The Church Growth Kit

Ministry Letters

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The Persistence of Time

The term interval timing is used to describe the temporal discrimination processes involved in the estimation and reproduction of relatively short durations in the sec-onds-to-minutes range that form the fabric of our everyday existence and unite our mental representations of action sequences and rhythmical structures (e.g., Fraisse, 1963 Gallistel, 1990 Gibbon and Allan, 1984 Krampe et al., 2002 Macar et al., 1992 McAuley and Jones, 2002 Pressing, 1999 Rousseau and Rousseau, 1996). A classic example of interval timing comes from the fixed-interval (FI) procedure in which a subject is reinforced for the first response it makes after a programmed interval has elapsed since the previous reinforcement (Skinner, 1936). Subjects (e.g., primates, rodents, birds, and fish) trained on this procedure typically show what is known as the fixed-interval scallop. This pattern of behavior involves pausing after the delivery of reinforcement and starting to respond after a fixed proportion of the...

The Importance Of Interval Timing In Cognitive Development

Analog representations of stimulus magnitudes have also been explored using mode-control models of temporal integration as a guide for understanding nonsym-bolic counting and timing processes in animals, nonverbal infants, young children, and adults (see Brannon and Roitman, this volume Clement and Droit-Volet, 2001 Dehaene et al., 1999 Gallistel and Gelman, 1992 Meck and Church, 1983 Meck et al., 1985 Wynn, 1995, 1998). The mode-control model posits that magnitude estimations of time and number are mediated by the same pacemaker-accumulator system, but operated in different pulse accumulation modes (e.g., a run mode for time and an event mode for number). This unified model of temporal integration has become influential in the debate surrounding the foundations of numerical thinking and the evidence for nonverbal counting ability in a variety of animals, including monkeys and human infants (e.g., Brannon and Roitman, this volume Brannon and Terrace, 1998 Brannon et al., 2001...

Discrepancies In The Content Of Temporal Memory

Individual differences in the content of temporal memory can be evaluated by the horizontal placement of psychophysical functions that relate signal duration to the probability of a response (Church and Meck, 1988 Gibbon et al., 1984). Data obtained from the PI procedure have shown that discrepancies in the content of temporal memory produce stable horizontal displacements of timing functions such that they can be centered at times that are either less than or greater than the programmed time of reinforcement (Church, 1989 Meck, 2002a, b). Typically, the average remembered time of reinforcement for a group of mature rats would be very close to the programmed time of reinforcement, with a symmetrical distribution of individual peak times centered around that time. In contrast, as rats age they demonstrate a proportional rightward shift in their timing functions, indicating that their remembered durations reflect a constant percentage overestimate of the programmed time of reinforcement...

If sex is not for reproduction what is it for

Riding a roller coaster or playing bridge. This notion could have tremendous implications for society's views on sexuality but none for sexual behavior. In fact, humans and other animals have always had sex for the fun of it. Undoubtedly, many humans have made and make efforts to obey the many rules established by society, biology, and doctrines of faith, but they seem to be in a minority and their success is uncertain. Although the Holy Roman Catholic and Apostolic church does not accept contraception, a vast majority of Catholics use unauthorized methods to dissociate sex from reproduction. Although many Lutheran groups reject homosexuality, there is no indication that homosexuality is less frequent in countries where such groups are influential. While individual sexual behavior always seems to have been directed towards the obtention of positive affect, the norms supposedly controlling that behavior have established otherwise. One of the reasons for the excitement produced by the...

Outbreak Characterization

As mentioned in Chapter 1, some outbreak characteristics may already be known at the time that an outbreak is detected. For example, if a biosurveillance organization detects an outbreak from analysis of notifiable disease data (which is largely organism-based reporting), it will already know the causative biological agent. If a participant in a church picnic reports an outbreak to a health department, that person may also report the source as macaroni salad, having interviewed'' most of the picnickers by phone before calling the health department. We expect the number of outbreak characteristics that are known at the time of outbreak detection to increase as biosurveillance systems collect increasing amounts of surveillance data on a continuous basis. The distinction between outbreak detection and characterization will continue to blur.

