Natural Childbirth Options

Bump To Birth

The experience that a woman has during childbirth shapes how the rest of her child-raising experience goes, in many ways. A good birth can have a huge effect on how good you feel about your child, whereas a bad birth can often lead to feelings of sadness or PDST-type symptoms due to the pain and struggle of the birth experience. However, you don't need to worry about that now, because the information in this book gives you ALL of the experience and expert advice that you need in order to have a really amazing birth, that really marked that day as the truly special day that it is. This book teaches you how to use natural, holistic remedies to heal yourself during pregnancy in order to make sure that you feel your best during the whole birth experience. You can also learn everything you need to know about natural birth Everything you need to know to have a great pregnancy and birth is in this guide! More here...

Bump To Birth Overview

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All the modules inside this ebook are very detailed and explanatory, there is nothing as comprehensive as this guide.

Incidence Of Parkinsonism

Pathological studies (30,31) show a progressive increase in the rate of incidental Lewy body inclusions with advancing age. These cases are regarded as having preclinical PD. With every decade of life, there is a doubling of incidental Lewy bodies (31). The decline of parkinsonism and PD specifically, in the very old observed in some studies, is attributed to difficulty in ascertaining cases in the presence of comor-bid disorders (18). Age remains the single most important risk factor for parkinsonism. An Italian study noted a 9 increase in risk for every increasing year of age (i.e., a 60-year-old has a 90 greater risk than a 50-year-old), and men had higher risk than women (19). The current lifetime risk of parkinsonism from birth is estimated at 4.4 for men and 3.7 for women (32).

Significance to humans

The first aboriginal settlers of Australia venerated the bandicoot as one of the creators of life. In their spiritual dreamtime stories, they told of Karora, a giant bandicoot who slept in darkness under the earth, until he awoke and gave birth to the first humans from beneath his armpit

Useful Parameters and Landmarks

Measurements of length, weight, and head circumference are standard measurements of a physical examination. These three measurements are the parameters against which all others are compared. They document growth and body proportions. They should be obtained routinely at every visit to a physician in order to be able to assess longitudinal growth and growth relative to an age- and sex-matched standard. Curves of normal standards of growth, weight, and head circumference are included in every text on pediatrics. They usually start from birth and continue until 18 or 20 years of age. In this book, we have chosen the most commonly used standards and taken the liberty, for practicality, of combining some curves. Although the purist may question this process, we do not think it will markedly affect accuracy in most cases, and we hope the easy utilization of having only one curve will encourage regular and complete measurement. We have included geographic data when available, or markedly...

Epidemiological Models

The health profile for countries in Africa and Asia during the acute phase of a conflict or war is usually identified by moderate or severe malnutrition, outbreaks of communicable diseases, and often both. Three-fourths of all epidemics of the last decade took place in the context of a CE. Epidemiological indicators show high crude mortality rates and, if disaggregated, expose the vulnerability among the populations as to age (children under 5 years and the elderly) and gender (women and female-headed households). There is a linear relationship between under age 5 childhood mortality (per 1000) and the percentage of nations engaged in armed conflict. The worst conditions and highest mortality rates are recorded among orphaned and unaccompanied children. High case fatality rates were common among malnourished children in Somalia, with measles contributing to between 50 and 81 of deaths. As such, all children in developing countries in conflict should receive measles vaccine and vitamin...

Special case Babies born to HIVinfected mothers

Important many methods for the detection of HIV nucleic acid may fail in case of unusual HIV-1 subtypes (and with HIV-2) and yield false-negative results (Haas 1996). To exclude this, a maternal sample should also be tested if necessary (e.g. if the mother or her source of infection are from regions with exotic subtypes) to ensure the test's ability to detect the viral strain in question. If the mother (before therapy) tests PCR-positive with the same assay, a negative test result on the child may be used otherwise a suitable method must be chosen in a specialized laboratory or one has to resort to antibody testing alone with its limitations. In exposed babies, at least two negative HIV PCR results are required in order to exclude HIV infection the first one between the 1st and the 4th month of life, the second after the 4th month, as only then does it reach its full significance for exclusion of infection (Scarlatti 1991). In addition, PCR should be performed during the first month...

Reproductive biology

The polyestrous females are physiologically capable of producing litters at any time of the year, although in some areas rainfall and food availability are limiting factors. Bilbies are polygynous. After mating with a socially dominant male, the female undergoes a gestation of just 14 days, then gives birth to one to three young.

JCAHO Infection Control Guidelines

6 Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis (1818-65), a Hungarian obstetrician, introduced antiseptic prophylaxis into medicine. In the 1840s, puerperal or childbirth fever, a bacterial infection of the female genital tract after childbirth, was taking the lives of up to 30 of women who gave birth in hospitals. Women who gave birth at home remained relatively unaffected. Semmelweis observed that women examined by student doctors who had not washed their hands after leaving the autopsy room had very high death rates. When a colleague who had received a scalpel cut died of infection, Semmelweis concluded that puerperal fever was septic and contagious. He ordered students to wash their hands with chlorinated lime before examining patients as a result, the maternal death rate in his hospital was reduced from 12 to 1 in two years. Source funkandwagnalls.com Copyright 1999,2000.

Masoala forkcrowned lemur

There is a tendency towards monogamy, with one adult male and one adult female often occupying a joint territory, but a male may associate with more than one female. Births occur in November-January. Ovarian cycle length about 15 days. Typically gives birth to a single infant. Gestation period unknown.

Age Distributions And Fertility

Echoed by increases or decreases in birth numbers two or three decades hence. Thus to reverse the decline of an aging population (i.e., one with an age distribution increasingly skewed towards older ages) simply by means of an increasing per capita birth rate becomes increasingly difficult over the short term (i.e., less than several decades). In these circumstances inward migration becomes the major defense against a declining workforce, which, as migrants may well have had different previous experiences of infection to that of the host population, in turn may bring changes to the age distributions of susceptibility and immunity in the combined population and have implications for epidemiology and the design of control programs.

Tyrercuzick International Breast Cancer Intervention Study

The personal risk factors incorporated into the IBIS model are the ages at menarche, first childbirth and menopause, parity, height, and body mass index, and two diagnoses associated with increased risk, namely atypical hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ. Both these diagnoses are known to be associated with at least a fourfold increase in risk in the general population (35,36). Some risk factors have not yet been included. These are the administration of exogenous hormones such as the oral contraceptive pill and hormone replacement therapy and the presence of ductal carcinoma in situ.

Brief Review Of The Intestinal Microbiota

From birth to death, the gut is colonized by a diverse, complex, and dynamic bacterial ecosystem that constitutes the intestinal microbiota. In newborns, it develops sequentially according to the maturation of intestinal mucosa and dietary diversification. In healthy conditions, the human baby's intestine is sterile at birth but, within 48 hours, 108 to 109 bacteria can be found in 1 g of feces (9-11). The bacteria colonizing the baby's intestine come from the environment, where maternal vaginal and fecal microbes represent the most important source of bacterial contamination. However, the infant conducts an initial selection, since, out of all the bacteria present, only the facultative anaerobic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Streptococcus will be able to colonize the intestinal tract, whatever the diet. Conditions under which this initial selection is operated have yet to be fully elucidated. They are related to endogenous factors, such as maturation of intestinal mucosa,...

Suckling as a defining feature

Patterns of reproduction are truly fundamental to mammal biology. This is at once apparent from the word mammal itself. In all species of the class Mammalia (monotremes, marsupials, and placentals), females suckle their offspring, and almost all of them have teats (mammae) to deliver the products gathered from the milk-generating glands. As defining features of the class Mammalia, mammary glands and milk production (lactation) are clearly central to mammalian evolution. Indeed, these features undoubtedly appeared at an earlier stage than the birth of live offspring (vivipary). Whereas marsupials and placentals give birth to live offspring after a period of development within the mother's body, monotremes (platypuses and echidnas) still lay large, yolk-rich eggs. Although the milk-generating glands of monotremes release their products through milk patches in the pouch rather than through a small number of teats, suckling of the offspring is clearly evident. Hence, suckling occurs in...

