia farinosa, P. membranaefaciens, Rhodotorula glutinis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S. acidifaciens, S. delbruechii and S. fermentati. Different organisms form different ratios of stereoisomers K883 .

AIDSHuman Immunodeficiency Virus

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that is transmitted through blood or other body fluids. As the HIV destroys the CD4+ helper T-cells, the patient inevitably becomes immunodeficient, at which point the patient is considered to have acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, better known as AIDS. The conversion to the diagnosis of AIDS is met when the CD4+ count drops below 200 or when the patient exhibits any immunodeficient-defining symptom such as Kaposi's sarcoma, candidiasis, CMV disease, toxoplasmosis, or Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Initial symptoms are mild, most often fever, night sweats, fatigue, and mild lymphadenopathy. As the virus progresses and the patient becomes immunodeficient, opportunistic infections predominate. Immunosuppres-sion also predisposes patients to neoplasms, particularly Kaposi' s sarcoma and lymphoma. Diagnosis is usually made using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. If the ELISA test is positive, a Western blot test is...

Saps and Oral Humoral Immunity

The contribution of the Saps to C. albi-cans pathogenesis has been clearly demonstrated using SAP-deficient mutants and proteinase inhibitors. These studies demonstrated that different SAP genes appear to be essential for mucosal (SAP1-3) (Watts et al., 1998 De Bernardis et al., 1999 Schaller et al., 1999) and systemic (SAP4-6) (Hube et al., 1997 Sanglard et al., 1997) infections. The Sap isoenzymes appear to have a variety of functions in vivo, which are probably called upon during different stages and types of C. albicans infections. There might be an expectation, therefore, that responses against different Saps might be different in mucosal and systemic candidiasis. Table 3.3. Serum and Salivary Antibodies to Candida in Humans Table 3.3. Serum and Salivary Antibodies to Candida in Humans

Yeast Copperiron Link

Iron uptake into S. cerevisiae involves several different assimilatory pathways depending on the chemical source of iron and its concentration. In general, all of the pathways require reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+ by one or more products of the FRE1-FRE7 genes (14,26). Under iron-limiting conditions, high-affinity uptake is mediated by the inducible Fet3p Ftr1p complex in the plasma membrane (1,14,27). Fet3p is a multicopper oxidase (28) whose active sites are related to multicopper oxidases such as laccase, ascorbate oxidase, and ceruloplasmin. Fet3p functions to oxidize Fe2+ to Fe3+ at the cell surface Fe3+ is then delivered from Fet3p to the associated Fe3+ permease, Ftr1p, for transport into the cell (14,27). Highly related pathways operate in other fungi. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Frp1 is related to the Fre reductases, and Fio1 Fip1 forms an iron-uptake complex related to Fet3p Ftr1p (29). The fungal pathogen Candida albicans also uses a similar pathway, involving a...

Pectin Glycerol Ester

To find a suitable enzyme to catalyze the transesterification reaction (methyl ester to glycerol ester) under mild conditions, we screened a number of lipases and esterases. We found two lipases (Candida cylindracea lipase and porcine pancreatic lipase) to exhibit catalytic activity for this reaction. The reaction conditions entailed elevated temperatures, with the use of glycerol as the solvent and an acyl acceptor. The enzyme catalyzed the esterification of the carboxyl group of the pectin to the C1 (primary) alcohol of the glycerol to form the monoester. No substantial glycerol

Host Immune Responses to Saps

Very few studies have investigated the interaction between Saps and the host immune response. While high titres of anti-Sap IgG antibodies have been demonstrated in sera of candidiasis patients (Macdonald and Odds, 1980 Ruchel and Boning, 1983 Ruchel et al., 1988), few detailed studies on mucosal antibody responses, using saliva or vaginal secretions, against the Saps have been performed. However, recently two reports have addressed this. In a small study of six patients with oral candidiasis and HIV infection, salivary IgA antibodies to Sapl and Sap6 were found to be raised in patients compared with controls. Serum IgG and IgA antibodies were also raised (Drobacheff et al., 2001). Similarly in a series of 15 patients with oral candidiasis and HIV infection, Millon et al. (2001) found salivary IgA antibodies to Sap2 and Sap6 to be raised and related to infection. These studies are suggestive of both inferences that responses in HIV are not impaired in this regard and that if shown to...

