How to stop cats spraying in the house

Cat Language Bible

Cat Language Bible is a guide that helps you translate verbal and non-verbal cues to actual things that you understand as well as knowing how to respond in a more effective way to the cat's reactions. In addition, the guide will support you in efforts to understand your pet quite well, just like cats tend to understand the emotions we portray. The guide also helps one build a stronger and deeper bond with their furry friend. It will not only help in the communication aspect but also help in understanding what your pet dislikes about you or even your house. Jonas Jurgella, an Animal Behavior Specialist and researcher, came up with the Cat Language Bible with a view of helping individuals have a cat-human communication and it has been a great success. The not only comes in text form but also in some shots taken of the cats. These shots are of importance as they explain things that cats do and cannot be well understood if explained in text form. Purchase this amazing guide and perfectly connect with your cat. Read more...

Cat Language Bible Summary


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Feral cats in Australia

A good example of the pest not-pest duality is the domestic cat on the island continent of Australia. Between 4 million and 18 million feral cats (Felis catus) live wild in Australia. Until recently most of these cats were believed to be descendants of European cats brought to the continent in the late eighteenth century, with a few earlier arrivals via trading ships and shipwrecks. However, Australia's aboriginal people regard cats as native. Genetic analysis indicates that Australian feral cats may have more in common with Asian than European cats, supporting the aboriginal view for an earlier arrival of cats on the continent. But the debate of more practical consequence is whether feral cats threaten native species such as tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii). If viewed as an invasive pest, then feral cats need to be hunted down, poisoned, given birth control, or otherwise controlled. If viewed as beneficial predators helping control other pests such as rabbits, rats, and mice, then...

Conservation Status

1930 due to hunting by humans and animals, such as dogs, cats, and stoats, which are small weasels. As of 2004, there are only about 50,000 to 60,000 kiwis left in the wild and that number is dwindling each year. In 1991, the New Zealand government began a kiwi recovery program that includes establishing kiwi sanctuaries.

Eastern barred bandicoot

The mainland form is Critically Endangered. It only occurs in minuscule numbers at one site in the wild. A recovery program, involving reintroduction to protected sites of captive-bred animals has been in operation since 1989. The principal continuing threat is predation by introduced carnivores, particularly red foxes and cats, for which species continuing control is essential for the reintroduced populations to survive. The Tasmanian population appears to be declining in some parts of its range, such that it is locally threatened in its postulated focal range but has, conversely, expanded into new areas as forest has been felled and converted to pasture. The main predator in Tasmania is the cat.

The structure of HIV1

HIV-1 is a retrovirus and belongs to the family of lentiviruses. Infections with len-tiviruses typically show a chronic course of disease, a long period of clinical latency, persistent viral replication and involvement of the central nervous system. Visna infections in sheep, simian immunodeficiency virus infections (SIV) in monkeys, or feline immunodeficiency virus infections (FIV) in cats are typical examples of lentivirus infections.

Female copulatory behavior

A female displaying lordosis in response to a male's mount or an experimenter's fingers is said to be sexually receptive. A huge amount of data has established that the display of lordosis is dependent on ovarian hormones. It would not be unreasonable to pose that, for all practical and scientific purposes, it is absolutely hormone-dependent. Furthermore, in 1958, it was shown that the ovarian hormones act in the brain when predisposing the female for the behavior. George Harris and Richard Michael implanted minute amounts of estrogen into the hypothalamus of ovariec-tomized cats and found that the implanted females responded with lordosis to a male's mounts while control females did not (Harris et al., 1958). They also presented data showing that the hormone had not leaked out from the site of implantation to the circulation (Harris and Michael, 1964). The unequivocal conclusion was that ovarian hormones act within the brain to predispose the female for displaying lordosis in...

Reproductive biology

Although there are detailed studies of the breeding biology of the white-fronted and the crimson chats, the breeding biology of the other species is less well known. This account is based mainly on the white-fronted chat. Chats have long breeding seasons, peaking in late winter and spring (August-November), and breeding again after the rainy season in late summer and fall (March-April). Up to five attempts may be made in a season. There is no evidence of polygamy or cooperative breeding among the chats. Nests are usually placed 1-4 ft (0.3-1.2 m) from the ground in small bushes, often saltbush or bluebush, and occasionally on the ground. Nests are cup-shaped, and made from grass, rushes, twigs, and plant fiber, and sometimes with mammal hair or fur and feathers. Eggs are fleshy or pinkish white with small reddish spots at the larger end. Clutches are of two to four eggs, maximum five (mean of 3.1 for white-fronted chats and 2.7 for crimson chats). Both males and females incubate the...

Directed PCR Analysis

Wang and coworkers (66) developed 12 species-specific PCR primer sets to monitor the predominant gut microbiota of humans (Bact. distasonis, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bact. vulgatus, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium longum, Clostridium clostridioforme, E. coli, Eubacterium biforme, Eubacterium limosum, Fuso. prausnitzii, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Pep. productus). During validation of the species-specific PCR assays, the sensitivity of each primer set was examined with DNA extracts from pure cultures. Interestingly, such work demonstrated that PCR sensitivities varied markedly. Following validation of the PCR assays, Wang and coworkers (66) examined the presence of the bacterial species in fecal samples from humans (seven adults and two infants), two BALB c mice, two Fischer rats, two cats, one dog, one rhesus monkey and one rabbit. High titers of Clos. clostridioforme, Fuso. prausnitzii and Pep. productus were detected in all samples examined. High titers of Bact....

Evolution and systematics

Suborder Strepsirrhini ( wet nose ) covers lemurs and lorisoids, since those species keep the generalized mammalian condition of noses wet by self-licking to facilitate the olfactory sense, obvious in animals like dogs and cats. In strepsir-rhines, the upper lip is divided, again as in dogs and cats, to

Physical characteristics

Lemuridae are arboreal primates, the size of house cats, with bodies, limbs, hands and feet much like those of monkeys, somewhat foxlike heads with long muzzles, and large, brightly hued, round, owl-like eyes. Adult Lemuridae head-and-body length ranges 11-22 in (28-56 cm) and tail length 11-25.5 in (28-65 cm). The tail length in most species is longer than the head-and-body length. Adult weights run 4.4-10 lb (2-4.5 kg). Bodies and limbs are gracile, the hind limbs longer than the forelimbs. The pelage is dense, soft, woolly or cottony, and rather long. Species may carry face or neck ruffs of long fur. Coat colors and patterns vary considerably among species. Some species are sexually dichromatic.

Behavior And Reproduction

Newborns are able to leave the nest very soon after birth. They are able to fly, hop, and walk along twigs when just a few days old. Cracids spend a great deal of time in the trees, hopping from branch to branch and walking on twigs. Cracids fall prey to jaguars and other big cats.