Interval Timing Theories

Scalar timing theory is designed to account for the behavior of human beings and other animals in temporal perception and timed performance procedures (Allan, 1998 Gibbon, 1991). Many alternative timing theories have been designed to account for the same facts. These include the behavioral theory of timing (Killeen and Fetterman, 1988), the learning-to-time model (Machado, 1997), the multiple-oscillator model (Church and Broadbent, 1990), the spectral timing theory (Grossberg and Schmajuk, 1989), and the multiple-timescale model (Staddon and Higa, 1999). Although this chapter is restricted to a description of scalar timing theory, the approach that is described can be applied to any timing theory that is completely and precisely described (Church and Kirkpatrick, 2001). Conditioning theories were also designed to account for the behavior produced by procedures that involve the specification of the times of onset and termination of stimuli and reinforcers, and of responses. The goal of...

An Information Processing Metaphor of Scalar Timing Theory

Various assumptions have been made about the time series of pulses that are emitted by a pacemaker. These include the assumption of a fixed interpulse interval, a random (exponential) distribution of interpulse intervals, and a fixed interpulse interval during the timing of an interval, but a normal distribution of rates (Gibbon and Church, 1984). Because, at the durations used in most of the experimental research, other sources of scalar variability overwhelm the effects of pacemaker variability, any of these possibilities remains plausible (Gibbon, 1992).

The Cuvier Geoffroy Debate

Scientists and scholars like to use the word revolution to describe great changes in science, but Lamarck's evolutionism was revolutionary in the original sociopolitical sense of the word as well. Evolutionary thinking was positioned in direct opposition to the privileges of nobility and the church and against the conservative and new professional social control of science in France. Toby Appel unearthed this aspect of Lamarckism when she reexamined one of the great debates of the early nineteenth century over comparative anatomy between Cuvier and another champion of evolutionary theory at the Mus um d'Histoire Naturelle Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (1772-1844), professor of zoology.33 The antagonism between Geoffroy and Cuvier persisted through out the 1820s and finally ruptured into a famous public confrontation over a period of two months in 1830 at meetings of the Acad mie des Sciences, the supreme arbiter of science in France. These were weekly events attended by all the...

Predictions from a Formal Model

In an explicit solution, predictions of the model are derived from the assumptions of the models (usually, with the addition of some simplifying assumptions or approximations). Explicit solutions of scalar timing theory have been developed for some procedures. These include the temporal bisection procedure (Gibbon, 1981a, 1981b), temporal generalization (Church and Gibbon, 1982 Gibbon and Church, 1984), time-left (Gibbon and Church, 1981 Gibbon et al., 1984), and the peak-interval procedure (Gibbon et al., 1984). The main advantage of these explicit solutions over simulations is that they provide exact results, and the resulting equations may be used to calculate the consequences of any sets of parameters very

The Problems of Mitochondrial Intronic Reading Frames and Their Products

Second, genetic experiments using novel respiratory deficient mitochondrial mutations had led to the idea that some of these mutations affected the expression of their gene in an unusual manner (Slonimski and Tzagoloff 1976). With the discovery of introns, it became rapidly clear that the two genes concerned (encoding apocytochrome b and subunit I of cytochrome oxidase, respectively) were mosaic and that the unusual mutations were in their introns (Slonimski et al. 1978 reviewed in Dujon 1979,1981) and prevented splicing (Church et al. 1979). Interestingly, some of them were complemented in trans by a wild-type intron, as if an intron product existed. In particular, the presence of a long open reading frame in the sequence of the second intron of the cytochrome b gene strongly suggested that the trans-active component necessary for proper gene expression, and altered in the mutants, was the intron translation product, inferring that the intron product would help the splicing of its...

Natural Theology and Agnosticism

Remembered today as Darwin's bulldog, Huxley wrote about theology and philosophy from the point of view of an agnostic, a term he coined. Much of his polemics were directed at the anti-intellectualism of church dogma. He introduced the term agnostic as suggestively antithetic to the Gnostic of church history, who professed to know so very much. Agnosticism, for Huxley was not a creed, but an injunction about the way to approach knowledge to follow reason as far it could go without consideration for where it might lead, and not to pretend to know things with certainty that had not been demonstrated or were not demonstrable.10 Huxley is remembered for his part in one of the most famous confrontations between religion and evolution the debate on June 30, 1860, at the British Association for the Advancement of Science meeting at Oxford, with Archbishop Samuel Wilberforce. Wilberforce was a well-known public figure at the height of his fame he had the ability to speak on platform and...