Experimental Section A Pectin Glycerol Ester

HM-pectin (1 g, 73 DE, GENU) was partially swollen in 20 mL of glycerol. Then 50 mg of lipase from Candida cylindreacea (Lipase OF-360, Meito-Sangyo) was added to the solution and the mixture was stirred a 55 C for 24 h. The modified pectin was precipitated in methanol and recovered by filtration. After being washed extensively with methanol, the product was obtained as a powder. The yield was 0.98 g. Analysis of the product (MW 125,000, MW Mn 6.8) by size-exclusion chromatography indicated around 2-3 increase in the average molecular weight from the starting material (MW 123,000, MW Mn 6.4), corresponding roughly to a degree of esterification of 2 (with glycerol). 1H NMR analysis showed the presence of glycerol moiety. The aqueous solution viscosity of the modified product slightly increased in comparison to the starting pectin.

Comparative genomics

As far as the genome as a whole is concerned, comparisons between E. cuniculi and A. locustae have already revealed one surprising characteristic. Over time, the conservation of gene order is lost, mostly due to many short-range events and a few longer-range events which eventually randomize the genome. A. locustae and E. cuniculi are very distantly related species of microsporidia (Slamovits et al. 2004b), so it is surprising that they share a fairly high level of gene order conservation. Comparing 94 pairs of genes it was found that 13 of pairs were present in both genomes, while almost 26 of pairs were within five genes of one another (Slamovits et al. 2004a). It is impossible to quantify our expectations for gene order conservation without knowing how long ago two species diverged, which we cannot know for microsporidia, but if we compare this level of conservation with other fungi, the contrast is obvious. The closely related yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans...

Differential Diagnosis

In addition to the clinical symptoms of anemia, iron deficiency produces a microcytic, hypochromic anemia. Serum iron is low. Total iron-binding capacity is elevated. A similar clinical appearance of the tongue mucosa may be seen in Vitamin B complex deficiencies and pernicious anemia (Fig. 43). Atrophic candidiasis (Fig. 45) may also produce a sensitive, erythematous, depapillated lingual mucosal surface. In severe xerostomia, the tongue may exhibit atrophy of the lingual papillae and erythema that is frequently secondary to atrophic candidiasis. Central papillary atrophy is a localized form of depapillation secondary to candidiasis (Fig. 46).

Inflammatory Autoimmune

Dysphagia and odynophagia are common symptoms, with swelling and airway obstruction occurring less frequently. Dehydration, malnutrition, and weight loss are common in severely affected patients without a secondary means of alimentation. Treatment is symptomatic. Appropriate hydration, in addition to the use of salivary substitutes and sucralfate, is recommended acutely. Salivary flow may be increased chronically with cholinergic drugs such as pilocarpine. Mouthwashes containing combinations of carafate, aluminum hydroxide, diphenhydramine, and nystatin can be useful for symptomatic relief. Superinfections with bacteria or fungi such as candida are common and should be managed accordingly. Oral or systemic glucocorticords may provide short-term relief of symptoms in severe manifestations of radiation pharyngitis.

Parenterally Administered Cephalosporins

Significantly decreased numbers of enterobacteria, bifidobacteria and lactobacilli have been observed in connection with parenteral administration of cefmenoxime in healthy subjects. Furthermore, there was a concomitant increase in numbers of clostridia and Candida species (37). Cefoperazone is mainly excreted in bile giving rise to high fecal concentrations and thereby major changes in the intestinal microbiota can be expected. The impact of cefoperazone on the fecal microbiota has been evaluated in adult patients (38) and in sick children (39,40). The Gram-negative aerobic rods as well as numbers of staphylococci and streptococci were markedly suppressed in all studies. Overgrowth of resistant enterobacteria, enterococci and Candida species were observed and anaerobic species were also suppressed.

Rufousthroated dipper

Sometimes grouped with Cinclus leucocephalus. Generally similar to other dipper species however, apparently it does not dive into rushing water or swim as frequently as the others. The bowing and dipping behavior also seems to be absent, replaced by a wing-flicking which displays the white flash on the primary feathers. Song is similar to that of white-capped dipper, but more thrush-like call a sharp zeet-zeet.