Spheres of Veterinary Practice

Birds, small rodents, and aquarium fish. These veterinarians provide a valuable resource in interpreting the health of these less common species. There are approximately 60 million dogs, 70 million cats, 10 million birds, and 5 million horses kept as pets in the United States (Euromonitor, 2000 American Veterinary Medical Association, 2002). Of the households in the United States, approximately 36 have dogs, 32 have cats, 5 have birds, and 2 have horses.

The mechanisms of bradycardia

The relative importance of the direct action on the myocardium and of the indirect action of the autonomic nervous system on oxygen-dependent bradycardia has been evaluated. Doubt & Evans9 confirmed the direct action of HBO on the myocardium by demonstrating a specifically oxygen-dependent bradycardia, in cats anaesthetized and curarized at a pressure of 31.3 ata (PO2 0.35 ata, PHe 31 ata). Bergo10, however, reported the disappearance of the oxygen-dependent bradycardia in rats injected with atropine at 5 ata. In fact, apart from the differences in methods and animal models, it seems possible to reconcile the outcome of both studies in differentiating two HBO effects (1) the bradycardic effect exerted on heart rate both at rest and during exercise and (2) the bradycardia occurring due to a direct effect on myocardial cells at rest, which is oxygen-dependent, appears quickly, is reversible with atropine, and is therefore probably mainly mediated by the parasympathetic system. This...

Segregation and Integration

Anatomical segregation entails that important correlates of specific functional brain states are found in localized changes of neuronal activity within specialized populations. However, segregated and specialized brain regions and neuronal populations must interact to generate functional dynamics. Coherent perceptual and cognitive states require the coordinated activation, i.e. the functional integration, of very large numbers of neurons within the distributed system of the cerebral cortex (Bressler, 1995 Friston, 2002). Electrophysio-logical studies have shown that perceptual or cognitive states are associated with specific and highly dynamic (short-lasting) patterns of temporal correlations (functional connectivity) between different regions of the thalamocortical system. Bressler has carried out numerous studies examining task-dependent large-scale networks of phase synchronization in primate and human cortex (Liang et al., 2000 Bressler and Kelso, 2001 Brovelli et al., 2004)....

Sperm and egg formation

Ing into fully functional eggs once sexual maturity is reached. As follicles mature, they expand in size on the surface of the ovary until ovulation is triggered by release of luteinizing hormone. Peaks of this hormone occur either as part of the es-trous cycle or are triggered by physical stimuli in induced ovulators such as cats (Felidae) and rabbits (lagomorphs).

Adverse Effects and Toxicity 71 Reproductive System

Alcoholic extracts of V. officinalis (L.) root (labeled V103 and V115) demonstrated hypotensive effects in rats, cats, and dogs. The V115 fraction showed greater potency and was extracted by a countercurrent distribution to yield three fractions. The first two fractions demonstrated hypotensive effects in rats, with the first fraction showing a hypotensive effect at 30 mg kg. The third fraction produced hypertensive effects at a dose of 200 mg kg. The authors noted that, apparently, with each succeeding extraction, less of the hypotensive principle was extracted. The hypotensive effect of the V103 fraction in rats was demonstrated at a dose of 500 mg kg, and was hypothesized to act via a parasympathomimetic effect, blockade of the carotid sinus reflex, and CNS depression (37).

Copulation and fertilization

Copulation in most terrestrial species occurs as the male straddles the female from behind. Typical examples of this type of copulation occur in deer, elephants, mice, and cats. Most animals remain in this position, but some, especially dogs (Canidae), may then turn 180 degrees and continue a prolonged copulation in a copulatory lock, where the penis points 180 degrees away from the head, and both animals face in the opposite direction. Another situation occurs in Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) where copulation occurs as

Ontogeny and development

Placental mammals constitute the largest group of mammals. In these species, which includes, cats, dogs, horses, bats, rats and humans, fertilized ova migrate to the uterus where they implant and fuse with the lining of the uterus called en-dometrium, which then leads to the creation of a placenta, a highly vascular membrane that acts as the exchange barrier between embryo(s) and mother. Young develop inside the female tract to varying degrees, but even the most altricial of placental mammals (polar bears Ursus maritimus, for example) still are more developed at birth than marsupials. Internal development can be extremely advanced and lead to birth of young that are able to stand and run almost immediately after birth. Wildebeests, elephants and guinea pigs all have precocial young (offspring born fully developed) in this category.

Peculiar mechanisms Induced ovulation

Induced ovulation occurs in many species, but is best understood in mammalian carnivores. Examples of species with induced ovulation include cats (Felidae), bears (Ursidae), and numerous Mustelidae such as wolverine (Gulo gulo), striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), and North American river otter (Lontra canadensis). For species with induced ovulation, it appears that a certain level of stimulation is required for eggs to be released, and thus it has been hypothesized that females may use the ability of a male to induce her ovulation as an indicator of male vigor, hence male quality. In these species, females may not be able to compare males simultaneously and because of the severity of the environment, may not be sure of her ability to find mates. In this case, the best strategy for the females would be to mate with all males encountered, and bear offspring from the male that induces the greatest stimulus. Evidence in black bears (Ursus americanus) of multiple paternity within single...

Peculiar morphology The mammalian penis bone

Ulum or os penis, is probably one of the most puzzling and least understood bones of the mammalian skeleton. Present in a variety of orders including Insectivora, Chiroptera, Primates, Rodentia, and Carnivora, this bone does not occur in all Orders in the Mammalia, but also does not occur in all species within each Order. Within a species the bone also varies in size, with older individuals typically possessing longer penis bones. In the mammals, the largest penis bone in absolute and relative size occurs in the walrus (Odobenus rosmarus), where the baculum may reach up to 22 in (54 cm) in length. In contrast, the bone is mostly vestigial in rodents such as North American beavers (Castor canadensis), and very small in all felids (cats), which have spines on the penis.

Assembling Connectivity Matrices

Over the last 15 years tract tracing data have been collated in several nonhuman species rats, cats, monkeys (mainly macaques). Some of these have become legacy data. In macaque monkeys, the first comprehensive review of connectivity within the visual system and within the sensorimotor system was published by Felleman and Van Essen (1991). Connectivity matrices resulting from this study have been published and analyzed by others numerous times (see e.g. Sporns and Tononi in this volume). Young added additional data from


Most CSD begins with a scratch from the claw or tooth of a kitten younger than six months of age. It can also be inflicted by an adult cat, or from contact of the animal's saliva with broken skin or the eye. Previous investigations into the responsible organism identified a family of a-proteobacteria based on 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences (6). Currently it is believed that Bartonella henselae, a Gram-negative bacterium, is the causative organism in CSD. In California, about 40 of cats carry Bartonella (9). Fleas are the vector transmitting the infection between cats, with bacteria subsequently found in the animal's saliva. In cats, the carrier state is generally asymptomatic (although experimental inoculations have produced a mild illness with fever, anemia, and transient neurological dysfunction) and an animal may carry the bacteria for months. The disease seems to rarely occur following a dog scratch or even from porcupine quills, cactus spines, or rosebush thorns. Most cases of...