Activation of the Intestinal Immune System

As in the neonate, the intestinal IgA-secreting cell (IgA-SC) number is much reduced in adult GF mice. Three weeks after bacterial colonization of the intestine, GF mice have an IgA-SC number equivalent to that found in CV mice. In the young, the adult number of IgA-SC is reached at the age of 6 weeks in mice and between 1 and 2 years in babies (7). This important delay might be attributed to the immaturity of the IIS of the newborn and or the suppressive effect of Abs present in the mother's milk. However, it might also be due to the stimulatory effect of the intestinal microbiota that has been established according to a sequential manner from birth to after weaning as described previously. To test the later hypothesis, several models of adult gnotobiotic mice were colonized by the entire digestive microbiota obtained from growing CV mice from one day after birth to 25 days of age (i.e., 6 days after weaning 62). In these experimental adult models, the effect of maternal milk, and...

Regulation of the Immune Responses

Recently, in their experimental conditions, Sudo and coworkers (84) showed that in OVA-fed mice, the GF state does not allow suppression of the systemic anti-OVA IgE response in serum in contrast to what is observed with CV mice. Colonization of the intestinal tract by a strain of Bifidobacterium infantis restored the suppression but only when the strain colonized the intestinal tract of the mouse from birth. The importance of the presence of intestinal bacteria from birth in the optimization of the immune processes has also been suggested in a more recent study (60).

Behavior And Reproduction

Nearly all female cockroaches put their eggs in a pillow-like capsule. Each capsule may have just a few to nearly 250 eggs, aligned in two rows. In some species the female carries the egg capsule on the tip of her abdomen for several days or weeks and then later leaves or buries them near a good supply of food and water. Some species can draw the capsule into the abdomen for short periods of time, to protect it. In other species, the capsule is kept in the abdomen until the eggs hatch inside the mother. The larvae are then born as they leave the mother's body. A few Australian cockroaches do not produce an egg capsule, but the eggs are kept inside the body. Only one species, Diploptera punctata, gives birth to live young. Its eggs are kept inside the body without a capsule and are nourished, or fed, by the mother's body until they are born. Most cockroaches never see their young. But in some species the larvae gather in a group under the mother, where they remain for a short period of...

Ontogeny and development

Mammalian ontogeny and development can, from a physiological standpoint, be separated into three general strategies. First, the monotremes such as platypus and echidnas are oviparous, meaning that they conceive young via copulation, but give birth to young inside an eggshell. After a short period of development in the egg, young hatch and then suckle the mother's milk as it leaks into the fur and not through a nipple as monotremes do not have nipples. In contrast, marsupials and placental mammals are viviparous, meaning they give birth to live young. But their respective strategies differ, especially with regards to level of development of the young at birth. Marsupials give birth to live young, but they have a short gestation and produce young that are extremely altricial, i.e., very early in their development stage. Marsupial offspring are born blind and naked, and with underdeveloped organs except for a pair of extremely well-developed and strong front limbs. The young are also...

An unkind note on sociobiology or evolutionary psychology

The studies mentioned so far have limited themselves to an analysis of the girls' body shapes without placing them in any wider social context. A different approach to the physical characteristics of playmates has been taken in social psychology. Here, an effort was made to relate the body shape of the Playmate of the Year to social and economic factors that same year. Among the factors included were unemployment rate, disposable personal income, consumer price index, birth rate and marriage rate. It turned out that Playmates of the Year in difficult years were older and taller and had a larger waist to hip ratio than those selected in good years (Pettijohn and Jungeberg, 2004). This might suggest that the ideals of beauty are influenced by socioeconomic factors rather than evolutionary pressures.

Reproduction in marsupials

Marsupials have the tiniest young in relation to adult size. In the eastern gray kangaroo (Macropus giganteus), young at birth weigh less than 0.0001 of the female mass. Put into context, this would be similar to a 150 lb (68 kg) human female giving birth to individual babies that would each weigh 0.0048 lbs (22 g), or 0.08 oz. But extreme altriciality is not a disadvantage in evolutionary terms. In fact, many scientists believe that this is instead a great advantage as the small investment in each neonate allows females to minimize investment in young and be more flexible and responsive to environmental conditions. Mechanistically, if environmental conditions become too tough to raise young successfully, starvation would terminate the production of milk and lead to rapid death of young, thereby saving energy lost (versus pla-cental mammals that have a greater energy investment). This would give marsupial females a competitive advantage over animals with internal pregnancy (placental...

Development Of Gi Tract Normal Microbiota In Humans

The fetus in utero is sterile until birth. Colonization of the human body with a heterogenous collection of microorganisms from the birth canal begins at delivery. The Lactobacillus species constitute the major population of the vaginal microbiota and thus provide the initial inoculum to the infant during birth. In the case of caesarean section or premature infants, most microbes that are transferred to the newborn can be traced from the environment, i.e., from other infants via the air, equipment and nursing staff (19). Therefore, the type of delivery (passage through the birth canal versus caesarean section) as well as the type of diet (breast versus formula feeding) might affect the pattern of microbial colonization.

Cognitive Development

Piaget conceptualized human cognition as developing in a sequence of four successive stages sensorimotor (from birth to 2 years), preoperational (from 2 to 6 years), concrete operations (from 7 to 11 years), and formal operations (from 11 to 15 years). Cognitive development begins with the assimilation of environmental experiences and accommodating (adapting) one's behavior and mental representations of those experiences (schemas).

Delayed fertilization

Sperm storage occurs in bats inhabiting northern temperate regions such as the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus), and also in many bats such as noctule (Nyctalus noctula). In the little brown bat, the testes become scrotal in the spring, and most sperm production is completed by September. The sperm are then stored until copulation commences months later. Females are inseminated in the fall and winter, while they are in hibernation. Sperm are then stored again, this time in the female reproductive tract, the uterus, where they remain motile for almost 200 days in the noctule. Females ovu-late much later, and active development of the embryos starts in the spring. For bats, delayed fertilization allows males to copulate when they are in best condition in the fall, and parturition to occur just prior to emergence of insects. Because of the energy required for copulation, mating in the spring would be at the time of worst male condition. Delayed fertilization also allows females to...

Benefits of breastfeeding in the general population

In an earlier study, in which 9942 urban infants in the Philippines were followed from birth to two years (between 1988 and 1991), deaths from diarrhoeal disease were found to be ten times higher in infants under six months who had never been breastfed or whose breastfeeding had been stopped than among breastfed infants, after controlling for demographic factors such as maternal education and socioeconomic status (Yoon et al., 1996).

Peculiar mechanism Reproduction in armadillos

Nine-banded armadillos have unusual delayed implantation. Armadillos breed in June, July or August, and the only fertilized egg becomes a blastocyst after 5-7 days at which point it enters the uterus. Development then ceases and the blastocyst remains free-floating in the uterus until November or December when it implants, and then the zygote divides twice to form four identical embryos. After 5 months of gestation, four identical quadruplets are born usually in May. Although identical twins are known to occur in humans, nine-banded armadillos regularly have identical offspring, most often four of them. But the mystery does not end there a captive female held in solitary confinement gave birth to a litter of four females 24 months after her capture, or 32 months after she could have mated in the wild Although the mechanism is not clearly understood, either her implantation delay lasted 23-24 months, or this particular female had produced two eggs, one of which would have remained...