Of Anatomy And Animal Research

The Renaissance was a period of great scientific discovery and included advances in our understanding of human and animal anatomy. Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564 ad) was arguably the greatest anatomist of the era (4). He performed public nonhuman dissections at the University of Padua in Italy to teach anatomy and is credited with creating the field of modern anatomy (2). His immediate successors at Padua were Matteo Realdo Colombo (1510-1559 ad), who described pulmonary circulation and the atrial and ventricular cavities, and Gabriele Falloppio (1523-1562 ad), who is credited with the discovery of the Fallopian tubes among other things (4). Animal research flourished during this period because of a number of popular ideas launched by the christian church and Rene Descartes. The church asserted that animals were under

Ethical Issues in a Religiously Diverse Society

By ''religion'' is meant something more than institutional affiliation to some church, mosque, or synagogue. Religion and aging encounter one another on the experiential level. Following Tillich (1957), religion may be defined as the state of being grasped by an ultimate concern. That is, whenever a person speaks of the ultimate meaning of his existence, whenever he contemplates absolute duties and obligations, whenever he devotes himself to a cause he deems to be ultimately real, that individual is acting religiously, whether he is aware of it or not.

Implications For Theories Of Timing

Taken together, these results indicate that multiple local maxima in sensitivity to time are observed in the discrimination of time across several orders of magnitude (Figure 3.7 Crystal, 1999, 2001a, 2001b). The existence of a local maximum near a circadian oscillator (Figure 3.7, rightmost peak) and in the short-interval range (Figure 3.7, left side) is consistent with timing based on multiple oscillators (Church and Broadbent, 1990 Crystal, 1999, 2001a Gallistel, 1990). The location of a local maximum may be used to identify an oscillator's period. The existence of nonlinearities in the sensitivity to time provides constraints for the development of theories of timing. Four theories will be reviewed scalar timing theory (Gibbon, 1977, 1991), multiple-oscillator theory of timing (Church and Broadbent, 1990), broadcast theory of timing (Rosenbaum, 1998), and stochastic counting cascades (Killeen, 2002 Killeen and Taylor, 2000).

Feeding ecology and diet

Honeyguides are unique among birds for their habit of eating mainly beeswax from honeycombs a symbiotic microorganism living in the gut helps these birds to extract nutrition from a substance that most other animals find indigestible. Honeyguides are also unusual in having an excellent sense of smell many reports exist relating how birds are attracted to burning beeswax candles in rural churches.

Lessons From The Psychophysics Of Time

A more informative variation of the FI schedule is the peak-interval (PI) procedure (e.g., Church et al., 1994 Roberts, 1981). In the PI procedure, animals learn that a response will deliver food after a certain interval has passed following the initiation of a signal. The major difference between the FI schedule and the PI procedure is that in the latter, approximately 50 of the time there is no food reward. Instead, the signal stays on for a set period regardless of how the animal responds. It is during these no-reward trials that responses are recorded. Inevitably, the animal increases its response rate until the approximate time of the reward and then decreases its response until the signal is turned off, as shown in Figure 4.2. Movement of the peak function rate left or right is interpreted as a change in the rate of perceived time by the animal. The temporal bisection procedure requires the subject to discriminate between two signals, long and short in duration (e.g., by...

Definitions and Measurement

Social network is defined as the web of social relationships that surround an individual (Berkman and Glass, 2000). An important distinction that is drawn between the concepts of social networks versus social support is while that the former term refers to the structure of social ties, the latter refers to their functional aspects (such as the exchange of information, instrumental aid, and affection).1 Social networks can be further characterized according to their size (number of members connected to the index individual), frequency of contact, and the diversity of domains in which the individual maintains social relations (e.g., marital ties, friendships, voluntary groups, and church membership). ego's) social ties (e.g., Are you married , and How many close friends do you have ) and (b) the sociometric (or whole social network) approach which attempts to measure the totality of social connections within a structure. For reasons of practicality, most epidemiologic research has...