Economic Considerations

That savings could be gained, even though wastewater would still have to be purified. Comparison of different treatment methods for molasses stillage showed that aerobic Candida yeast growth was the most suitable option. The same method was proposed for sulfite waste liquor and wood hydrolysis stillages (Maiorella et al. 1983).

Significance to humans

In much of southern Europe, especially in Spain, Italy, Greece, and many Mediterranean islands, thrushes are still caught and killed in vast numbers. They are offered in restaurants and sold in supermarkets, bottled or as thrush pate. The overall effect of this long-term exploitation is difficult to determine, but, as it has been happening for so long, it is reasonable to assume that it is not threatening the species concerned. The ethical position, however, is a matter for the individual, and many people find the situation highly distasteful. Most western Europeans prefer to enjoy their thrushes in a different way. Nightingales, with their wonderful song, have a special place in the poetry of some countries. Certainly, however, the presence of a singing song thrush or blackbird in the garden in spring is a great pleasure to tens of thousands of people. In North America, a nesting pair of bluebirds has a similar effect, and thrushes and chats include some of the best-loved garden...

Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Other head and neck manifestations include parotid gland enlargement, orophar-yngeal candidiasis, nasopharyngeal neoplasms (Kaposi or lymphoma), oral ulcerations, and oral hairy leukoplakia. Nontender parotid gland enlargement may be a heralding sign of HIV infection (14) and may be uni- or bilateral. Enlargement is most often attributable to the benign lymphoepithelial cyst, which is characterized by uni- or multilocular cyst masses, similar to the benign lymphoepithelial lesion found in Sj gren's syndrome. In contrast to the Sj gren's lesion, the cysts noted in HIV infection are thought to originate from ductal pressure induced by intraparotid lymph node hyperplasia associated with generalized lymphadenopathy (15). Please see Chapter 2 for detailed discussion of Sj gren' s syndrome.

Evolution and systematics

Nearly a century ago, Ernst Hartert, Curator of the incredible Rothschild collection of preserved birds, observed What can't be classified is regarded as a babbling thrush. In the opinions of many of today's ornithologists, Hartert then proceeded to confuse matters further. The convoluted history of babbler classification is well treated in Sibley and Ahlquist's Phylogeny and Classification of Birds, and the reader is best referred to that book. Suffice it to say that exactly what a babbler is, and how it should be classified, has been, and remains, a controversy among ornithologists. The DNA research of Charles Sibley and his associates has led them to place the babblers in the family Sylviidae, together with many of the birds traditionally called Old World warblers. Within this family, they have divided the babblers into two subfamilies. Two genera, the laughing thrushes (Garru- lax) and liocichlas (Liockhla), are given their own subfamily, Garrulacinae. The other babblers,...

Other Soluble Factors

There are additional soluble factors in saliva, which have been shown to have antiCandida activity. Earlier work had reported that lysozyme in parotid saliva was increased in relation to the oral Candida load (Yeh et al., 1997) though the pathway of such stimulation was not identified. Statherin mediates a dose-dependent adhesion of C. albicans to epithelial cells (Johansson et al., 2000). This adhesion could be inhibited by specific IgG antibodies to statherin, suggesting that antibodies derived from the gingival crevice could be active in vivo. Other workers have suggested that complement factors may have a role in homeostasis of Candida. Triebel et al. (2003) showed that in normal sera containing complement factors that Sap activity was reduced, growth of Candida was reduced, and phagocytosis was enhanced. However, these results suggest that in vivo these could only be active around the gingival crevice and might explain why this is not a favourite site for Candida colonisation.

Clinical Manifestations

NME is the hallmark finding in glucagonoma syndrome. It is characterized by a polymorphous eruption that most commonly presents as scaly, erythematous papules and plaques with superficial erosions. The lesions typically are in a perioral distribution on the face (Fig. 9), but also involve the perineum, lower abdomen, thighs, buttocks, and less commonly the distal extremities. NME has been reported to be the presenting complaint in approximately two-thirds of patients with this tumor, but there are only rare cases of glucagonoma without NME ever occurring. Stomatitis, glossitis, dystrophic nails, and alopecia can also be seen. The eruption is frequently misdiagnosed as seborrheic dermatitis or intertrigo and can also resemble pemphigus foliaceus, acrodermatitis enteropathica, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, or psoriasis.