Personality Development and Disorders

Personality is the sum total of all the qualities, traits, and behaviors that characterize a person's individuality and by which, together with his or her physical attributes, the person is recognized as unique. As witnessed by the persistence of temperament or psychological reaction patterns from birth to adulthood, heredity plays an important role in shaping personality Active, outgoing children and passive, inhibited children tend to retain those same characteristics in adulthood. This does not mean that the roles of environment and experience are not as important as heredity in shaping personality. The society and culture into which a child is born interact with his or her genetic predispositions in determining the kind of person the child becomes, that is, how those predispositions are molded and expressed. Like the cognitive abilities discussed in Chapter 4 and, in fact, all human characteristics, personality is the product of the dynamic interaction between genetic makeup and...

The Insulin Like Growth Factor Family

Creases slowly from birth to puberty, surges at puberty, then declines with age.64 In addition to growth hormone, estrogen and other hormones, tamoxifen, and oral contraceptives interact with members of the IGF family and influence IGF expression in breast tissue.64. Animal studies have suggested that dietary factors may induce different patterns of IGF-I transcription, and energy restriction has also been shown to modulate circulating IGF levels. Anthropometric factors, physical activity, alcohol, and smoking have been reported to affect the level of IGF-I, although much of the evidence is weak.64

The Significance of Race and Ethnicity for Health

Show striking color gradients in age-adjusted cerebrovascular disease mortality where rates increase with darker skin color (Lotufo et al, 2007 Sichieri et al, 2001). Data from the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO) (2007a) indicate that indigenous and black Brazilian populations have a higher incidence of mortality from vaccine preventable diseases than whites. Additionally, the PAHO (2007a) data show that blacks have a greater risk of death than whites from endocrine diseases and complications of pregnancy child birth and greater prevalence rates for hypertension and diabetes. Persons of mixed descent also have a higher risk of death from pregnancy child birth than whites, but lower death rates associated with neoplasms, circulatory, respiratory, and digestive diseases. Data for the mixed racial group may be unreliable however, due to the relatively high rate of race misclassification for this group (Pan-American Health Organization, 2007a).

Inherited diseases relating to haemoglobin

This disease occurs when a patient inherits the HbS mutation from one and the HbC mutation from the other parent. The course of the disease is much milder than in HbS disease, but a (potentially fatal) haemolytic crisis may occur in special situations (e.g. during child birth or surgery).

Determining age and sex

Because of compromises between the requirements of bipedalism and the need in modern human females for space in the pelvis to give birth to a large-brained infant. The same dimorphisms, however, might not apply to small-brained early hominins who are not bipedal in the same way that modern humans are their pelves may show a unique pattern of sexual dimorphism.

HIV infection in women

The risk of mother-to-child transmission is increased if a breastfeeding mother is newly infected, owing to the initially high levels of virus. Preliminary evidence from a study in Zimbabwe suggests that about 4 of women who were HIV-negative when giving birth become infected in the first year postpar-tum, and that the risk continues into the second year (J. Humphrey, personal communication, 2002). This merits attention as in this population 85 of women still breastfeed at 15 months and 30 at 21 months. Similar findings have been reported from another study in Zimbabwe, with 66 new infections among 372 women, nearly 5 , over the two years postpartum (Mbizvo et al., 2001). HIV- prevention interventions directed at pregnant and lactating women could contribute greatly to reducing mother-to-child transmission, but this possibility has so far attracted little research or programmatic effort.

Potential Advantages of Therapeutic Antibodies

HIV drugs are approved for pediatric use. In untreated mothers, transmission rates before and during birth are high and an almost equally high proportion of infant infections is thought to be acquired through breast feeding (De Cock et al. 2000 UNAIDS 2006). While bearing the risk of HIV infection, abstaining breast feeding in these settings is problematic as it can lead to malnutrition of the newborn and increased mortality due to other infections. Likewise, passive immunization or combination of active and passive immunization, as successfully employed against HBV infection (Kabir et al. 2006), could help to reduce transmission postpartum.

Prevention of mothertochild transmission

Caesarean section before onset of labour and rupture of membranes approximately halves the risk of mother-to-child transmission (European Mode of Delivery Collaboration, 1999 International Perinatal HIV group, 1999), even a risk already reduced by antiretroviral prophylaxis (European Collaborative Study, 2001 Ioannidis et al., 2001). Elective caesarean section, however, may not be a safe option in the parts of the world where HIV prevalence is highest, because of an increased risk of infectious complications. The use of antiseptic or antiviral agents to cleanse the birth canal during labour and delivery has been suggested as a possible means of reducing intrapartum transmission of HIV-1. Although two randomized trials in sub-Saharan Africa showed that cleansing with

Evidence for Ovarian Senescence in Rhesus Monkeys

The number of potentially viable oocytes available to the reproducing female depends on the size of the primordial follicle population within the ovary. In humans, primarily due to follicular atresia and secondarily because of follicular recruitment, the numbers of primordial follicles decrease dramatically from birth to the onset of menopause. At the end of the reproductive lifespan, the ''ovarian reserve'' of viable follicles and oocytes is essentially depleted, and the ovary is said to be senescent (Faddy and Gosden, 1996). Concomitantly, ovulatory activity ceases and levels of estrogen decrease markedly. As a result, FSH secretion increases strikingly because of diminished negative feedback from estrogen (Walker, 1995). Bioactive FSH retrieved from postmeno-pausal women's urine was in high demand for a number primary follicles is gonadotropin-dependent (Macklon and Fauser, 1999), many of the newly formed primary follicles in older females cease development or become atretic,...

Mantled howler monkey

Alpha males have higher mating success than other males. Births occur throughout the year, but tend to be concentrated in the dry season in more seasonal habitats. Average birth intervals are just under two years, and gestation is about six mos. Females give birth to their first infants at about four years of age, similar to other species of Alouatta and younger than the other atelidae genera.

Feral cats in Australia

But the debate of more practical consequence is whether feral cats threaten native species such as tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii). If viewed as an invasive pest, then feral cats need to be hunted down, poisoned, given birth control, or otherwise controlled. If viewed as beneficial predators helping control other pests such as rabbits, rats, and mice, then feral cats should at least be tolerated.

The Role Of The Enteric Microbiota In The Normal

Underpinning the probiotic concept is the importance of the normal intestinal microbiota in health and disease (12). Establishment of gut microbiota begins within minutes of delivery of the newborn (13,14). During delivery the infant is exposed to bacteria in the birth canal, the environment, maternal fecal microbiota, and other sources (15). The gut is initially colonized by facultative anaerobes such as Escherichia coli and Enterococcus species, possibly due to the absence of anaerobic conditions in the intestine (16). Colonization with bifidobacteria follows, particularly in breast-fed infants, and as the environment becomes more anaerobic, Bacteroides and Clostridia.

Comparing Acute And Chronic Leukemia

The type of cell that predominates in the peripheral blood and the bone marrow is defined according to cell lineage as either myeloid or lymphoid. The myeloid stem cell gives birth to granulocytes, monocytes, megakaryocytes, and erythrocytes (see Fig. 2.3). Therefore, as will be described in the various sections of this chapter, the myeloid leukemias can involve proliferation of any stage of these four cell lines. By contrast, the lymphoid stem cell gives rise solely to lymphocytic lineage cells.

How Do We Disentangle the Different Life Course Models

22 follow-ups of the whole cohort from birth to the current day, with information about sociode-mographic factors and medical, cognitive, and psychological functions being obtained by medical examination and postal questionnaire. We found that for men, the data supported the critical period model with those from manual background, regardless of their socioeconomic position in adult life, having higher BMI compared with those from non-manual background. For women, there was more evidence to support the accumulation model, with those spending more time in adverse social conditions having higher BMI (Mishra et al, 2009).