Mechanisms Linking Social Networks to Health Outcomes

Neuroendocrine responses even in the absence of mobilizing emotional support. For example, in Sheldon Cohen's experiments exposing volunteers to an intranasal dose of the cold virus, individuals reporting high social network diversity (i.e., the presence of social ties in many domains including the work-place, community groups, churches) experienced roughly half the risk of succumbing to a symptomatic cold compared to more isolated individuals, even though the experiments did not involve any manipulation of social support in the laboratory (1997). Presumably, this finding is explained by some as-yet unaccounted for the effect of social network integration on immune functioning (i.e., the ability to fend off the cold virus). Furthermore, longitudinal data from the Framingham Study (Loucks et al, 2006) as well as the MacArthur Successful Aging Study (Loucks et al, 2006) have reported associations between higher levels of social networks and lower levels of inflammatory markers such as...

Physical characteristics

Honeyguide vision and hearing are acute. The olfactory lobe of the brain is well developed, although there are no studies showing to what extent it uses olfaction to track down bee nests. There are many accounts of the birds flying into missionary churches and attacking the beeswax candles, probably alerted by the odor, which had been intensified and spread by the candle flames.

Chronic Stress and Stressors

The distinction between measurements of social network structure and function predominates. Most measurements of social network structure in the last 30 years are conceptually based on the Social Network Index (Berkman and Syme, 1979), which incorporates measurements of marital status, contact with friends and relatives, and church and group membership. Functional support is conceptualized as several types such as emotional, informational, tangible, and belonging (Uchino, 2004). While the exact domains differ across instruments, many of them include more than one such as the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (Cohen and Hoberman, 1983) and the MOS Social Support Survey (Sherbourne and Stewart, 1991). The Social Support Questionnaire-6 (Sarason et al, 1987) is a promising measure that taps into the perceived availability of and satisfaction with social support utilizing only six items. A related construct, isolation or loneliness, is also featured among measures of social relations....

Transfer between Tasks and Modalities

An abstract concept of number should not be tied to a sensory modality. Do animals appreciate that two sounds and two visual objects share twoness Fernandes and Church (1982) found that rats trained to discriminate two vs. four sound bursts immediately transferred the discrimination to two vs. four light flashes. Even more impressively, rats trained to make one response after two light flashes or tones and a second response after four light flashes or tones made the four-response to a compound stimulus of two light flashes and two tones (Church and Meck, 1984). These results suggest that the rats summed over the two modalities. However, rats trained by Davis and Albert (1987) were unable to transfer an auditory numerical discrimination to the visual modality when a more complex task was used that required rats to identify the intermediate value 3 from the adjacent values, 2 and 4 (see also Pastore, 1961 Salman, 1943).

Brief Description Of Five Models Of Nonverbal Number Representation

The third proposal is the mode-control model, or accumulator model it shares with the arbitrary numeron hypothesis the idea that animals use a serial process that conforms to the counting definition proposed by Gelman and Gallistel (1978). However, the mode-control model (Meck and Church, 1983 Meck et al., 1985) posits that number is represented as continuous magnitudes that directly reflect the magnitude of the discrete quantities they serve to represent (see Figure 6.10c). Thus the mode-control model contends that the nervous system inverts the representational convention whereby numbers are used to represent linear magnitudes. It is proposed that instead of using number to represent magnitude, the nervous system uses magnitude to represent number (see Gallistel and Gelman, 2000 Meck, 1997). Furthermore, the mode-control model posits that a single mechanism serves to represent time and number. The mode-control model was originally developed as an adaptation of the...

Differentiating The Models

That animals are thought to count (event mode) and time (run or stop mode) simultaneously (e.g., Meck and Church, 1983 Roberts et al., 2000). The linear-with-scalar-variability subjective number line hypothesis and the logarithmic subjective number line hypothesis have been treated as functionally equivalent because of their similar empirical predictions (Dehaene, 1992). However, Gibbon and Church (1981) developed a clever experimental paradigm to address whether time is subjectively represented in linear or logarithmic coordinates (time-left). This paradigm makes use of the simple fact that if the subjective time scale is logarithmically scaled, behavior based on the difference between two values will be the same whenever the two values have the same ratio, no matter how far apart these values are objectively. In other words, subtraction in a logarithmic scale is equal to division in a linear scale. Brannon et al. (2001) adapted the time-left paradigm to investigate the subjective...