The role of ovarian hormones in nonprimate female mammals

The crucial role of follicular hormones for female sexual behavior is not limited to rats and mice. I will not review the huge amount of data that has been accumulated over the years, but it appears to be quite obvious that these hormones are necessary for the display of sexual behavior in most mammals. Possible exceptions include some primates, like the human, as we will see in a couple of paragraphs. However, follicular hormones are not the only ovarian products that are involved in female sexual behavior. Although the follicular hormones, i.e. estradiol, estrone or estriol, can activate complete female rat sexual behavior if administered in doses large enough, the addition of a small dose of progesterone renders a small, otherwise ineffective, dose of estradiol capable of activating all aspects of sex behavior (Beach, 1942b). In rats, estrogens usually need to be administered at least 24 hours before progesterone in order for the latter hormone to be effective. It is now known that...

Dodos Solitaires And People

Dodos and solitaires were driven to extinction by human hunting. They were frequently killed for food, particularly by sailors visiting the islands they once inhabited. They also suffered from the introduction of non-native species such as pigs, cats, and rats by humans. Some dodos and solitaires were brought to Europe where they were associated with exotic islands. Because dodos were so quickly hunted to extinction, they continue to serve as symbols of extinction.

Significance to humans

Trematodes that infect such household pets as rabbits, dogs, and cats may cause gastrointestinal symptoms requiring veterinary treatment. In the case of dogs, the trematode Nanophyetus salmincola or so-called salmon-poisoning fluke, may cause a fatal disease resembling distemper because it carries a rickettsia (a type of bacterium) to which dogs are susceptible. The rickettsia, however, does not produce clinical disease in either humans or cats.

Basic processes learning and memory

That is, the monkeys no longer required a period during which they learned to choose the rewarded object through trial-and-error. Rather, their response on the first trial of a new problem (whether it was correct or incorrect) informed them which object to choose on subsequent trials. This understanding of the solution to the problem based on one experience with two novel objects was called learning set, or learning to learn by Harlow. It is a good example of cognitive flexibility. Learning set is still used to study aspects of learning and cognitive flexibility in humans and non-humans. Animals of a multitude of species are capable of learning set, including cats, rats, squirrels, minks, sea lions, and several species of monkeys. The investigation of learning set in rats demonstrates the importance of considering the species-typical sensory capacities of an animal when studying cognition. Rats, who have very poor vision but excellent olfactory ability, have some difficulty...

Greater sticknest rat

Scientists have been trying to repopulate various offshore Australian islands with the rats after having eradicated feral cats and other pests that could prey on the animals. Over the past few years, a successful breeding program in captivity has produced a large number of rats used to repopulate Australia, and the total greater stick-nest rat population has increased fivefold to over 5,000 individuals.

Self recognition and theory of mind

Mirrors provide a novel and rich source of information about social cognition in animals. The behavior of an animal toward its mirror image suggests much about the animal's understanding of the source of that image. Many animals such as cats and dogs, when first encountering their own mirror image, behave as though they have encountered a stranger of their own species. They may show aggressive behavior such as threats, or they may attempt to play and to reach around the mirror as though attempting to find the other animal. With time, the dog or cat will ignore the mirror image and no longer attempt to engage the reflection in social interaction. For the most part, monkeys behave in a similar way to their mirror image.

The ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus

I have already mentioned that rather old studies had shown that estrogen implanted at some hypothalamic sites in ovariectomized animals could reactivate female sexual behavior in cats, rabbits and ewes. Many more recent studies have confirmed these observations and offered additional data with regard to the exact site of action (e.g. Pleim et al., 1989). There is no doubt that activation of estrogen and progestin receptors within the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus is sufficient for the induction of complete sexual receptivity in female rats. This has not only been found by implanting minute amounts of estradiol followed by progesterone into that area, but also through local administration of estrogen or progesterone receptor antagonists or antisense oligonucleotides directed against the estrogen or progesterone receptors. After implantation of estradiol, alone or combined with systemic or local progesterone, sexual behavior is enhanced in ovariec-tomized subjects as we...

Disadvantages of domestication

Domesticated cats have helped people keep homes free of rodents for many thousands of years. (Photo by Ernest A. James. Bruce Coleman, Inc. Reproduced by permission.) Domesticated cats have helped people keep homes free of rodents for many thousands of years. (Photo by Ernest A. James. Bruce Coleman, Inc. Reproduced by permission.) animals in Africa and leads to the total devastation of the landscape. Bison almost became extinct because pasture lands were required for domestic cattle in North America. Large areas of rainforest in South America are being converted to pasture for cattle today, presenting conservation difficulties. Herds of sheep and goats completely devastated large areas of Mediterranean and central Asia. The infestation by domestic rabbits nearly devastated the breeding of sheep, another domesticated animal, in more than half of the Australian continent. Enormous ecological damage was committed by wild populations of goats and pigs that were abandoned by sailors in...

Domestic cat Felis silvestris f catus

The progenitor of the domestic cat is the African subspecies of wild cat (Felis silvestris lybica). Domestication of the cat occurred in Egypt from 4000 to 2000 B.C. Preserved cat mummies provide dometication evidence. The oldest are of tamed cats from the 4000 B.C. period while mummies from the end of the Middle Kingdom period are of domesticated cats. The domesticated cats have shortened skulls and often irregular denture. The cat likely started its coexistence with humans voluntarily and to the benefit of both sides. Wild cats were drawn together into the Nile Valley because of the number of rodents that accompany human settlements. They quickly became common domesctic animals and they achieved the status of sacred animal of the goddess Bastet. The domestic cat has spread from Egypt throughout the Mediterranean and reached southern Europe in 500 B.C. The cat came to the east with merchants to Turkey, Persia, and along the silk road to China and Southeast Asia. It penetrated Central...

Bacillary angiomatosis

Bacillary angiomatosis (BA) was first described in the 1980s in HIV patients (Review Maguina 2000). It is caused by the two rickettsial species Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana ( Rochalimaea until the beginning of the 1990s). Cats are the main hosts for Bartonella henselae, and cat fleas are the vectors. Various pathogen reservoirs for Bartonella quintana have been discussed, as patients from poor social backgrounds, in particular the homeless, frequently become infected (Gasquet 1998). involvement. Since transmission is mainly via cats, American guidelines recommend not having cats as pets. If there is no way around this, the cat should be healthy and older than one year. Scratches should be avoided.

Integrated rabbit control

A variety of poisons and fumigants are still used against feral rabbits, though safety, environmental, and humane concerns have been raised. The most widely used vertebrate control pesticide is 1080 (sodium monofluoroacetate), which is formulated into paste, pellet, food cube, grain, and carcass baits to poison animals such as rabbits, feral pigs, wallabies, wombats, dingos (wild dogs), possums, rats, mice, and foxes. Food chain risks are inherent in poison baiting, particularly when individuals lack baiting expertise. Another drawback is that sheep, cattle, horses, goats, cats, dogs, some native wildlife, and humans are also very susceptible to 1080, and there is no known antidote to the poison.