The Mixed Blessing of Antenatal Corticosteroids

For some expectant women threatening to deliver early, there have been up to 10 courses administered before birthing. When treatments are repeated or prolonged, studies in rodents, sheep, and monkeys have all found adverse effects, especially on sensitive brain regions like the hippocampus (Matthews, 2000 Uno et al, 1994). When extended over many days, antenatal corti-costeroids can retard fetal growth, suppress both maternal and fetal adrenal activity, decrease thyroid activity, and affect kidney functioning in ways that would pose a long-term risk for later hypertension (Coe and Lubach, 2005 French et al, 1999 Seckl et al, 2000). One further reason for these concerns is that when administered directly to the mother before delivery, both dexamethasone and betamethasone can readily bypass the placental enzyme 116-HSD2 and then can become sequestered in fetal circulation. While examining the impact of a standard 2-day course of maternal dexamethasone in the rhesus monkey, we found...

IRSProtein Signaling in Growth Nutrition and Longevity

In mice, the PI 3-kinase PKB cascade also regulates growth, but the control appears to be parsed between IRS1 and IRS2. Mice lacking IRS1 are about 50 smaller, where IRS2- - mice are nearly normal size however, mice lacking alleles of each gene reveal a role for IRS2 in growth (Fig. 4). Growth curves based on daily weights from birth to 30 days

Conclusions and Future Directions

In summary, the function of physiological systems and behaviors influenced by oxytocin and vasopressin are important to major health outcomes. They are also important to some of the things that we as humans value most attachment to family, friends, and other members of our social groups, desire for physical closeness, childbirth and parenting, and sexual response. We anticipate that in the next few years, there will be accelerating interest in human oxy-tocin and vasopressin research. In particular, we expect that there will be expanded research employing salivary and urinary oxytocin and vasopressin sampling, especially for studies in the home environment where obtaining blood for plasma measures is impractical. Although there is some skepticism about the validity of salivary oxytocin (Horvat-Gordon et al, 2005), a new study indicates that in mothers of infants, salivary and plasma oxytocin measures showed parallel increases and decreases during infant feeding, cuddling, rests, and...

South African porcupine

Males reach sexual maturity between eight and 18 months, while females reach sexual maturity between nine and 16 months. Because of dangerous quills, females initiate copulation by presenting to males. Estrous cycle is about 35 days, and gestation lasts for a little over three months (93-105 days). Young are born in litters of one to four (usually one to two) normally twice a year, usually within grass-lined chamber in parents' den during wet months of August to March. Average newborn weight is 12.4 oz (351 g), but can range from 10.6-14.1 oz (300-400 g). Young are born relatively well developed, with eyes open and teeth present, quills and spines are soft (most likely to ease birthing process) but quickly harden within two weeks. Young can feed on solids from birth and grow rapidly, reaching full size in about one year. Nursing occurs on average of 101 days (but can range from three to four months) at which point young will weigh 8.8-11 lb (4-5 kg). Females have two to three pairs of...

Advanced Paternal Age and Reproductive Capacity

A trend toward advanced parental age is simultaneously occurring in American men. The birth rate among men 25 to 44 years has been steadily increasing since the 1970s, whereas the birth rate of men less than 25 years has been decreasing (Hamilton et al., 2003). An improved understanding of the effects of increased parental age on the developing fetus and newborn is imperative for counseling older couples preparing for childbearing. Advanced paternal age has been suggested to result in increased spontaneous abortions, autosomal dominant disorders, trisomy 21, and recently, schizophrenia. Early studies from the 1970s and 1980s failed to demonstrate a consistent effect related to advanced paternal age. Initial epidemiological studies utilizing city and state birth registries failed to show any correlation between trisomy 21 and advanced paternal age while confirming the effect of advanced maternal age (Erickson, 1978 Hook, 1987). In contrast, an evaluation of the Medical Birth...

Imprinting Mutations And Smallest Region Of Overlap Pwssro In Pat 15 Deletions

Such patients, however, show a PWS pattern of methylation of 15q11-q13 loci after hybridization with specific probes (maternal only type imprint). Some of the patients have been found to have small deletions that span the so-called imprinting center (IC). Actually, the region important for imprinting has been defined as the smallest region of overlap (PWS-SRO) among the deletions in the rare PWS patients. The PWS-SRO has been defined as a region of only 4 kb by the analysis of seven microdeletions, the size of which ranges from 6-200 kb (Buiting et al., 1995). This region includes exon 1 and the CpG island promoter of the SNRPN gene (Nicholls et al., 1998). One of these deletions was silently transmitted from the proband's grandmother to a son who fathered a PWS child, or from the proband's grandfather through a daughter who gave birth to an AS offspring (Buiting et al., 1995). The IC molecular lesion appears to result in a failure to reset the imprint of...

Development of bifidobacteria in the intestine and beneficial effects

Bifidobacteria form part of the normal intestinal microbiota of human infants and adults and are believed to play a beneficial role in maintaining the health of the host. During birth and the first few days of life, bifidobacteria, amongst other intestinal microbes acquired from the mother and the surrounding environment, colonize the infant intestine (Favier et al., 2003). A succession of microbes occurs commencing with aerobes such as enterobacteriaceae, that create reducing conditions favourable to more strict anaerobic bacteria including the bifidobacteria (Franks et al., 1998 Mackie et al., 1999). The changing microbial ecology is coincident with a marked functional and morphological maturation of the infant gut barrier functions and immune system development (Cebra, 1999 Hooper, 2004). The microbiota in breastfed infants is usually dominated by bifidobacteria within a few days, but following a short delay they also reach high numbers in formula-fed infants (Harmsen et al., 2000a...

Symptoms of pelvic floor dysfunction weakness

Urine incontinence may occur when there is a sudden rise in intra-abdominal pressure (classically coughing or sneezing), so-called stress incontinence. If this is demonstrated by objective measurement (UDS), it is called urodynamic stress incontinence (USI). Although occasionally seen in men following traumatic or iatrogenic damage to the urinary sphincter, this is a symptom most commonly seen in women with damage to the muscles and or nerves and or connective tissue within the pelvic floor following childbirth.

Trident leafnosed bat

Available evidence suggests that females are pregnant in the spring and give birth to a single young in early summer. Gestation time is estimated at 9-10 weeks, and the young nurse for 40 days after birth, after which they become independent. The time of mating is unknown. Most likely polygynous.

Monogenic hypercholesterolemias

Hypercholesterolemia (Goldstein et al., 2001). The disease is caused by mutations in the LDL receptor (LDLR) and so far nearly 900 mutations have been identified (www.ucl.ac.uk fh). In FH homozygotes serum levels of LDL cholesterol are very high from birth, irrespective of lifestyle, and response to treatment depends to a large extent on the type of LDLR mutation and residual LDLR activity. FH homozygotes develop severe atherosclerosis in early childhood, initially in the aortic root, causing supravalvular aortic stenosis and then involving the coronary ostia and arteries. If treatment to reduce LDL cholesterol is not initiated in early childhood or is inadequate, FH homozygotes die of myocar-dial infarction very early in life, often in the first decade (Goldstein et al., 2001 Thompson, 1999). In patients with heterozygous FH, serum LDL cholesterol levels are lower than in homozygotes and clinical prognosis depends much more on other genetic and environmental factors (Hill et al.,...

Geoffroys tailless bat

Monestrous babies are born late in the year, during or just before the dry season, on Trinidad. Laboratory studies show that the seasonal male testicular cycle follows an endogenous rhythm that is not regulated by photoperiod. Mating system unknown but likely involves some form of polygyny since bats roost in small clusters in their roosts. Females form maternity roosts separate from males prior to giving birth. Young grow rapidly and are weaned by five to six weeks of age.

Sebas shorttailed bat

Polyestrous females give birth to a single young twice a year (March-April and July-August in Central America) gestation period is about four months. Degree of synchrony of births is relatively low within populations. Mating system involves harem-polygyny with single males defending groups of up to about 20 females. Most adult males in a roost are bachelors. Sexes usually do not segregate during the maternity period.