Hydroxyphenylpyruvate reductase E C 111237

Candida guilliermondi enzyme requires NAD(P)H A2483 . Candida maltosa enzyme is a tetramer, molecular weight 250 000 280 000, monomeric molecular weight 68 000. It requires Mn2+ and NAD(P)H for reduction the reaction is reversible, with optimum pH 6.5 for reduction, and 9.5 for oxidation. Substrates studied are phenylpyruvate, p -hydroxyphenylpyruvate, indole-3-pyruvate and the corresponding lactates D975 . Formation of phenylpyruvate from phenyllactate has been recorded in rat, Candida, Lactobacillus, Neisseria, Pseudomonas and Rhodotorula B438, D975, E377, F92, G774, K95 . A similar reaction has been detected in rat for m-hydroxyphenyllactate and vanillactate A2961 . In addition, p -hydroxyphenyllactate is oxidized by Neisseria gonorrhoeae F92 , and indole-3-lactate by Candida maltosa (see above) D975 .

FIGURE 16 Oral hairy leukoplakia associated with EBV Source From

Epstein-Barr Virus and Oral Hairy Leukoplakia. OHL has been encountered since the early epidemic and has been strongly linked to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (3). It has a typical appearance of whitish thickening of the lateral tongue (Fig. 16), more specifically of the foliate papillae on either or both sides, appearing corrugated or hairy (Fig. 17) it is rarely found in other areas of the oral cavity. In contrast to pseudomembranous oral candidiasis, the lesions cannot be scraped away with a tongue blade. It is the most common oral lesion in HIV-infected persons, encountered in 20 of asymptomatic patients and becoming more frequent with disease progression, with pseudomembranous candidiasis the second most common, encountered in about 6 . It does not, however, signify the presence of HIV infection, being infrequently found in solid organ or bone marrow transplant recipients or patients undergoing chemotherapy. Presence of OHL, regardless of the size of the lesion, signifies a more rapid...

Alcoholic Food And Beverages Mostly Cerealbased

The peeled bananas are mixed with grass and the juice is forced out by squeezing by hand. A roasted flour mixture made from maize, sorghum and millet is mixed with the banana juice and fermented in the covered pit for half a day or one (Harkishor 1977) (c) African Kaffir (Kaffircorn) (Sorghum) Beer This has a sour, yogurt-like flavor. The brewing process involves lactic acid fermentation and an alcoholic fermentation. Lactic acid fermentation by lactic acid bacteria causes souring. The yeast S. cerevisiae is used for alcoholic fermentation (Hesseltine 1979) (d) Nigerian Pito This is a slightly bitter, sweet-sour beverage with a fruity flavor produced by fermentation of maize or sorghum. The molds Rhizopus oryzae, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium funiculosum, and Penicillium citrinum play an undefined role in Pito fermentation. The bacteria Leuconotoc sp. and Lactobacillus sp. and the yeasts Saccharomyces and Candida spp. are also present during fermentation. Amylases from the...

Legumebased Fermented Foods

Molds, covered with banana leaves, and fermented at room temperature for about 2 days to form oncom (Fardiaz 1987) (d) West African Dawadawa This is prepared by fermenting locust beans and consumed mainly in West Africa. Yeasts, spore forming bacilli and lactic acid bacteria are involved in the fermentation. The pulp is removed from the seeds before they are boiled and then dehulled. The dehulled seeds are soaked, washed, cooked, spread on a tray, and covered with leaves then fermented for 2-3 days (Padmaja and George 1999). (e) Chinese Chee-fan This is in solid form, prepared from soybean whey curd in China and eaten like cheese. Mucor spp. and A. glauca are involved in fermentation (Padmaja and George 1999) (f) Chinese Meitauza This is Chinese soybean cake. It can be fried in oil or cooked with vegetables. Actinomucor elegans is the microorganism involved in fermentation (Padmaja and George 1999) (g) Chinese Sufu (Tau-hu-yi) Soybean milk is made from ground soybeans strained through...