Nora A Janjan Edward H Lin Marc E Delclos Christopher Crane Miguel A Rodriguez Bigas and John M Skibber

In the Minnesota Colon Cancer Control Study (Church et al, 1997), annual fecal occult blood studies were performed over a 13-year period. If 1 sample was positive, a diagnostic work-up, including a colonoscopy, was performed. The sensitivity of fecal occult blood studies in the detection of colorectal cancer was about 90 , the cure rate for early colorectal cancer was about 90 , and the screening strategy reduced the mortality from colorectal cancer by one third among patients over the age of 50 years.

Mechanisms Underlying Modality Effects In Time Perception

A large body of work in rats, and other animals, much of it interpreted within the framework of scalar timing theory, has addressed both the neural and neuro-chemical substrates of the pacemaker-accumulator component of the internal clock (for a detailed review of the pharmacological basis of the internal clock, see Meck, 1996). For example, Maricq and Church (1983) reported that the dopaminergic agonist methamphetamine increased the rate of the internal clock, whereas the dopaminergic antagonist haloperidol decreased the rate of the internal clock when rats timed intervals in the seconds range. The importance of the dopaminergic system for timing has also been extended to human participants (Malapani et al., 1998 Malapani and Rakitin, this volume Raamsayer, 1997a, 1997b). Although there is strong experimental evidence that both the rate of the internal clock and the latency with which timing processes are initiated are affected by pharmacological manipulations, the question of...

Homosexual Relationships

One often hears about wedded bliss or matrimonial harmony, but these are obviously not descriptive of many conjugal relationships. It may be that marriages are made in heaven, though it is doubtful unless one is a bride of Christ or married to the church. Duration is certainly not a sure-fire indicator of marital happiness. Most people who get married probably intend to stay that way, but, as one young woman explained to me, If it doesn't work out there are always divorce courts. Still, you can't equate marital stability with marital satisfaction. One 90-some-thing-year-old couple celebrated their diamond wedding anniversary by untying the knot. They confessed that they had never really liked each other but decided to wait until the children had grown old and died before going their separate ways.

Siblings And Other Relatives

My sister also liked to sing, and she and i occasionally performed at local churches. She usually sang God Put a Rainbow in the Sky, and I recited Bible verses that my mother had drilled me on the night before. My sister liked movie musicals in particular, and paid my way to the theater (sans popcorn) on many occasions. During high school, she became interested in opera, listened to the Metropolitan every Saturday afternoon on the radio, bought many opera records, andurged me to accompany her Mimi with my Rudolfo in the garret where we lived. I usually declined the invitation, but ended up learning something about

[4 Microinjection as a Tool to Explore Small GTPase Function

And predicting their subcellular localization. Trends Biochem. Sci. 24, 34-6. Simpson, J. C., and Pepperkok, R. (2003). Localizing the proteome. Genome Biol. 4, 240. Wheeler, D. L., Church, D. M., Edgar, R., Federhen, S., Helmberg, W., Madden, T. L., Pontius, J. U., Schuler, G. D., Schriml, L. M., Sequeira, E., Suzek, T. O., Tatusova, T. A., and Wagner, L. (2004). Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information Update. Nucleic Acids Res. 32, D35-40.

Dopamine And The Internal Clock

A representation of the mapping between the stopwatch metaphor (Church, 1978) and an information-processing model of interval timing (Gibbon et al., 1984) is given in Figure 12.1A. The information-processing model of interval timing continues the tradition of Treisman's (1963) internal clock in that pulses emitted by a pacemaker are temporarily stored in an accumulator, and that upon delivery of reinforcement, the number of pulses from the accumulator is stored in reference memory (Gibbon et al., 1984). The model implements the scalar expectancy theory (Gibbon, 1977) in that the response of the subjects is controlled by the ratio comparison between the current time (stored in the accumulator) and the criterion interval (stored in the reference memory). Figure 12.1B shows that according to the model, subjective time, stored in the accumulator, is linearly related to objective time, and that the error in time estimation increases with the to-be-timed interval. Therefore, two groups of...

Dopamine And Attention Sharing

In our work, we pursued a different approach involving a single-task procedure previously used to study timing and memory for time in animals (Catania, 1970 Meck et al., 1984 Roberts, 1981 Roberts and Church, 1978). We examined a variation of the PI procedure in which subjects (rats or pigeons) have to filter out the gaps that (sometimes) interrupt timing (Catania, 1970 Roberts, 1981). In the gap procedure, the subjects are exposed to three types of trials FI trials, PI trials, and gap trials. Gap trials are similar to PI trials, but the signal is interrupted for a brief duration called a gap. Typically, in gap trials the mean response rate increases in the pregap interval, declines during the gap, and then increases again after the gap and reaches a peak that is delayed relative to the peak time during PI trials. Evidence discussed below suggests that in this paradigm the delay in peak time is controlled by an attention-sharing process that can be differentiated from the pacemaker...