Parnells moustached bat

Females bear a single young annually after a gestation period of about 50 days. The young are naked and helpless at birth. The timing of reproduction varies across the species' range, with births usually peaking around the start of the rainy season. For example, if mating occurs in autumn, the sperm is typically stored by females throughout hibernation, sometimes up to seven months, in the uterus. Within a few days of leaving their winter shelter, females ovulate one egg, and sperm are released. Fertilization and implantation then take place shortly afterwards. Typically, females of a population form a maternity colony at a site different than the hibernation site where breeding occurred. Gestation usually lasts from 40 to 50 days and results in a single offspring, usually in the late spring. Birth is a rather uneasy process hanging inverted, mothers grab the newborn as it emerges from the birth canal and the newborn in turn grabs the abdominal fur of the mother with its hind feet,...

The United States constitutional right of privacy

In this way the Court ruled the Connecticut statute unconstitutional and in doing so gave birth to the Constitutional Right to Privacy.171 It is important to note that at this stage in its development the right was concerned with family life and its protection.172 It was, however, soon extended to 'individual' rights and beyond, in cases such as Eisenstadt v. Baird173 (in which prohibitions on contraceptive use by single persons

Lessons from Adoptive Transfer Studies

Additional evidence supporting the protective role of immunity in preventing symptomatic congenital HCMV transmission comes from recently described passive immunization studies, using high-titer anti-HCMV immunoglobulin. In this study (Nigro et al. 2005), pregnant women with a primary HCMV infection were offered intravenous HCMV hyperimmune globulin, in two different dose regimens (therapy and prevention groups). In the therapy group, only 1 of 31 women gave birth to an infant with HCMV disease (defined as an infant who was symptomatic at birth and handicapped at 2 or more years of age), compared with 7 of 14 women in an untreated control group. In the prevention group, 6 of 37 women who received hyperimmune globulin during pregnancy had infants with congenital HCMV infection, compared with 19 of 47 women who did not receive the high-titer HCMV globulin. Although uncontrolled, these data support the protective effect of humoral immunity in prevention of fetal HCMV-associated disease....

Mode of infant feeding

A factor of particular relevance at population level as regards rates of breastfeeding transmission is mode of infant feeding. In most populations worldwide, breastfeeding is usually initiated, but at an early age is supplemented with water or other drinks or feeds (Nicoll et al., 2000) exclusive breastfeeding for the recommended six months is rare. In a study in Durban, South Africa, 551 HIV-infected women, after counselling, chose whether to breastfeed or formula-feed (Coutsoudis et al., 2001a). Those who chose to breastfeed were encouraged to do so exclusively for three to six months. A total of 157 formula-fed from birth and never breastfed, 118 breastfed exclusively for three months or more, and 276 practised mixed breastfeeding. The three groups did not differ in any of the significant risk factors for transmission, and at

Lactation and Milk Output

In the cow, milk production increases in the first 3-6 weeks of lactation and then slowly declines. A similar pattern is seen in goats, sheep, and pigs. Milk secretion continues as long as milk is regularly withdrawn, although production declines during lactation. Dairy animals are capable of undergoing estrus and pregnancy while maintaining their lactation. This enables dairy management to breed the animal such that it will give birth and begin lactation on a yearly basis. In order to maximize production, the animals are allowed to lactate until 2 months before they are due to give birth. They are then dried off by cessation of milking. The 2-month rest before the restart of lactation allows the animal to rebuild her energy reserves for the coming birth and lactation. Following birth of the progeny, the animal once again begins the yearly lactation cycle. In all species, yield and energy content are related to body size.

Methodological Issues

The analytical approach adopted by the Narod et al. group has matched affected carriers to unaffected carriers on potential confounders such as age, year of birth, and gene in which the mutation occurs (ignoring familial relationships), and applied conditional logistic regression to matched sets. Apart from being subject to the potential biases mentioned above, this matching approach has resulted in up to 40 of carriers being excluded from the analyses because of the lack of an appropriate match (12), and this may introduce an additional bias. Nevertheless, theirs is currently the largest sample set and represents the largest geographic spectrum. The BCFR-led consortium has not used this matching approach, but has instead applied unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for family history and other potential confounders. The degree to which this approach adequately deals with ascertainment bias depends on how well the family history variable used acts as a surrogate for the...

Development Of Intestinal Microbiota In Dogs And Cats

Intestinal colonization is a gradual process starting immediately after birth. In newborn puppies and kittens the alimentary canal is sterile but is quickly inhabited by bacteria from birth canal and environment. The dam usually licks the newborn thoroughly thus transferring its own indigenous bacteria to her offspring. Within 24 hours the numbers of bacteria in various parts of the gastrointestinal tract of a newborn puppy are similar to those of an adult dog (2).

The Two Stage Clonal Expansion Model

Emissions from Coke Ovens and Lung Cancer. Emissions from coke ovens contain a complex mixture of PAH and have been associated with lung cancer in occupational cohort studies of coke oven workers. Both the United States Environmental Agency (USEPA 32 ) and the IARC 33 have determined that coke oven emissions are human carcinogens. In 1984, the USEPA used a simple version of the multistage model to analyze the then available epidemio-logical data on cohorts of U.S. steel workers and estimated that the unit risk of lung cancer associated with exposure to coke oven emissions was 6.2 x 10-4. Here unit risk was defined as the excess probability of lung cancer at age 70 associated with continuous exposure to 1p.g m3 from birth. The EPA risk assessment was based on follow-up of the cohorts through 1966. Moreover, the EPA had exposure information only on broad cumulative exposure categories from unpublished tables compiled by Lamd. Since the EPA risk assessment, follow-up of the cohorts...

Northern elephant seal

Males are polygynous and in most areas defend harems or large groups of densely packed females. Mating occurs on land and females often mate with males other than the harem master as they leave for sea. Males produce sperm about five years of age but do not become successful breeders until 10 to 12 years. Successful males may only breed for two to four years before they are displaced. Females give birth for the first time from three to seven years of age. They give birth to a single young annually. Lactation is about 27 days and females produce a milk averaging 54 fat.

Gnotobiotic Ruminants in Studies into the Microbiota of the Gastrointestinal Tract

The set-up of digestive processes that affect both degradation of the lignocellulose-rich feeds and fermentation of the resulting soluble compounds. Ecological factors controlling the establishment of cellulotytic bacteria and ciliate protozoa in the lamb rumen were studied in meroxenic lambs (92). The results obtained in this study suggested that the establishment of cellulolytic bacteria and protozoa required an abundant and complex microbiota and was favored by an early inoculation of the animals. All above-mentioned results point at the extremely important role of the microbiota in the development of the rumen. There is a good relationship between the development of rumen function and the complexity of its microbiota. The presence of a simple microbiota cannot assure the digestive function as properly as a complex microbiota can. Bomba and coworkers (93) used the gnotobiotic approach to observe the development of rumen fermentation in lambs from birth up to 7 weeks of age in...

Severe Chronic Neutropenia Patients

In patients with Kostmann's syndrome who developed leukemia, acquired G-CSF receptor mutations affecting the cytoplasmic domain were present in most patients tested (22-25), suggestive of an important role of these mutations in the leukemogenesis. None of the G-CSF receptor mutations was detectable from birth, indicating that these mutations are not causative for the neutropenia. A small subgroup of patients develops these mutations during the course of life, most likely caused by genetic instability. G-CSF receptor analyses cannot be used to discriminate between the different diseases causing severe neutropenia, but they might be helpful for screening for risk of leukemia. The

Lessons from maturity onset diabetes of the young MODY

Glucokinase gene are a modest rise in glucose levels, present from birth and stable with age. Since there is generally an excellent clinical response to dietary modification alone, complications are rare. In contrast, transcription-factor MODY is more severe, progressive with age, typically requires pharmacological intervention, and if inadequately treated, leads to complications. Furthermore, recent evidence from a randomised controlled trial has confirmed anecdotal evidence that individuals with HNF-1a mutations are acutely sensitive to the hypoglycaemic effects of sulphonylureas. This represents the first example of pharmacogenetics in diabetes care (Pearson etal., 2003).