Structure of the Oral Mucosa

The most common form of Candida stomatitis affects the palatal and dorsal tongue mucosa (Samaranayake and Mac-Farlane, 1990), and therefore this infection mostly relates to oral stratified keratinized squamous epithelium. In general, stratified squamous epithelia are thought to protect the underlying tissues by the process of ker-atinization, which decreases the mucosal permeability, and also by the process of desquamation of keratinized cells, which is thought to play an important role in the

Mycobacterial Infections

Oroesophageal Candidiasis or Candidosis. Oroesophageal candidiasis or candidosis is a superficial infection of the oral, pharyngeal, and esophageal mucosa caused by the fungus Candida. It represents the most common fungal OI among HIV-infected individuals about 90 of all patients will develop it during the course of the disease. Normally present in the oral cavity in healthy persons, Candida can overgrow and through upregulation of genes or via infection with more virulent strains can cause infection. In 75 of cases, the oral infection is associated with concurrent involvement of the esophagus or the larynx and tracheobronchial tree, especially in deep immunosuppression. Typically seen in the pre-HIV era as a complication of antibiotic treatment, it has been one of the cardinal presentations of advanced HIV infection with CD4 counts of less than 200 cells mm3, but can be seen during acute HIV infection or in the asymptomatic stage. Presence of oral candidiasis or oral hairy...

Cerealbased Fermented Food

(a) Chinese Minchin This is made from wheat gluten and used as a solid condiment. The fungal species involved in fermentation include Aspergillus sp., Chadosporium sp., Fusarium syncephalastum, and Paecilomyces sp. (Padmaja and George 1999) (b) Chinese red rice (Anka) This is produced by fermenting rice with various strains of M. purpureus Went. It is used to color foods such as fish, rice wine, red soybean cheese, pickled vegetables, and salted meats. To make Anka, polished rice is washed, steamed, cooled, inoculated with M. purpureas, and allowed to ferment for a few weeks. Anka has been reported to be effective in treating indigestion and dysentery (Su and Wang 1977) (c) Jalabies These are syrup-filled confectionery available in India, Nepal, and Pakistan made from wheat flour. Saccharomyces bayanus and bacteria are involved in fermentation (Padmaja and George 1999) (d) Indian Kanji This is made from rice and carrots. It is a sour liquid added to vegetables. H. anomala is involved...

Invasive Fungal Sinusitis

Again, the most predominant organisms seen within this disease state are A. fumigatus, A. flavus, and species of Alternaria (Table 1.1). Additionally rare cases of Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albi-cans have been seen in cases of acute invasive fungal sinusitis (Schell, 2000).

The His Cys Box Family of Homing Endonucleases

Candida albicans Candida dublineinsis tron in the rDNA gene (Haugen et al. 2004). They found that the Naeglaria family of enzymes, with the exceptions of I-Nmol and I-NaeII, appear to be examples of vertical inheritance. Here, highly related endonuclease ORFs situated in the same position (the P6 arm) of related group I introns are found in the same rDNA site (S516). However, examples of likely lateral transfer of endonuclease sequences independent of the encoding intron also exist. In one case, four endonuclease ORFs that group together phylogenetically (I-Ppol, I-Naell, and two Candida pseudogenes) are found at different sites in two different subclasses of group I introns. The ORFs of I-Ppol and I-NaeII are found in the sense orientation in the PI element of the IC1 subclass of group I introns, whereas the Candida pseudogenes are in the antisense orientation in the P2.1 element of the IE subclass. Interestingly, both of these introns are located in similar locations of the LSU gene...

Reproductive biology

In the golden whistler and gray shrike-thrush, both male and female contribute to nest construction, incubation of eggs, and care of young. The rufous whistler is similar, except that the female builds the nest. In shrike-tits, the female does most nest construction and incubation, and both adults care for young additional birds serve as helpers at the nest. Helpers are also known for the whitehead (Mohoua albicilla), in which the female builds the nest. Incubation may be by both parents at some nests or by the female at others. The latter tend to be nests with helpers. After hatching, the chicks are fed by the parents and the helpers. In the whistlers, the nest can range from the substantial bowl built by the red-lored whistler (Pachycephala rufogularis) to the thin, flimsy cup of the mangrove whistler. Twigs and bark comprise much of the coarsely constructed nest of many species. In habitats with taller trees, nests may be higher, up to 33 ft (10 m) in the case of the rufous...