Average Density of GABAimmunoreactive Punctae per Ceil in Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex

Cortex, and this is considerably more dense than that seen in adult animals (Coyle and Molliver, 1977). Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the enzyme involved in the synthesis of norepinephrine and dopamine, increases steadily in rat cortex between the first and seventh postnatal weeks (Johnston and Coyle, 1980). The (J-adren-ergic receptor increases sharply between the first and second postnatal weeks before plateauing (Harden et al., 1977). Studies in cat have suggested that norepinephrine may play a key role in the plasticity of synaptic connections (Kasamatsu and Petdgrew, 1976). Following monocular visual deprivation, cats depleted of norepinephrine (Kasamatsu and Petdgrew, 1976) or given clonidine, a drug that inhibits the release of this transmitter (Nelson, Schwartz, and Daniels, 1975), fail to convert binocularly driven neurons to a monocularly driven pattern.

Alberts Lyrebird Menura alberti

Conservation status The World Conservation Union (IUCN) categorized Albert's lyrebird as a Vulnerable species in 2003. Part of the reason for the classification is because of the bird's apparent inability to cross over areas of unsuitable habitat to colonize other appropriate environments. Other threats include wild cats, human infringement on rainforest areas, and naturally occurring wildfires that periodically sweep through their environment.

South African porcupine

Primarily nocturnal, although may be seen during day. Generally, either solitary creatures or living in small family groups, clans of up to six family members in which both parents give long-term care to young. Burrows are often dug in order to spend day hours inside, coming out at night to feed. Use an alternating gait when walking slowly and trot when running, able to swim fairly well and can climb if necessary. Very acute hearing and will freeze when approached by predators, such as big cats, large predatory birds, or hyenas. When cornered, can be aggressive, often running sideways or backwards to embed sharp quills in attacker. Cannot throw quills, but may become dislodged when hollow rattling quills are shaken. Defensive behavior is often to hide in their holes facing in and erect their spines so that they cannot be dislodged. Not threatened. Generally, throughout its range, it is common and does not face significant threat. Adaptability to wide range of habitats and food types...

Studies in intact mammals General

I am aware of the fact that there are innumerable anecdotes on dogs and cats and other domestic animals preferring their own sex. Stories about dogs being homosexual or lesbian cats are legion wherever pet enthusiasts gather and I fear similar stories about horses, cows and pigs circulate whenever male farmers meet out of reach of the censorship of their wives. I would not for a moment doubt as to the veracity of all these anecdotes, but I am not entirely convinced about their significance. Pets and domestic animals are raised and live in environments that are extremely remote from their natural habitats. The animals themselves are extremely remote from their wild ancestors. And above all, they have social, interspecies relationships of a most unusual kind. Their behavior is a result of all these peculiar circumstances. Our laboratory rats and mice are definitely more representative of a 'natural' animal than a Belgian Blue cow or a Chinese crested powder puff dog.

Introduction of exotics

Humans have accidentally and intentionally introduced species into new areas. In a sense, agricultural production itself is a replacement of natural species by domesticated species, under human control. Other examples also abound. Domestic cats (Felis catus) brought by Europeans to Australia, out-competed or out ate many small, native marsupials. A small, Australian marsupial (Trichosurus vulp cula, the brush-tail possum) was introduced into New Zealand in 1837. The varmint prospered beyond all expectations, threatening New Zealand's fragile domestic wildlife. Other familiar examples of unfortunate mammalian introductions include rabbits and foxes into Australia goats and cats into the Gal pagos and Hawaii rats, goats, and cats into Cuba and Hispaniola (pity the poor Solenodon) mongoose into Jamaica hogs into too many parts of the southeastern United States and horses in North America.

Avoiding Human Exposure

Breeding stock (ruminant, poultry, and mink), and others (dogs and cats), respectively. Among 77 countries which have regulations for different mycotoxins, eight have specific regulations for OA, with limits ranging from 1 to 20 mg kg in different foods. Regulatory guidelines to limit the presence of PT to 50 mg kg in various foods and juices have been established by at least ten countries worldwide. Details on worldwide regulatory issues and permissive levels of mycotoxins in foods and feeds have appeared in a number of recent reviews (Park and Troxell 2002 Van Egmond 2002 Chu 2002).

Feeding ecology and diet

The frugiverous palm civets, kinkajou (Potos flavus), and raccoons, hardly ever eat meat. Mustelids are probably the most exclusively meat eating family, weasels and their allies being known as fierce and combative predators capable of killing prey up to 10 times their body weight and otters living mainly of fish, crayfish, crabs, and frogs. However, European badgers rely mainly on earthworms. Mongooses live mainly off insects, although some species are known as snake killers. Cats too are mainly carnivorous, the large cats are probably the most spectacular of all predators. Bears, viverrids, dogs, and hyenas are more omnivorous, although all, except viverrids, have meat-eating specialists amongst their ranks. Polar bears, African wild dogs, and spotted hyenas rarely divert from a meat diet, but brown bears, brown hyenas, and jackals are all truly omnivorous. The aardwolf is another strict specialist feeding almost exclusively on snouted harvester termites of the genus Trinervitermes....

Animal Models In Pharmacokinetics

In pharmacokinetics, healthy animals are used to study absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs. For drugs intended for human use, mice, rats, and dogs are generally used. In certain cases, non-human primates or minipigs are used. For veterinary drugs, pharmacokinetic studies are generally conducted in healthy animals of the actual target species, such as cattle, small ruminants, horses, pigs, dogs, or cats.

Effects of Exogenous GH Administration on Sleep Quality

Early studies in rats and in cats indicated that injections of exogenous GH may stimulate REM sleep (94,95). In humans, the stimulation of REM sleep was confirmed in a study involving an intramuscular GH injection administered 15 min before bedtime (96). In addition, this treatment resulted in a decrease in SW sleep. A more recent study reported no effects on sleep quality when GH levels were elevated either by intravenous infusion or by intramuscular injection given approx 3 h before sleep onset (97). As indicated above, in GH-deficient subjects, prolonged treatment with daily injections of exogenous GH resulted in a marked increase in REM sleep (92).

Enteric infections with coronaviruses and toroviruses

Many enteric viruses are difficult or impossible to propagate in tissue culture. Coronaviruses and toroviruses are large, enveloped, plus-strand RNA viruses in the order Nidovirales that cause enteric disease in young pigs, cows, dogs, mice, cats and horses. Two different serogroups of mammalian coronaviruses cause frequent respiratory infections in humans, and coronaviruses and toroviruses have been implicated in human diarrhoeal disease by immunoelectron microscopy. However, there is as yet no consensus about the importance of these enveloped viruses in human diarrhoea, and little is known about their genetic variability. The large spike (S) glycoprotein is an important determinant of species specificity, tissue tropism and virulence of coronavirus infection. To infect enterocytes, both S glycoproteins and the viral envelope must resist degradation by proteases, low and high pH, and bile salts. One specific site on the S glycoprotein of bovine coronavirus must be cleaved...