The Role of GPR54 in Central Precocious Puberty

Normosmic IHH a question was raised is the opposite also true Recently, the first activating GPR54 mutation was identified in a patient with CPP after 53 children (50 girls and 3 boys) had been screened for GPR54 mutations.12 She had slow progressive thelarche from birth, suggesting an early, persistent, and slightly increased estrogen secretion. Isolated thelarche was ruled out on the basis of progressive secondary sexual development and accelerated growth and skeletal maturation. At 7 years of age, she presented with breast development acceleration and pubic hair was noted.

Hereditary Elliptocytosis

The clinical variants under this subheading range from those individuals who are silent carriers to those who are transfusion dependent. Individuals with the silent carrier state of HE are hematologically normal but are known to be related to individuals with HE and hereditary pyropoikilocytosis through family studies. Common HE has two clinical presentations. In mild common HE, 30 to 100 1 of the cells are elliptical and most patients show no clinical symptoms (Fig. 7.4). Some patients may show slight hemolysis with ellipto-cytes and fragmented cells. The more severe variant of common HE, common HE with infantile pyropoikilo-cytosis, shows fragmented and bizarre red cell shapes from birth with a moderate hemolytic component and jaundice. As the patient ages, the disease converts to a mild HE in presentation (Table 7.1).

EEG and the Effects of Hormone Treatment

Golgeli and colleagues (2004) examined the effects of growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy on cognitive function in women with Sheehan's syndrome. Sheehan's syndrome is also known as postpartum hypopituitarism, a pituitary hormone deficiency as a result of life-threatening blood loss during or after childbirth. At baseline, amplitude and latencies of auditory oddball ERPs of patients showed longer latencies than those of controls. After 6 months of hormone replacement therapy, patients showed decreased P300 latencies compared to pre-treatment levels. The authors conclude that Sheehan's syndrome is associated with cognitive impairment as demonstrated by prolonged P300 latencies and the improvement with GH replacement. The conclusions of this study could have been strengthened if the paper had reported EEG measures in the control group as well, after a 6-month period.

Modifiers Of Penetrance And Breast Cancer Genes Other Than Brca

Several studies have noted an increased penetrance for BRCA1 2 in more recent birth cohorts. The NYBCS (9) confirmed Narod's earlier observation of a significant increase in breast cancer risk by the age of 50 years in birth cohorts after 1940 (67 after 1940, 24 before 1940) (39). Ovarian cancer risk did not differ by birth cohort. This increase in incidence for BRCA1 2 mutation carriers parallels an increase in breast cancer in the general U.S. population over that period (37). Antoniou et al. (61) analyzed the results of 22 studies in which cases were unselected for family history. The RR for breast cancer among BRCA1 2 mutation carriers in the post-1960 birth cohorts was two to three times the RR in the preceding four decades. A study of Austrian BRCA1 mutation-positive women found that those from birth cohorts after 1958 had a significantly higher incidence of breast cancer by 40 years of age than those from earlier birth cohorts 46 versus 27 , respectively (89). Finally,...

African brushtailed porcupine

Form pair bonds before mating, which is necessary because the female acts out in aggression against males with whom she is not familiar (such as raising her quills to halt the mating process). No clearly defined breeding period, up to two litters are possible each year. Females normally give birth to one, sometimes two, young per litter. Gestation period ranges from 100-110 days, after which the mother gives birth to well-developed young. At

Interalar Distance Nasal Width

Remarks Values for nasal width from birth to age 16 years are shown in Fig. 7.73. There is tremendous variation both within and between ethnic groups in the interalar distance. Nasal width, like most facial widths, continues to increase with age, mainly due to soft tissue changes.

Gestation and neonate type

With only a few exceptions, each mammal species has a characteristic gestation period that shows remarkably little variation. In comparisons between species, gestation periods tend to increase as body size increases. However, effective comparisons of gestation periods among mammals must take into account a fundamental distinction in the state of the neonate at birth. As a general rule, it is possible to distinguish fairly clearly between mammals that give birth to several poorly developed (altricial) offspring and those that give birth to a few (usually just one) well-developed (precocial) offspring. Altricial offspring are largely hairless at birth and their eyes and ears are sealed with membranes. They are relatively helpless at birth and are typically deposited in a nest. By contrast, precocial offspring, which are usually born with a well-developed coat of hair and with their eyes and ears open, are typically able to move around quite actively at birth and are rarely kept in a...

HCMV Vaccine What Is the Ideal Target Population Perinatal and Early Childhood HCMV Infection

One strategy for vaccine-mediated prevention of HCMV would be to target acquisition of primary infection in infancy and early childhood. Perinatal acquisition of HCMV may occur by one of three different routes exposure to HCMV in the birth canal during labor and delivery, transmission of HCMV by blood transfusion, or transmission by breast-feeding. In a prospective study in premature infants receiving breast milk containing HCMV, transmission was observed in 33 of 87 exposed infants, and approximately half of these babies developed disease, including hepatitis, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and sepsis-like state (Maschmann et al. 2001). It is uncertain if HCMV infection of low-birth-weight premature infants by this route carries any risk of long-term sequelae, and highly speculative as to whether maternal immunization programs would play a role in elimination of transmission by breast milk in this vulnerable population.

Infant feeding options designed to prevent mothertochild transmission

Replacement feeding means feeding an infant who is receiving no breast milk with a diet that provides all the necessary nutrients. An HIV-infected woman who decides to eliminate the risk of HIV transmission through breastfeeding needs to avoid breastfeeding from birth and to use replacement feeding with suitable breast-milk substitutes. A suitable substitute is commercial infant formula or home-modified animal-milk. Support for adequate replacement feeding is needed throughout the period for which breast milk is normally recommended and during which the child is at greatest risk of malnutrition - that is, the first two years of life. From birth to six months of age, milk

Colonization And Succession Of Human Intestinal Microbiota With

One of the characteristic aspects of the GI tract is the presence of numerous endogenous microbes colonizing the surface of the GI tract throughout the life of the host. It consists of a complex community inside the host, known as the intestinal microbiota. In healthy adults, the intestinal microbial cells have been estimated to outnumber the host's somatic and germ cells by a ratio of 10 1 (4). The development of this microbiota is initiated during the birth process. The fetus exists in a sterile environment until birth. After being born, the infant is progressively colonized by bacteria from the mother's vagina and feces and from the environment. As long as nutrients and space are not limited, the commensals with high division rates predominate, e.g., enterobacteria (Escherichia coli) and Enterococcus appear. The succession of microbes in an infant's intestinal tract also depends on the feeding mode. The fecal microbiota of breast-fed babies has been found to be relatively simple,...

Habitat

The birthing season is a time when females of many species seek out specific habitats that provide them greater security for giving birth and for protecting the newborn young. Depending on species, such secure habitats for parturition can range from dense brush to steep cliffs. The mating season, or rut, in some species of Bovidae, also occurs in particular ar

Ages and Stages

Western societies have typically viewed the human life span as consisting of a series of periods or stages, beginning with conception and ending in death. The prenatal stage, from conception until birth, is divided into the germinal period (first 2 weeks), the embryonic period (2-8 weeks), and the fetal period. The time from birth to the end of the second year is infancy, and early childhood is the preschool period from 2 to 5 or 6 years. Middle childhood is from age 6 to puberty, and adolescence is from the start of puberty to age 20 (or adulthood). The third and fourth decades of life (ages 20-40) are known as early adulthood, age 40 to 65 is middle adulthood, and

Galeocerdo cuvier

Behavior and reproduction Tiger sharks are mostly nocturnal (nahk-TER-nuhl), or active at night, and strong-swimming. They usually swim alone. These sharks appear sluggish because they cruise at slow speeds near the surface. Young tiger sharks develop inside the female. The female gives birth to ten to eighty-two young that are 20 to 30 inches (51 to 76 centimeters) long.