Shortinterval Timing

A wide variety of theories of short-interval timing have been proposed (Church and Broadbent, 1991 Gibbon, 1977 Jones, 1976 Killeen and Fetterman, 1988 Large and Jones, 1999 McAuley, 1996 McAuley and Kidd, 1998 Miall, 1989 Treisman, 1963). These theories generally fall into two classes approaches from a dynamical system perspective that involve coupled oscillators (Large and Jones, 1998 McAuley and Kidd, 1998) and approaches from an information-processing perspective (Church and Broadbent, 1991 Gibbon, 1977 Treisman, 1963). Most theories that incorporate explicit memory for time are information-processing models, which involve three independent components an internal clock used to estimate duration, a reference memory used to store information about duration, and a comparison mechanism used to make judgments about how much time has elapsed relative to a remembered (expected) standard duration (Church and Broadbent, 1991). Within this framework, scalar expectancy theory (SET) has been...

Mendel Becomes the Abbot

Mendel wrote a 12-page letter saying that the monastery could not pay such a sum, because it was already deep in debt and the size of the community was only a quarter of what it had been years before. He noted that a major reconstruction of the church and other buildings, costing 30,000 guilders, was needed. He also cited public service as a reason why the government should get no money from the monks The monastery had provided teachers for several academic institutes, and two monks who worked in the local hospital had died from infections they contracted there. Mendel did offer to pay 2,000 guilders in taxes, but the government would not accept so little. The argument dragged on for years and was not settled until after Mendel's death. There were also political changes to consider. In 1867, the Hapsburg Empire had become the Austro-Hungarian constitutional monarchy. It was a democracy of sorts. The new government began to make changes. One of them...

Acceptability of samesex behaviors and the role of willfulness

I have repeatedly pointed out that all sexual activities not involving penile-vaginal intercourse inevitably are non-reproductive. From the Christian perspective, they are sins. From the biological perspective, they are inadaptive. I have also repeatedly mentioned that many sexual activities other than penile-vaginal intercourse are not only sins for the churches and inadaptive for the biologists, but they have also been, and some are still, included in the penal codes of many countries. All these facts need to be added to the social opprobrium still provoked by some sexual activities. While cunnilingus and fellatio appear to be generally accepted as legitimate sexual behaviors in most civilized countries, this is not always the case for sex with individuals of the same sex, and particularly not for sex with prepu-bertal individuals. Still worse evidently is sex with prepubertal individuals of one's own sex. Sex between adult individuals of the same sex appears to be well accepted in...

Cortico Striatallike Auditory Processing Module

This system embodies the crux of simultaneous temporal processing as described by Meck and Church (1984). Several signals (syllables in our case), each one indicating the onset of a different temporal criteria, can be combined in such a way that they provide temporal information about the occurrence of a single biologically pre-potent stimulus. In this fashion, the songbird could come to behave as if it is independently timing each syllable without interference (see Pang and McAuley, this volume).

Schema Driven and Attention Dependent Processes

Right places at the boss's humorous golfing anecdote as a result of having heard the tale numerous times before, even though only intermittent segregation of the speech is possible (indeed, the adverse listening condition in this example may be a blessing in disguise). In an analogous laboratory situation, a sentence's final word embedded in noise is more easily detected when it is contextually predictable (Pichora-Fuller, Schneider, and Daneman, 1995), and older adults appear to benefit more than young adults from contextual cues in identifying the sentence's final word (Pichora-Fuller, Schneider, and Daneman, 1995). Since words cannot be reliably identified on the basis of the signal cue alone (i.e., without context), stored knowledge must be applied to succeed. That is to say that the context provides environmental support, which narrows the number of possible alternatives to choose from, thereby increasing the likelihood of having a positive match between the incoming sound and...