Stephen J Challacombe Durdana Rahman Mukesh Mistry and Julian R Naglik

Classification of Oral Candida 4. General Considerations of Oral Mucosal Immunity to Candida 41 5. Humoral Immunity against Oral 5.3. Functional Aspects of Serum and Salivary Antibodies to Candida 46 5.4. Oral Immunity to Candida in HIV 5.5. Serum Antibodies Responses to Oral Candida Infection in Humans 47 5.6. Salivary IgA Subclass Antibodies to 6. Innate Factors against Oral Candidiasis the cytokines that they produce has been the subject of much recent investigation. The oral mucosa is covered by a mucin layer some 30 im thick, but the superficial epithelial cells are constantly being desquamated so that attachment and reattachment of potentially pathogenic organisms such as Candida is a constant process. The oral mucous membranes are therefore protected by a series of both non-specific innate factors, which include the physical factors, i.e., mucin and the cornification of the epithelial cell layer and thickness of the epithelium as well as the...

Perorally Administered Cephalosporins

Alterations in the intestinal microbiota during administration of cefaclor have been studied in patients (19) and in healthy volunteers (51,52). In the microbiota of patients there were reduced numbers of both aerobic and anaerobic Gram-positive cocci. Enterococci, enterobacteria and Bacteroides species increased and there were also increased numbers of Candida albicans. In healthy subjects only minor changes occurred in the anaerobic microbiota.

CDC classification system

Thus, the current CDC classification categorizes persons on the basis of clinical conditions and CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts. There are three clinical categories (A, B, C - see Table 1) and three CD4+ T-lymphocyte categories (1, 2, 3 - see Table 2). For example, a patient with oropharyngeal candidiasis and a CD4+ T-cell count of 250 l would be classified as B2 someone with asymptomatic infection and a CD4+ T-cell count of 550 l would be in category A1. Categorization of the CD4+ T-cells should be based on the lowest accurate CD4+ T-cell count (CD4 nadir) and not on the most recent one. Candidiasis, oropharyngeal (thrush) Candidiasis, vulvovaginal persistent, frequent, or poorly responsive to therapy Candidiasis of bronchi, trachea, or lungs Candidiasis, esophageal

Uropathogenic Organism

Over the last few years several non-E. coli bacteria were identified to be uropathogenic. Those bacteria were often found in patients suffering from complicated urinary tract infections, including patients with either catheters or suffering from stone formation or in immunocompromized patients. Thus, multiresistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as well as certain Proteus species are important ofnon-E. coli uropathogens. One has to take in mind that especially the newly established species Proteus penneri seems to be a newly emerging uropathogen2. In addition, grampositive bacteria also play an increasing role as nosocomial pathogens in UTI. Thus, the biofilm forming S. aureus and S. epidermidis species are of particular importance. Moreover, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum represent important uropathogens. Anaerobic bacteria play an important role especially during prostatitis. Fungi (Candida albicans, Candida glabrata) also...

Integrity of mucous membranes

Conditions that damage the mucous membrane of infants, such as oral thrush (Candida infection), may be associated with an increased risk of transmission through breastfeeding. It is difficult, however, to determine which is cause and which effect, since thrush may be a feature of early HIV-1 infection (Ekpini et al., 1997 Embree et al., 2000). Infant oral thrush can also cause nipple thrush and fissures. Damage to the

Allergic rhinosinusitis

A more effective approach to nasal congestion and inflammation is the use of a topical nasal corticosteroid spray. This class of agent is the most potent and effective modality for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and is effective against all of the manifestations of this disorder (8). Common side effects include local nasal irritation and occasional thrush. Less common, but possibly important in the case of long-term use, are an increase in incidence of glaucoma, cataracts, and osteoporosis. These drugs diminish the inflammatory influx of cells into the nasal mucosa and diminish the strength of the local allergic response.

Antimicrobial Activity

Garlic has in vitro antifungal effects against Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida spp., Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, Microsporum, Aspergillus spp., and Mucorpusillus (40). When five volunteers consumed 10-25 mL of fresh garlic extract, urine samples had antifungal activity, but susceptibility from serum samples dropped significantly (42).