The Message

I dedicate this chapter to Bernard Dujon, who gave birth to this field, and who beautifully illustrated the message, that is, to study the fundamentals, to be vigilant, and then to seize the opportunities for application. I am grateful to all of the authors who contributed to this book and particularly to my coeditors Vicky Derbyshire, Barry Stoddard and Dave Wood, who have, through their hard work and shared insights, helped make this volume come to life. I thank Maryellen Carl for preparing this manuscript and handling the 19 others, and John Dansereau for providing the figures. Work in our laboratory is supported by NIH grants GM39422 and GM44844 and NSF grant NIRT0210419.

Sitting Height

Remarks The charts from birth to 16 years are provided in Figs. 4.16-4.18. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Age from birth (years) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Age from birth (years) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Age from birth (years) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Age from birth (years)

Blesbok Bontebok

Rutting in March-May (blesbok) and January-March (bonte-bok). Polygynous. Gestation 238-254 days. Female stays with herd when giving birth to young in November-January (bles-bok) and September-November (bontebok). Weaned after four months sexually mature at 2.5 years. Longevity 17 years.

Saiga antelope

They have a high rate of reproduction where in a favorable season they may grow in population up to 60 in a single year. The rutting season begins in the wintering grounds, when males become territorial in an attempt to gain a harem of usually 5-25 females. During the mating season, which only lasts 6-7 days, males will only eat snow, using most of its time to defend its harem from lurking males. Females reach sexual maturity at 7-8 months, while males reach sexual maturity at 20-24 months. The breeding period lasts from late November to late December, with births occurring from the end of March to May. The gestation period is about 140-150 days, and usually gives birth to two, sometimes three, young after the first year (in which only one is normally born). Mothers usually drop their calves within a few days of each other. Newborns will lie concealed and immobile for the first three days, and then will begin to graze at 4-8 days old on bits of green food. The lactation...

Mongolian gazelle

Mongolian gazelles are active during the daylight hours of fall and winter, mostly grazing in the mornings and late afternoons. They will excavate a depression bed within bushes in order to shelter themselves from winds and harsh weather. Being very fast animals, they are able to run up to 40 mph (65 kph), sustain this speed for 7-9 mi (12-15 km), and can leap up to 6.6 ft (2 m) into the air. They also are good swimmers, and can easily cross wide rivers. Large-scale migrations are regularly taken by this species. Herds of 6,000-8,000 animals of both sexes gather in the spring where they begin their northerly migrations for food and to drop young, often covering 120-180 mi (200-300 km) in a day. When reaching summer pastures in June, the sexes will isolate themselves and females prepare to give birth. Herds generally use several hundred square miles (kilometers) as their summer home range, regularly shifting areas in the search for food. During the winter, herds normally number no more...

Reproductive system

There are three different modes of reproduction used by mammals. The monotremes, whose extant members are the echidnas and duck-billed platypuses, lay eggs. The therians (marsupial and placental mammals) give birth to live young. Marsupial newborns are undeveloped (some mammalogists call them embryos). After only a short gestation period they must make their way to a teat outside the mother's body (a teat that may be in a pouch in species that have pouches) to finish development. The embryos of placental mammals remain in the uterus during development, and they have a nutritive connection with the mother through the placenta. The young of placental mammals are born more mature than the young of the other two groups.

Mountain gazelle

Males attend to one or more females and their young generally in groups of 3-8. Estrous occurs every 18 days and lasts 12-24 hours, repeating until the female becomes pregnant. Males and females reproduce with various partners. Females usually give birth to one baby per season (and, on average, 11 in her lifetime). The usual mating season is in early winter (October to November), although mating also occurs in the spring (April to mid-May) and at other times when food is plentiful. The gestation period is about 180 days. Newborns generally weigh about 11-12 of the mother's weight. Mothers give birth away from the herd. The newborn can stand shortly after birth, and spends the first few weeks nursing. They begin to take solid food when they are 3-6 weeks old, but suckling may last up to three months. Males do not contribute to the care of the young. At this time, mother and young will join a maternity herd. Female young will remain with the mother, but male young will leave...

The Cell Cycle

Unlike the life of an organism, which can be viewed as a linear progression from birth to death, the life of a cell follows a cyclical pattern. Each cell is produced as a part of its parent cell when the daughter cell divides, it in turn becomes two new cells. In a sense, then, each cell is potentially immortal as long as its progeny can continue to divide. Some cells in the body divide frequently the epidermis of the skin, for example, is renewed approximately every 2 weeks, and the stomach lining is renewed every 2 or 3 days. Other cells, such as striated muscle cells in the adult, do not divide at all. All cells in the body, of course, live only as long as the person lives (some cells live longer than others, but eventually all cells die when vital functions cease).

Potoroidae

Rat-kangaroos are probably polygynous and have a reproductive biology quite similar to that of their larger relatives, the kangaroos and wallabies. After a short gestation, usually about three weeks, the neonate crawls unaided to the pouch where it attaches to one of the four teats. On that night the mother comes into estrous, termed a postpartum estrus, and mates again. The resultant fertilized egg develops only to the blastocyst stage of about 100 cells before becoming dormant, termed embryonic diapause. It remains in the uterus until it is reactivated near the end of pouch development of the previous young. Then, usually on the same night that the large offspring finally vacates the pouch, the new offspring is born. Again, the mother will come into postpartum estrus and mate again. Thus, the rat-kangaroo can have three different generations at the same time one young out of the pouch still suckling from her teat, one newborn young in the pouch, and one dormant embryonic stage in...

Executive summary

The risk of transmission by an infected mother occurring before or during birth (without interventions to reduce transmission) is 15-25 . Breastfeeding by an infected mother increases the risk by 5-20 to a total of 20-45 .The risk can be reduced to under 2 by a combination of antiretroviral prophylaxis during pregnancy and delivery and to the neonate with elective caesarean section and avoidance of breastfeeding. Peripartum antiretroviral monotherapy alone

Beef Production

The U.S. beef cattle production system usually involves several movements of animals between farms, from birth of the calf to slaughter of the finished animal. Small breeding herds produce most of the calves born in a given year. These calves may grow on the property of birth until finished, but most sell as yearling steers (castrated bulls) and heifers (cows) for further growth on larger, more extensive ranches (backgrounding). These animals aggregate from a variety of farms and a variety of regions at these establishments. Further aggregation and movement occurs when animals move for final finishing on grain at a feedlot before slaughter.

BCG Efficacy

The efficacy of BCG in the prevention of tuberculosis in children was usually estimated in the past by observing TB mortality, which reached about 25 among unvaccinated subjects and only 2 in vaccinated ones. Mortality was as high as 53 in unvaccinated TB-contact babies from birth to 1 year of age 13 . The relative protection conferred by BCG is subject to continuous controversies. Although problems with efficacy have been recognized from the beginning, the urgency of fighting a public scourge imposed BCG vaccination. However, a number of prospective clinical trials have been carried out, from the first by Aronson among the North Indian population to the most recent one in India 28 . Table 1 shows that protective efficacy has varied widely in different parts of the world and its impact on the control of tuberculosis worldwide remains unclear. The analysis of these divergent results demonstrated that methodological bias had contributed to conflicting data. Moreover, factors interfering...

