Treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection
Clinical diagnostics of uropathogens is based on classical microbiological methods (see Table 1). In addition, nucleic acid-based systems became more and more of importance. The detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma species occured due to the employment of gene probes, PCR and LCR (ligase chain reaction) methods. The application of the Chip technology will allow the establishment of arrays covering a large number of
Despite the benefits, sexual health is undermined by intimate partner violence (e.g., sexual coercion and rape) and by sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Recent US estimates of sexual coercion indicate that 1 in 59 adults have experienced unwanted sexual activity in the past year with 1 in 15 adults forced to have sex at least once in their lifetime (Basile et al, 2007). Among a diverse sample of women (adolescents, patients attending a STI clinic, homeless women, and college students), sexual coercion was consistently related to subsequent risky sexual behavior (Biglan et al, 1995). Risky sexual behavior (e.g., unprotected sex with infected partners) threatens sexual health and puts people at risk of contracting STIs. In the USA, an estimated 19 million new STIs are diagnosed each year, including 56,000 new cases of HIV AIDS, over 1 million cases of chlamydia, 355,991 cases of gonorrhea, and 11,466 cases of syphilis (CDC, 2009 Hall et al, 2008).
Summary This study is to determine whether the antibotic, azithromycin, decreases the risk of having a heart attack or other complication related to coronary artery disease in people with heart disease. Azithromycin is an antibiotic that is used to treat infections with a bacteria called Chlamydia pneumoniae. Some studies suggest that Chlamydia pneumoniae infection may be a risk factor for heart attacks and other complications related to coronary artery disease. Chlamydia pneumoniae is spread from person-to-person by sneezing and coughing (unlike a related bacteria, Chlamydia trachomatis, it is not a sexually transmitted disease). Studies show that people who have been infected with Chlamydia pneumoniae in the past have a higher chance of having a heart attack. Other studies show that Chlamydia pnreumoniae is present in the plaque, or material blocking the heart vessel, in many people with heart disease.
Several infectious agents currently remain as viable candidate agents because they may be compatible with the unique worldwide distribution of MS, they induce demyelination in humans or animals, agent-specific antibodies are elevated in the serum or CSF of MS patients, or the agent has been identified in MS tissues (1,14). Measles, human coronavirus 226E, EBV, retroviruses, HHV-6, and Chlamydia pneumoniae have attracted interest in recent years in terms of known agents that commonly infect humans. Animal viruses that have attracted the most attention are JHM, a mouse coronavirus Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus, a picomavirus of mice and CDV, a morbilliform virus of dogs and carnivores.
In contrast, C.freundii invasion of other cell lines (e.g. INT407, HCT-8) was inhibited by CD and colchicine or nocodazole. However, Salmonella internalization in any of the cell lines tested was strongly dependent on intact MFs but independent of intact MTs (Figure 1). In summary, C. freundii internalization into T24 cells relys solely on intact MTs and in other cells additionally on intact MFs. Solely or in addition to MFs MTs are also involved in the uptake pathways of Campylobacter jejuni9, Chlamydia trachomatis10, enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC)11, enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC)12, newborn meningitis-causing E. coli (MENEC)13, certain uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC)14, Listeria monocytogenes15,16, Klebsiella pneumoniae11, Mycobacterium bovis BCG18, Mycobacterium tuberculosis19, Mycoplasma penetrans20, Neisseria gonorrhoeae21, and Porphyromonas gingivalis22.
Infectious agents, including herpesviruses and Chlamydia pneumoniae, have been identified with some frequency in atherosclerotic lesions. Although the primary role of these agents in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis has not been determined, infectious agents have the potential to participate as promoters of inflammation, which is important in the progression of atherosclerosis (Kol and
There has been considerable interest that low grade infections may result in chronic activation of the immune system and that this may predispose to a variety of chronic disease states, including insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Organisms that have attracted attention include those that cause dental and gum disease, Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and viral infections including cytomegalovirus. A genetic component has also been recognized with polymorphisms in the genes or promoters for many of the cytokines accounting for variation in expression between individuals. For example, the common -174G C polymorphism in the gene for interleukin-6 (IL-6) has recently been linked with longevity as the distribution of genotypes in the very elderly and appears to be different from that of the general population (Hurme et al., 2005). The biological processes involved are obviously very complex, and no single genetic abnormality is going to account for the
Over the last few years several non-E. coli bacteria were identified to be uropathogenic. Those bacteria were often found in patients suffering from complicated urinary tract infections, including patients with either catheters or suffering from stone formation or in immunocompromized patients. Thus, multiresistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as well as certain Proteus species are important ofnon-E. coli uropathogens. One has to take in mind that especially the newly established species Proteus penneri seems to be a newly emerging uropathogen2. In addition, grampositive bacteria also play an increasing role as nosocomial pathogens in UTI. Thus, the biofilm forming S. aureus and S. epidermidis species are of particular importance. Moreover, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum represent important uropathogens. Anaerobic bacteria play an important role especially during prostatitis. Fungi (Candida albicans, Candida glabrata) also...
Why would the hosts own immune system turn against it in such a fashion The complete answer has not yet been elucidated. However, there is an indication that the answer might in part be due to molecular mimicry, (for review see (Binder et al., 2002 Rose, 2000 Rose and Mackay, 2000)). Since Chlamydial heat shock proteins are potent antigenic stimuli able to induce specific cellmediated and humoral immune responses, several studies have proposed a link between Chlamydia pneumoniae and pathologies associated with atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD) (Ausiello et al., 2005 Hoshida et al., 2005). In addition, Chlamydial heat shock proteins have been suggested to increase the risk of secondary cardiovascular events in patients with coronary heart disease with diabetes (Guech-Ongey et al., 2006).
At that point, we chanced to meet a fascinating character, Karl P. Meyer, a Swiss veterinarian who had become a prominent virologist in California. He was a magisterial individual both in appearance and in manner, who by virtue of his eminence in chlamydial disease and plague was an expert in public health. He obtained permission for us to vaccinate at an institution for retarded children in Sonoma, CA, where we expanded our studies of immunization, using the TN and SM stains.
Teams must be prepared for and trained in the delivery and resuscitation of newborn infants. At least a two-person team is recommended to care for newborn resuscitation. This is in addition to the team required for maternal care and newborn delivery. Pre- and perinatal conditions that may complicate delivery include maternal hypertension, maternal infection, gestational diabetes, chronic maternal illness, medications, tobacco, alcohol, drug use, premature or prolonged rupture of membranes, prematurity, breech presentation, nuchal cord, shoulder dystocia, multiple gestation, meconium, and postpartum hemorrhage. Additional complications that may complicate resuscitation include respiratory depression, apnea, pneumothorax, asystole, bradycardia, hypothermia, hypovolemia, acidosis, anemia, infection, sepsis, fetal anomalies, and CNS depression. Neonatal resuscitation protocols developed by the American Heart Association should be followed. Providing warmth, suction, vitamin K to prevent...
The urethral syndrome, also known as dysuria-pyuria syndrome, is an acute UTI with low number of microorganisms, 102-105cfu ml observed in women only. The cause can be an infection with Ureaplasma urealyticum, Chlamydia trachomatis or other sexually transmitted diseases confined to the proximal urethra or an infection of the para-urethral glands with lactobacilli. Some cases are due to chemical irritation with deodorants, bubble bath etc., to mechanical or psychological trauma. The therapeutic measures are the same as those mentioned for recurrent cystitis. Specific treatment with doxycycline (200 mg daily for 10 days, azithromycine (1 g in a single dose) or fluoroquinolones (10 days) is indicated for Ureaplasma urealyticum, or Chlamydia trachomatis.