Lesser New Zealand shorttailed bat

Restricted to a portion of their former range, leaving them in isolated populations. They are vulnerable to predation by introduced species such as stoats, cats, and rats, and to the destruction of their forest habitat. They are currently listed as Vulnerable by the IUCN and in the New Zealand Red Data Book, but may be moved into the Endangered category.

Blackandwhite Warbler Mniotilta varia

Behavior and reproduction It spends much of its time creeping up tree trunks in search of small insects and other creatures in the little openings and cracks in the bark. Its song is a quiet and short peeping phrase. These warblers migrate north a bit earlier than most other warblers, and soon begin breeding. They usually build their nests on the ground, although a few construct theirs in a hidden spot just up the side of a tree trunk, and then use some carefully placed leaves to camouflage the nest. Each pair has four or five eggs that hatch in ten days. Predation on the ground nests by dogs, cats, raccoons, and other animals is common.

Animal Models Of Poag

Animal models of POAG Various animal models for inducible glaucoma have been reported. Argon laser photocoagulation of the TM in rhesus monkeys results in sustained elevation of IOP and has been used extensively to study early damage to the optic nerve head (May et al., 1997). Corticosteroids such as betamethasone and dexamethasone have been used to treat rabbits, dogs, and cats to develop ocular hypertension (Bonomi et al., 1978). Steroid treatment generally produces progressive glaucoma, but this process is reversed after about two months after cessation of the steroid. Trabecular blockage caused by inflammation after a-chymotrypsin treatment also has been used to produce elevated IOP in rabbit and monkey eyes (Vareilles et al., 1977). Some types of avian species (chicken, quail, and turkey) have been known to develop elevated IOP as a consequence of continuous exposure to light.

Canine And Feline Gastrointestinal Microbiota Gram Positive Intestinal Bacteria

In healthy cats, the total number of duodenal microbiota is reported to range from 105 to 109 cfu ml, most of the bacteria being anaerobic (10,19). The most common anaerobic isolates belonged to groups Bacteroides, Clostridium, Eubacteria and Fusobacteria, whereas Pasteurella spp were the most prevailing aerobic bacteria in feline proximal small intestine. In addition, Acinetobacter spp, Pseudomonas spp and Lactobacillus spp were detected in the duodenal samples of healthy cats (10,19). Lactobacilli were also isolated from feline fecal samples (20).

Intestinal Pathogenic Bacteria

Escherichia coli is a normal intestinal inhabitant in warm-blooded animals, including cats and dogs, although its clinical significance as canine and feline enteropathogen is not very well documented. Colonization is believed to take place within the first days of a newborn animal. Certain strains of E. coli may act as intestinal pathogens causing gastrointestinal infections. Enteropathogenic E. coli and enterotoxigenic E. coli are known to associate with canine diarrhea, especially in young dogs (27-30). However, these strains have been isolated from non-diarrheic animals, too (28,30,31). Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) has been isolated occasionally from dogs. Most of these reports are from dogs living in contact with cattle. EHEC has never been documented in cats (24).

Modifying The Intestinal Microbiota Pre And Probiotics

Today, there is growing interest in modifying their gut microbiota towards what is considered a healthy composition, i.e., increase in LAB and bifidobacteria, and decrease in potential pathogenic bacteria (72). Many commercial pet foods now contain prebiotics (e.g., fructo-oligosaccharides, FOS). In addition, probiotics are also marketed for dogs and cats.

Hemorrhagic Stroke Model

Several animal models of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) have been developed in mice, rats, rabbits, cats, and nonhuman primates. A widely used method that produces ICH by injection of bacterial collagenase into the basal ganglia was first introduced in the rat and was subsequently studied in the mouse (Rosenberg et al., 1990 Clark et al., 1998). This enzyme digests the collagen present in the basal lamina of blood vessels and causes bleeding into the surrounding brain tissue. However, another study demonstrated that bacterial collagenase causes a significant inflammatory reaction and likely

Symbiosis and animal parasitism

Horses, pigs, and other farm animals. The Chinese liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis, is an important parasite of humans and other fish-eating mammals in Far Eastern countries. Fish farming in east Asia is a major source of fluke infections in people. In other areas, dogs and cats serve as reservoir hosts of C. sinensis. Paragonimus westermani, the lung fluke, infects humans, cats, dogs, and rats. Occurences of this fluke are extremely prevalent in the people of China, the Philippines, Thailand, and other Asian countries.

Classification Of Disease Models

As the name implies, induced models are healthy animals in which the condition to be investigated is experimentally induced, for instance, the induction of diabetes mellitus with encepha-lomyocarditis virus,11 allergy against cow's milk through immunization with minute doses of protein,12 or partial hepatectomy to study liver regeneration.13 The induced-model group is the only category that theoretically allows a free choice of species. Although one might be tempted to presume that extrapolation from an animal species to the human is the better the closer this species resembles humans (high fidelity), phylogenetic closeness, as fulfilled by primate models, is not a guarantee for validity of extrapolation, as the unsuccessful chimpanzee models in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) research have demonstrated.14 It isjust as decisive that the pathology and outcome of an induced disease or disorder in the model species resembles the respective lesions of the target species. Feline...

Focal Ischemic Stroke Models

Focal ischemic stroke models, whether in larger mammals such as cats, dogs, or nonhuman primates, or in small mammals such as rodents, usually involve occlusion of one MCA (Lipton 1999). Focal ischemia is differentiated from global ischemia in two ways. First, even at the core of the lesion, the blood flow is almost always higher than during global ischemia so that longer insults are required to cause damage. Second, there is a significant gradation of ischemia from the core of the lesion to its outermost boundary, and hence there are different metabolic conditions within the affected site. Because of its duration and heterogeneity, the insult is much more complex than global ischemia, but it is an invaluable model for stroke and is thus widely studied. There are two models of focal ischemic stroke transient focal ischemia and permanent focal ischemia. In transient focal ischemia models, vessels are blocked for up to 3 h, followed by prolonged reperfusion, whereas in permanent focal...

Tongue Worm Linguatula serrata


Tongue worms live in the noses of dogs, foxes, coyotes, wolves, and cats. (Illustration by The Gale Group.) Tongue worms live in the noses of dogs, foxes, coyotes, wolves, and cats. (Illustration by The Gale Group.) Habitat Adult tongue worms live in the noses of dogs, foxes, coyotes, wolves, and cats (definitive hosts). They rarely infect people. The larvae infest the tissues and organs of rabbits, horses, goats, and sheep (intermediate hosts). External Parasitic Diseases of Dogs and Cats. http (accessed on March 18, 2005).