Other environmental risk factors that may predispose smokers to COPD

Early in the last century, studies in populations who were malnourished demonstrated that food deprivation resulted in an alteration in respiratory function and premature emphysema at autopsy (Sridhar, 1999). Cigarette smokers have a low dietary intake of fresh fruit (Bolton-Smith, 1993 Subar and Harlan, 1993), an important source of the dietary anti-oxidant vitamin C. Vitamin C is the most abundant anti-oxidant in the extra-cellular fluid lining the lungs (Slade et a ., 1993). Cigarette tar contains a very high concentration of free radicals (Pryor and Stone, 1993), with each inhalation from a cigarette containing approximately 1016 oxidant particles (Church and Pryor, 1985). An imbalance between oxidative stress and anti-oxidant activity has been suggested as a possible mechanism for the development of COPD in smokers (Cross et a ., 1999 Macnee and Rahman, 1999 Traber et a ., 2000). Proposed cellular mechanisms by which this oxidant stress may lead to lung damage include direct...

Conservation Status

Harvesting for pearls in Europe was reserved for the church and aristocrats as early as the medieval period. Although early laws were prompted by the commercial value of pearls, they served to protect this long-lived species, most effectively in Saxony (Germany). Less efficiently managed areas (Scotland, Ireland, Norway, Sweden) experienced declines and extirpation. Additional declines have been attributed to poor water quality, habitat alteration, and declines in host fish populations. Classified as Endangered on the 2002 IUCN Red List. Listed on Appendix II of the 1979 Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats.

Significance To Humans

Human food source (adductor muscle), harvested by native populations on Pacific Islands. Shells historically used for making tools (mallets, hoes, scrapers) also used intact as water basins (and in churches worldwide as baptismal fonts, suggested by the French vernacular name). Non-nacreous pearls have little commercial value, although the largest pearl on record is the oblong Pearl of Allah, 9 in (22.9 cm) long and 14 lbs (6.35 kg) in weight, from a T. gigas specimen collected in the Philippines in 1934.

Attitudes toward Crime

Because the United States is the most violent industrialized democracy in the world.as well as one of the wealthiest, it is not surprising that concern and fear about crime are widespread in this country. In a recent national survey, for example, 31 of the respondents indicated that they were afraid to walk alone at night within a mile of their homes (Davis & Smith, 1994). However, fear is not necessarily the same as reality. For example, older adults, and women in particular, are reportedly more afraid than younger adults,1 but younger adults are more likely than older adults to be victims of crime. In 1993, for example, 125.2 of every 1000 residents of the U.S. between the ages of 12 and 16,120.5 of every 1000 residents between 16 and 19, and 97.7 of every 1000 residents between 20 and 24 were victims of personal crimes. However, only 7.8 of every 1000 residents aged 65 and over were victims of personal crimes in that year (Perkins, Klaus, Bastian, & Cohen, 1996). The crime...

Pros and Cons of the Accumulator Model of PD Timing Effects

While the most important outcome from these simulations is the light it sheds on the manner in which limitations of SET can be overcome to account for migration, this model has certain features that interest us with respect to modeling timing in the basal ganglia. An important aspect of basal ganglia anatomy is the dichotomy between the direct and indirect pathways from the striatum to the globus pallidus. Both of these pathways originate in the striatum (Bejjani et al., 1997 Benabid et al., 1991, 1998 Limousin et al., 1995a, 1995b, 1998 Mitchell et al., 1986, 1995 Molinuevo et al., 2000 Pollak et al., 2002 Yelnik et al., 2000), rely on dopaminergic function (Young and Penney, 1984), and terminate at the globus pallidus (Albin et al., 1989 Crossman, 1989 DeLong, 1990 Filion et al., 1991 Miller and DeLong, 1987 Robertson et al., 1990, 1991 Tronnier et al., 1997). The net influence of activity in these pathways is opposite in that the direct pathway upregulates pallidal activity, while...

Neuroimaging And The Time Measurement System

Bearing knowledge of the limiting characteristics of neuroimaging techniques in mind, let us think about the basic components of the scalar expectancy theory (or scalar timing) model (see Church, this volume Gibbon et al., 1984) and ask how we can identify the mechanisms and the neural loci of each. The various components are the time-dependent process (the pacemaker), the local memory stores (the accumulator and the reference memory), and the comparator, as well as sensory input and modulatory output systems. Temporal information processing would also include the attentional system and the cognitive output structures or the motor systems using information from the timer.