Peyers Patches

The most prominent follicles in the intestinal mucosa are PPs located on the antimesenteric wall of the small intestine (Fig. 1A, B). Dependent on the species, their development is completed prenatally or postnatally (Azzali 2003 Makala et al. 2002). In humans, PPs occur more frequently in the ileum than in the jejunum (Makala et al. 2002). The number and size of PPs increase from birth to adolescence, reach a maximum at puberty, persist at particular places of the small intestine, and decrease in size on further aging (Cornes 1965). Although microbial content of the gut may influence the size of PPs, their numbers and positions remain constant. The molecular mechanism of PP formation during ontogeny is discussed in Sect. 2.3. Like other secondary lymphoid organs, the PP microarchitecture is organized in B cell follicles and interfollicular T cell zones (Fig. 2). Similar to LNs, the B cell follicles contain FDCs and small numbers of follicular CD4+ T cells. The interfollic-ular T zone...

Hsps As Biomarkers

The significance of anti-HSP in the body is unclear, though, like the proteins themselves, anti-HSP levels are affected by disease (Chiba et al., 2006 Child et al., 2006 Pockley et al., 2000 Schett et al., 1995 Wright et al., 2000a Xu et al., 1993). Like HSP, anti-HSP also have the potential for use as clinical markers. We recently published findings of increased anti-Hsp72 antibodies in pregnant women who gave birth to babies with birth defects, suggesting a prior increase in Hsp72 due to a stressful event (Child et al., 2006). Hsp72 may have buffering roles in evolution as shown for Hsp90 (Queitsch et al., 2002) and this may be a mechanism whereby stress in pregnancy exposes undesirable phenotypes due to Hsp72 being relocated in response to stress (Child et al., 2006).

Indian pangolin

Their gestation period is about 65-70 days. Births may occur throughout the year, with births having been recorded in January, March, July, and November. Females give birth to 1-2 young at a time. Weight at birth is 8.2-8.6 oz (230-240 g). Scales of young are soft, with fully functioning eyes and legs. At about one month of age, young are carried on the dorsal

Other Disorders

Improvements in prenatal care and delivery during this century have dramatically reduced the incidence of maternal mortality in the United States. The maternal mortality rate was 8.3 per 100,000 live births in 1994, but the rate was three times as high for black women as for white women. Furthermore, the group of 328 women in this country reported as dying of maternal causes in 1994 consisted only of those who died of complications of pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium, and not of all deaths in pregnant women. Of the 328 deaths, 41 were attributed to pregnancy with abortive outcome and 267 to direct obstetrical causes.'' The most common cause of maternal mortality during pregnancy was ectopic pregnancy, in which the fetus is in an abnormal position. The most common direct obstetrical causes were hemorrhage of pregnancy and childbirth and toxemia of pregnancy (Singh et al., 1996).

Longtailed pangolin

It is believed that they breed throughout the year. When mating, the male and female will intertwine tails and face each other ventrally. The gestation period is unknown. Females give birth to one young at a time. Birth weight is 3.6-5.4 oz (100-150 g). The young will ride on the mother for up to three months. Weaning and life span are generally unknown, and sexual maturity is thought to be around two years.

Giant anteater

Sexual maturity has been achieved at 18 months of age in captivity. Females give birth to a single young after about 190 days gestation. The young are patterned identically to the mother while being carried on the mother's back the bands of the two animals visually unite and provide camouflage. The young nurse for approximately two months, then begin taking insects. Neonates often ride on the mothers back for six to nine months before they become self-sufficient. They grasp the long hairs of their mother and produce a shrill call if isolated.

Ear Length

Mainly an increase in length, since ear width changes little after 10 years of age. The ear is generally longer in males than in females. The sex difference increases with age. Charts of ear length from birth to 16 years of age are presented in Figs. 7.56 and 7.57. Age from birth (years)

Mental health

It has until recently been considered that an adult has the absolute right to refuse any form of treatment provided that they understand the consequences of that refusal. Two court cases have thrown doubt on that concept. Both involved pregnant women who had previously had a Caesarean section and who were demanding to be allowed to attempt natural childbirth. In both cases the court gave permission to the medical team to carry out the operation against the patients' wishes, presumably acting on behalf of the unborn child. This has raised serious questions which have yet to be resolved.

Reproduction

Postpartum depression is a relatively common occurrence in women after childbirth. One female who started taking 300 mg of St. John's wort (Jarsin 300) three times daily after meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for major depressive episode 5 months after delivery agreed to have milk samples tested. Hypericin was not detected in the milk samples, but hyperforin was detected at low concentrations, with higher levels in the hind-milk than the foremilk samples. The milk plasma ratio was well below one for both hypericin and hyperforin. Both levels were undetectable in the infant's serum and the baby showed no negative side effects

Milk composition

Compromises have to be made between the physiological constraints to milk synthesis and selective pressures to maximize offspring survival. The variation in milk composition between species is one of them. Most aquatic mammals produce highly concentrated milks. The reduction in milk water content in aquatic mammals provides a high-energy, low-bulk diet that is useful in offsetting neonatal heat loss in cold environments. It also conserves water in the mothers of species (such as the northern elephant seal) that abstain entirely from eating or drinking during a relatively short, but intense, lactation. Similarly, seals that give birth on pack ice and have a short lactation period (e.g., hooded seals four-day lactation) or those that leave the neonate for feeding trips lasting several days produce more concentrated, higher fat milks than do other seals.

Anatomy Bone marrow

In the foetus the yolk sac, liver and spleen contribute to haemopoiesis, but at birth the bone marrow harbours all the pluripotent stem cells (stem cells from which all blood cells originate) and is the sole producer of non-lymphocytic blood cells (Fig. 11.1). The bone marrow is housed in an inner space created in most bones by the opposing actions of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. This inner space or cavity consists of a labyrinth of communicating chambers formed by the crisscrossing of fine bony trabeculae. The bony framework is filled with a three-dimensional stromal cell network that forms the bedding for billions of blood-forming cells. The four main cell types of the bone marrow stroma are endothelial cells, fibroblasts, macrophages and energy-rich fat cells. From birth up to about 5 years the bone marrow cavity is fully occupied by proliferating haemopoietic cells. The haemopoietic cell mass consists of pluripotent stem cells, differentiated stem cells, precursor blood cells as...

Parity

Early age at first birth (i.e., before age 20) reduces the risk of breast cancer by about 50 relative to nulliparous women. Full-term pregnancies at later ages add smaller increments of protection, and women who have a first pregnancy over the age of 30 are actually at higher risk of breast cancer than nulliparous women.24 This paradoxical effect of a later first full-term pregnancy has been repeatedly confirmed in epi-demiological studies. Furthermore, a recent full-term pregnancy also increases risk.25 Among women giving birth during the previous 3 years, breast cancer risk is nearly three times higher than that of women of the same age, parity, and age at first birth whose most recent birth occurred at least 10 years earlier. First-trimester abortions, whether spontaneous or induced and occurring before the first full-term preg-nancy,26,27 have also been associated in some studies with increased breast cancer risk, although the interpretation of these studies has been questioned.28

Golden lion tamarin

Flexible mating system (monogamy, polyandry, polygyny). In groups with more than one adult male, mate guarding occurs during the receptive phase of the breeding female. Gestation length is 125-130 days and twins are the rule. Females give birth usually once per year, and breeding and births are seasonal. Adult males participate in infant carrying.

Goeldis monkey

Flexible mating system (monogamy, polyandry). Groups include 1-2 breeding females, each of which gives birth to a single infant. Estrus cycle duration is 23-24 days, gestation length is 147-157 days. Breeding is perhaps seasonal, with possibly two births per year. Mothers are the principal carriers of infants.

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

If Pregnancy Is Something That Frightens You, It's Time To Convert Your Fear Into Joy. Ready To Give Birth To A Child? Is The New Status Hitting Your State Of Mind? Are You Still Scared To Undergo All The Pain That Your Best Friend Underwent Just A Few Days Back? Not Convinced With The Answers Given By The Experts?

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