Peroxidase and Myeloperoxidase

Salivary peroxidase has potent fungicidal activity in vitro (Majerus and Courtois, 1992 Bosch et al., 2000). However the role of salivary peroxidase in oral Candida clearance in vivo is unclear since the presence of phosphate at concentrations equivalent to those found in saliva suppresses its fungicidal activity (Lenander-Lumikari, 1992). Human MPO deficiency is the most frequently encountered neutrophilic lysosomal enzyme deficiency. The importance of MPO in clearing Candida infections in vivo has been suggested by case reports, which have demonstrated that patients with this deficiency may develop rapidly disseminated cutaneous C. albicans infection (Nguyen and Katner, 1997). Similarly, patients with hereditary MPO deficiency have an increased susceptibility to oral thrush and invasive oral candidiasis (Okuda et al., 1991), therefore it appears that MPO activity may also play a role in limiting oral infection in vivo.

Lipase Specificity

The Geotrichum candidum lipase is known to show a rather unique specificity for the hydrolysis of fatty acids with a cis-9 or cis,cis-9,12 unsaturations in preference to the trans-isomers or corresponding saturated fatty acids (97, 98). The isoform lipase B exhibits a very high degree of specificity for mono-unsaturated fatty acid esters of cis-9 double bonds, whereas lipase A hydrolyzes a wide variety of fatty acid esters (99, 100). Similar to pancreatic lipases, a majority of the microbial lipases attack preferentially the 1(3)-position of triacylglycerols, with exceptions, such as Corynebacterium acnes, Staphylococcal aureus, and Candida cylindracea lipases which hydrolyze all three positions (101-103). The isoforms III and IV from Geotrichum candidum have been shown to cleave the 2-position ester bond of triolein at nearly twice the rate of the cleavage of the 1(3)-position (104). Candida natarctica lipase A shows a preference for sn-2 when trioctanoin and triolein are used as...

Epithelial Cell Factors TLR etc

Innate immunity and that epithelial cells can produce factors interactive with the immune system upon contact with bacteria and other antigens. Some of these factors appear to be microbicidal to Candida. For example, Pivarcsi et al. (2003) showed that antimicrobials induced from epithelial cells can kill Candida. This appeared to be dependent on the Candida induction of TLR2 and TLR4 as well as IL-8 expression. Interestingly antibodies against TLR2 or TLR4 blocked both IL-8 and microbicidal activity. TLRs are a novel protein family that recognise conserved motifs called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which represent broad groups of microbial pathogens or components (bacteria, fungi, RNA, and DNA). Stimulation of TLRs causes an immediate defensive response, including the production of an array of antimicrobial pep-tides and proinflammatory cytokines (through NF-kB), and the expression of cos-timulatory molecules, which are essential for the activation of adaptive...

Studies by Traditional Plate Culture Methods

The first reports associating allergy with characteristic microbial composition in the gut appear to be from studies in the former Soviet Union in the early1980s (38-40). One of these studies, reported also in English, involved an assessment of 60 under one-year-old infants with food allergy and atopic eczema. It was claimed that the severity of the disease was in direct correlation with the stage of aberrancy in the fecal microbiota. This aberrancy was characterized as low prevalence of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli and high prevalence of Enterobactericeae, pathogenic species of staplylococci and streptococci as well as Candida species (39). Indication that such differences may persist beyond infancy was provided a few years later by Ionescu and co-workers (1986) who studied 10- to 45-year-old subjects. Subjects with atopic eczema (n 58) were shown to have lower prevalence of lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, and enterococci species than the healthy subjects (n 21) but higher...

Summary

E., Bachmann, M., Weiler, B. E., Schroder, H. C., Uhlenbruck, G., Shinoda, T., Shimizu, H., and Ushjima, H., 1991, Antibodies against defined carbohydrate structures of Candida albicans protect H9 cells against infection with human immunodeficiency virus-1 in vitro, J. Acquired Immune Defic. Syndr. 4 694-703. 75. Bukawa, H., Sekigawa, R, Hamajima, R, Fukushima, J., Yamada, Y., Kiyono, H., and Okuda, K., 1995, Neutralization of HIV-1 by secretory IgA induced by oral immunization with a new macromolecular multicomponent peptide vaccine candidate, Nature Med. 1 681-685.

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