The Parasomnias

Degeneration of lower brainstem nuclei like the PPN and periceruleal nucleus. Specifically, on the basis of the studies in cats, several brainstem areas such as lat-erodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDTN), perilocus ceruleus region (peri-LC), nucleus reticularis magnocellularis, and the ventrolateral reticulospinal tracts, in addition to the PPN, have been implicated (13). Lesions in the peri-LC regions lead to REM sleep without atonia and, in one of the first cases of RBD to come to autopsy, there was a marked reduction in the number of neurons in LC, whereas an increased number of neurons in the PPN and LDTN were observed (42). The authors suggested that RBD could have been caused by decreased cholinergic activity of the LC and reduced disinhibition of the PPN and LTDN. However, this is controversial, as others have noted depletion of neuro-melanin neurons in LC and depleted choline-acetyl transferase neurons in the LDTN and PPN in multiple system atrophy cases (43). Furthermore, why...


Though you won't find jungle cats or large animals in the rainforest, it is host to a mind-boggling fifty million species of invertebrates. On a single tree alone in Peru, one scientist found more than fifty different species of ants. Despite these impressive statistics, experts estimate that 137 species of life forms become extinct every day in the rainforests, mostly due to logging and cattle ranching.


Approximately 30 species of fleas worldwide serve as major vectors for transmission of Y. pestis. Wild animal reservoirs include cats, coyotes, prairie dogs, squirrels, marmots, and other small rodents. Fleas ingest organisms during a blood meal from one of these host mammals. The organism then multiplies in the flea gut and expresses a coagulase, which results in clotting of ingested blood. Gut motility is effectively blocked, and at subsequent feedings infectious blood is regurgitated into a new host. In most cases, the rodent hosts are relatively resistant, but during epizootic plague depopulation of these animals may occur. In this situation, fleas are forced to look for alternative hosts, posing a serious health concern to humans. Therefore, human outbreaks are usually preceded by epizootic outbreaks.

Milk composition

The first milk, or colostrum, contains a high concentration of maternal antibodies, or immunoglobins, active phago-cytic cells, and bacteriocidal enzymes. While neonatal primates, guinea pigs, and rabbits acquire their circulating maternal immunoglobins in utero, other mammals such as ungulates, marsupials, and mink depend on the colostrum as their sole source of a passive immune system. Yet another group, intermediate to these two, acquire maternal immuno-globins, both in utero and from colostrum. Among these animals are rats, cats, and dogs. The differences in in-utero transfer of immunoglobins are determined by the number of cellular layers in the placenta that separates fetal and maternal circulation.

Oriental region

Wooded savannas formerly connected the Indian subcontinent with Africa, although these linking areas now consist largely of desert. Groups in common between the Oriental and Ethiopian regions include elephants (one species in each), rhinoceroses, big cats (lion, leopard, and cheetah), viverrids, and great apes. Orangutans (genus Pongo) occur on Borneo and Sumatra and the 14 species of gibbons are distributed from eastern India and southern China through Southeast Asia. There are seven endemic genera of monkeys containing 26 species. Two of these are restricted to Sri Lanka, and two to the Mentawai Islands off the coast of Sumatra. The Oriental region lacks the great diversity of antelopes and other herbivores present in Ethiopian region, though a few species are present. Three are endemic to India, blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra), nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus), and four-horned antelope (Tetracerus quadricor-nis). The herbivore niches are filled in...


Exposure Prophylaxis IgG-negative patients can protect themselves from initial infection - they should avoid eating raw or only briefly cooked meat (lamb, beef, pork, game). However, it has not been proven, despite widespread opinion, that HIV patients can infect themselves by mere contact with cats, the definitive host of toxoplasma gondii. The only study that has seriously investigated this to date could not prove endangerment as a result of proximity to cats (Wallace 1993). Nevertheless, hygiene measures should be taken (e.g. use gloves for the cat litter box ). Primary Prophylaxis All IgG-positive patients with less than 100 CD4 cells l require primary prophylaxis. The drug of choice is co-trimoxazole. In cases of allergy, desensitization may be considered (see PCP). Alternatives are dapsone plus pyrimethamine or high-dose dapsone alone. Primary prophylaxes can be discontinued if CD4 cells are above 200 l for at least three months on HAART.


Classified as Vulnerable population of 3,000-5,000 birds appears to be declining. Breeding habitat is deteriorating due to increasing recreational use of rivers and to invasion of weeds, apparently as a result of hydroelectric plants upriver. Predation by stoat (Mustela erminea), cats, and kelp gulls (Larus domini-canus) is probably significant.

Brown rat

Eats a variety of things, although it prefers meat. It can swim, dive, and catch fish. In the 1940s, a pack of 15,000 brown rats decimated the bird population of a sanctuary on the island of Nooderoog, eating eggs and catching seagulls, ducks, passerines, and other species. They have also been known to eat mice, chickens, ducks, and geese, and will gnaw on lambs and piglets. Rat packs have ganged up to kill cats and dogs that have been deployed to keep their populations in check. They have been known to feed on elephants, invalids, and newborn babies. They have also been described as cannibalistic. It will take its catch back to its den for feasting, and can live without water as long as it consumes sufficiently moist food.

Aegotheles insignis

Physical characteristics Feline owlet-nightjars look somewhat like cats. Their faces have a feline shape. Tufts of feathers above the eyes look like cats' ears, and they have whiskery bristles around the bill. Feline owlet-nightjars have long feathers that appear fluffy. Plumage color ranges from rufous to brown. Feather patterns include brown and black vermicular, twisted, lines and white spots on the body. There are two white stripes on the head, and birds have white bars on their tails.

Why and how

We have to appreciate that the first breeders of domestic animals did not have any instructions and they were not able to imagine where domestication would lead. It is assumed that the initial reasons motivating domestication were frequently different from the animals' subsequent use. However, the main reason was very simply to access a supply of food. Exceptions are cats and dogs, which became partners to people, and later assumed many other roles, such as dogs becoming guardians. Even though of various origins, the domestication scenarios of most animals were analogous and evolved in three main steps. First came capturing and holding a wild animal in captivity (mostly young animals, when their mothers were killed in the hunt), followed by gradual taming and herding. The third phase was breeding, where humans started to generate animals according to their needs or beliefs that they were improving certain desirable qualities (intensive livestock husbandry). Sometimes it was a...


One of the first signs of domestication is variability of color. The individuals all have white spots or all white or all black. It is interesting that white coloring is usually connected with lower performance (there are few white racing horses and even fewer winners) or with different defects (white noble cats have a high incidence of deafness).

Black skimmer

Breeding colonies often in conflict with recre-ationists and people living along sandy beaches. Eggs and young vulnerable to tidal flooding, human-enhanced predators (dogs, cats, foxes, raccoons), direct human disturbance, and egging. Riverine colonies in South America particularly vulnerable to flooding from heavy rains.

Eastern mole

Its diet includes mostly insect larvae and earthworms, but it also eats other invertebrates, including slugs and centipedes, as well as roots and seeds. Predators include hawks and owls during the rare occasions when the mole is on the surface, or digging mammals, such as foxes, and domestic cats and dogs.


Pushing us towards habitual monogamy, or at least pulling us further into it, was the sexual division of labour over food. Like no other species on the planet, we had invented a unique partnership between the sexes. By sharing plant food gathered by women, men had won the freedom to indulge the risky luxury of hunting for meat. By sharing hunted meat gathered by men, women had won access to high-protein, digestible food without having to abandon their young in seeking it. It meant that our species had a way of living on the dry plains of Africa that cut the risk of starvation when meat was scarce, plant food filled the gap when nuts and fruits were scarce, meat filled the gap. We had therefore acquired a high-protein diet without developing an intense specialisation for hunting the way the big cats did.


There are many more stories of invasive mammals to tell, and more details untold about feral pigs, foxes, rabbits, cats, squirrels, rats, mice, horses, burros, and other invasive mammals than can easily fit on the printed page. But this overview However, the human side of the equation must never be forgotten when dealing with invasive mammals, as many of these animals in other non-pest contexts are highly valued. Hence, pestiferous feral cats, rabbits, wild horses, burros, pigs, and other mammals causing problems cannot be treated as the object of extermination like cockroaches or termites. Every mammal seems to be loved by some group, be it hunters and indigenous people who favor wild pigs or animal rights groups who champion freedom for minks. Right or wrong, good or bad, these varied human sensibilities need to be taken into account in designing any integrated pest management program to control invasive mammals. For example, in the western United States, capturing wild horses and...

Canine heartworm

Primarily live in the tropics, subtropics, and some temperate areas. They are found in dogs, cats, foxes, wolves, and other wild carnivores as well as in sea lions and humans. Within the host, adults live in the right ventricle and the adjacent blood vessels from the posterior vena cava, hepatic vein, and anterior vena cava to the pulmonary artery. Usually infest the heart of its hosts through about 30 species of mosquitoes. Adults live in the peripheral branches of the pulmonary arteries and produce large numbers of microfilaria that circulate throughout the bloodstream. They usually infect dogs, but also cats, ferrets, and seals. These hosts are the definitive hosts, while mosquitoes are the intermediate hosts. Lifecycle begins when a dog with circulating microfilaria is bitten by a mosquito. They are passed into the bloodstream where they remain active for up to one year or more, but are incapable of further development until ingested by a mosquito. Microfilaria matures into...


The types of enrichment and the applications are limitless. Some groups of mammals have been documented to have specific preferences. For example, exotic cats in captivity are drawn to spices such as cinnamon, nutmeg, and paprika sprinkled in their enclosures. Perfume sprayed on surfaces in their enclosure also arouses their curiosity and excitement. For other mammals, cardboard boxes and objects that they can roll are enjoyed. Enrichment can be used to elicit natural behaviors in captivity as well as improve overall physical health through exercise. Food is also frequently used as an enrichment tool because it solicits the natural hunting and foraging behaviors of animals. Food with interesting textures or new flavors, and food that is hidden in hard to reach places, all make good enrichment items. Many animals love popsi-cles, blocks of ice with food or bone inside. One of the Minnesota Zoo tigers is reported to put her popsicles into the tiger pool to make the ice melt faster.

Eremophila alpestris

Conservation status This species is not officially threatened, although its habitat in a number of areas is jeopardized by development and reforestation of grasslands. As a ground-nester, the horned lark is also heavily preyed upon by cats, skunks, raccoons, coyotes, and other predators.

Infectious disease

Falo) to sympatric wildlife can result in a range of potentially fatal infectious diseases. Canine distemper virus is believed to have caused several fatal epidemics among African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), silverback jackals (Canis mesomelas), and bat-eared foxes (Otocyon megalotis) in the Serengeti. Populations of African lions (Panthera leo) and cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) have probably been affected by diseases transmitted from domestic cats. Problems of disease transmission from wildlife to domesticated animals and human beings may also be severe, but they are beyond the scope of this essay.


The 2002 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species lists 120 carnivores of which three, the Falkland Island Wolf (Dusicyon australis), the sea mink (Mustela macrodon), and the Barbados raccoon (Procyon gloveralleni), are classified as Extinct one, the black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes), as Extinct in the Wild and five, the red wolf (Canis rufus), the Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis), the Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), the Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus), and the Malabar civet (Viverra civettina), as Critically Endangered. Thirty-two species comprising three viverrids, five mongooses, four cats, one bear, two eared seals, one canid, eight procyonids, seven mustelids, and one true seal are classified as Endangered, and 40 including five viverrids, four mongooses, 12 cats, three bears, five eared seals, two canids, eight mustelids, and one true seal are Vulnerable. The only family with no members classified as Endangered or Vulnerable is the small hyena family. The...

Seychelles scopsowl

The extremely small population (estimated at 180-360 as of 2000) remains threatened by habitat destruction for housing development and forest clearance for agriculture and by introduced predators (e.g., rats, cats, etc.). Morne Seychellois National Park encompasses much of the highland forest where this species occurs.

Amytornis striatus

Conservation status By the early twenty-first century the striated grasswren had been listed by the New South Wales National Park as Near Threatened, in danger of becoming threatened. Their population and distribution has been severely reduced due destruction of favorable habitat by overgrazing, the introduction of herbivores, as well as predatory cats and foxes, and extensive fires.

Popular pets

According to the American Pet Products Manufacturers Association 2001-2002 National Pet Owners Survey, there are an estimated 73 million pet cats in the United States. About one out of every three households has at least one cat and, on average, have two cats. Males and females are equally popular and about 80 of all household cats are spayed or neutered. Dogs currently are just slightly less popular than cats. Although more households (four out every ten) have a dog than a cat, most households have only one dog, resulting in about 63 million pet dogs in the United States. Dogs are slightly less likely to be spayed or neutered than cats. The importance of spaying and neutering is emphasized by some statistics provided by the Humane Society of the United States. A female cat can have an average of three litters every year, with an average of four to six kittens per litter. Cats typically live up to 15 years and become sexually mature by the time they are a year old. Theoretically,...

Other Viral Vectors

Immunization with the recombinant measles virus vector completely protected the highly susceptible IFN a p receptor-deficient mice from lethal WNV challenge, and serum from vaccinated mice when passively transferred to BALB c mice conferred protection. Analogously, immunization with a recombinant canarypox virus encoding WNV prM-E genes induced neutralizing antibodies in cats, dog, and horses, and prevented viremia upon challenge with WNV-infected mosquitoes (Karaca et al. 2005 Minke et al. 2004). Lentiviruses that encoded WNV E protein also induced protective neutralizing antibody responses in mice (Iglesias et al. 2006). Although these heterologous virus expression systems have been previously characterized for safety and efficacy, they are still infectious and their use in the elderly or immunocompromised may therefore be limited. in humans. Ann N Y Acad Sci 951 143-152 Kanai R, Kar K, Anthony K, Gould LH, Ledizet M, Fikrig E, Marasco WA, Koski RA, Modis Y (2006) Crystal structure...

Wild cat

Felis (Catus) silvestris Schreber, 1775, Germany. Up to 26 subspecies have been claimed. Four groups are commonly recognized, including the domestic cat (Felis s. catus), the African wild cat group (Felis s. lybica), the forest cats of Europe (silvestris group), and the steppe cats (ornata group) of south and central Asia. European form is oldest, descended from Martelli's cat (Felis silvestris lunensis) 250,000 years ago. African wildcat diverged only 20,000 years ago. Domestic cat derived from African form 4,000 to 7,000 years ago. Not listed by IUCN. Hybridization with domestic cats is leading to increased rarity of pure wild cats, surviving only in remote, protected areas. European wild cats eradicated from much of Europe in eighteenth century, but have re-colonized some countries. There is controversy over whether pure wild cats still exist in Europe, and over whether this really matters, given the small difference between domestic and wild cats. European reintroduction projects...

Chlamydera maculata

Conservation status Spotted bowerbirds are not considered to be threatened. They have declined in some areas because of illegal hunting and killing of the birds by humans, domesticated and feral cats, and foxes, and the widespread clearing and or modification of habitat. Populations are listed as endangered, however, within the state of Victoria.


Clostridium perfringens is an anaerobic, spore-forming bacillus associated with acute and chronic diarrhea in dogs and cats. However, the role of C. perfringens as an intestinal pathogen is questionable, as it commonly harbors in the intestinal tract of healthy dogs, too (23,32). C. perfringens produces toxins, which are classified in five toxigenic types (A-E). C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) is the best characterized virulence factor and coregulated with sporulation. All C. perfringens types can produce CPE, but type A strains are most frequently involved. CPE has been reported to cause nosocomial diarrhea, severe hemorrhagic enteritis, and acute and chronic large bowel diarrhea in dogs (33). On the other hand, CPE is also found in feces of non-diarrheic animals (23,32), although a significant association was present with diarrhea and detection of CPE (23). Both healthy and diarrheic dogs and cats may carry Salmonella. Prevalence in healthy dogs is reported to be between 1 and 38...


Campylobacters are regarded as important zoonotic pathogens. Most of the human infections are food- or water-borne, but infections from pets may also be of concern, especially with immunocompromised people (42-44). Campylobacters have been associated with acute and chronic diarrhea in dogs and cats (43). However, as they are frequently isolated from both healthy and diarrheic animals, it is suggested they are not primary pathogens but more likely opportunistic microbes producing clinical signs in predisposing conditions, such as poor nutrition or housing, or high animal density (45,46). Young dogs seem to be more prone to carry campylobacters, carriage rate being up to 75 of dogs less than 12 months old, whereas the isolation rate in adult dogs was only 32.7 (47,48). Campylobacter shedding correlates clearly with diarrhea in young dogs, but for dogs older than 12 months there was no evident correlation with shedding and clinical disease. In cats, no significant association was found...


Helicobacter spp. are Gram-negative, microaerophilic curved or spiral-shaped motile bacteria. Many gastric Helicobacter-like organisms (GHLO) are frequently found in cats In dogs, H. felis, H. bizzozeronii, H. salomonis, Flexispira rappini, H. bilis, and H. heilmannii have been reported to inhabit the gastric mucosa. The human pathogen H. pylori has not yet been isolated in canine gastric biopsies. However, a recent paper reports presumably non-cultivable H. pylori, or a closely related Helicobacter in two dogs, results based on its 16S rRNA sequence (64). Unlike dogs, cats have been documented to acquire H. pylori, although very infrequently. Feline H. pylori infection has been suggested to be an anthroponosis, i.e., cats are infected by humans carrying H. pylori (63,65-67). In addition to GHLOs, dogs and cats are reported to have also enteric helicobacters. H. canis has been isolated from diarrheic cats and dogs (68,69), and H. marmotae from cat feces (70).

Brown longeared bat

A slow, but skillful flyer, this bat forages for insects in flight and by picking earwigs and spiders off of plants. Research has shown that this species uses taste and or smell to select food items. Predators include ground mammals, such as house cats, that catch the bats while they are gleaning arthropods from vegetation.


FOS supplementation increased fecal lactobacilli and decreased numbers of E. coli in healthy cats, but did not alter the duodenal microbiota (75,76). This supports the notion that, as FOS are nondigestible fibers fermented in the proximal gut in humans (mainly in the large intestine) (77), also in cats FOS have only a minimal effect on the microbes residing in the proximal part of GI tract. In a study of eight cats, feeding lactosucrose increased fecal lactobacilli and bifidobacteria counts significantly, while numbers of clostridia and Enterobacteriaceace decreased significantly (78).

The media

To these mammals, the world is black, white, or shades of gray. The eyes of some diurnal mammals (for example, primates in the families Lorisidae and Leu-muridae, or rodents in the Sciuridae) have both rods and cones, and these mammals can see color. Other mammals such as some cats (Felidae) have color vision, but only perceive a few colors.

Menstrual Cycle

In human females and other primates that have menstrual cycles, coitus (sexual intercourse) may be permitted at any time of the cycle. Nonprimate female mammals, by contrast, are sexually receptive (in heat or estrus ) only at a particular time in their cycles, shortly before or after ovulation. These animals are therefore said to have estrous cycles. Bleeding occurs in some animals (such as dogs and cats) that have estrous cycles shortly before they permit coitus. This bleeding is a result of high estrogen secretion and is not associated with shedding of the endometrium. The bleeding that accompanies menstruation, by contrast, is caused by a fall in estrogen and progesterone secretion.

Dorcas gazelle

According to IUCN, their population trends are drastically declining primarily due to overhunting. Predators include the common jackal, cheetah, lion, leopard, serval cat, desert lynx, wolf, striped hyena, vulture, and eagle. Smaller cats, honey badgers, jackals, and foxes eat fawns. They are particularly vulnerable when they migrate in large numbers.


Cercartetus caudatus is primarily insectivorous, but also can be found eating flowers and possibly plant exudates. Some species, particularly C. nanus, regularly visit flowering plants and feed on nectar and pollen predominantly. Others are more insectivorous or even kill small lizards. Mountain pygmy possums feed on seeds, fruit, insects, and other small invertebrates. In summer, the Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa) is of particular dietary importance. Burramys stores only hard seeds, nuts, etc., in the fall, while soft berries and fruits are eaten at once. All species are prey for owls, carnivorous marsupials, snakes, and feral cats.

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