Consensual Issues And Major Advances

First of all, the book masterfully demonstrates how the scalar timing model, or scalar expectancy theory (SET) (Gibbon et al., 1984), fuels many distinct fields of interval timing research. Initially grounded on animal studies using conditioning schedules for timing (see Church, this volume) and counting (see Brannon and Roitman, this volume), SET has inspired ecological foraging theories and the analysis of other natural behaviors (see Bateson, this volume Hills, this volume MacDonald and Meck, this volume), has invaded the ontogenetic and aging fields (see Droit-Volet, this volume Lustig, this volume), and provides a foundation to the attentional models developed in the frame of human timing (see Fortin, this volume Pang and McAuley, this volume). As any vivid and comprehensive model, it also elicits alternative and contradictory views (see Crystal, this volume Hopson, this volume Malapani and Rakitin, this volume Matell et al., this volume Meck, this volume), reminding us of the...

The high cost of the imposed association between sexual behavior and reproduction

That the Holy Roman Apostolic and Catholic Church has rejected the employment of contraceptives for more than 1500 years, following the principles of Saint Augustine. Many Lutheran churches and the American federal government presently do the same. The amount of human suffering caused by these attitudes is difficult to estimate. What is clear, though, is that they have brought no benefit to mankind. It is not only religious organizations and fundamentalist governments that reject the use of contraceptives because of doctrines of faith. Many individuals are also influenced by these attitudes and refrain from the use of contraceptives from fear of appearing immoral. It has been argued that many unwanted pregnancies are a result of the strange idea that sex without contraception is less immoral than sex with contraception (see Gudorf, 1994, for an excellent discussion of this and other consequences of what she calls 'procreationism'). Tragedy, both for mother, father and child, is a not...

Formation of the Nucleocapsid

Maturational proteolysis converts at least some procapsids to B-capsids (Fig. 6b), which differ by having an angular appearance (instead of round), and containing cleaved forms of the internal scaffolding proteins (instead of precursors). B-capsids are depicted in Fig. 4 as intermediates in the assembly pathway, but it has been difficult to demonstrate their maturation to DNA-containing nucleocapsids (O'Callaghan and Randall 1976 Ladin et al. 1982 Lee et al. 1988 Sherman and Bachenheimer 1988 Church and Wilson 1997). One explanation is that only a small percentage of the relatively large B-capsid pool incorporates DNA, making their loss from the pool difficult to detect. Moreover, once DNA packaging begins, the particles involved may become compositionally heterogeneous (e.g., a decreasing amount of scaffolding proteins and an increasing amount of DNA) and, consequently, escape detection by methods routinely used to recover and characterize capsids (e.g., sedimentation and equilibrium...

Copulatory behavior in men and women

Stages Coital

Codes of many states established maximal prison terms of around 20 years for sodomy or fellatio, for example. Some other American and many European countries had similar laws. The discovery that many otherwise exemplary citizens engaged in sexual activities 'contrary to nature' as they were regarded at the time, produced a profound social shock and a violent outcry from the guardians of morals, like Anglican bishops, cardinals of the Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church of Rome, members of the United States Senate's Government Operations Committee, Lutheran pastors and many others. They tried to combine their moral complaints with scientific criticisms, with the obvious aim of reducing the credibility of the Kinsey data. The rather unorthodox sampling procedures employed were one of the main targets of attack. It was argued that the estimates of the frequency of some copulatory behaviors were much exaggerated because of biased samples and that, in reality, the copulatory behavior of...

The importance of testicular hormones in men

These words inspired many Christian men to consider castration as a means of facilitating entry into Paradise. For example, one of the great thinkers of the Greek church, Origen (complete name Oregenes Adamantius, born in 185 in Alexandria, Egypt and died in 254 in Tyre, Phoenicia) is said to have castrated himself with the purpose of avoiding sexual temptations. There was even a eunuch sect, the Valesii, active in the 3rd century, in which the members not only castrated themselves to the greater glory of God, but they also castrated any visitor to their monastery (see Kuefler, 2001 and Scholten, 1995 for more extensive discussions of eunuchs in antiquity). Again, the purpose was to reduce or eliminate the sexual urges and the sinful acts that these urges might have incited men to engage in. This means that the reduction in sexual activity following castration must have been known for more than a thousand years. Some other effects of products emanating from the testicles have also...

Saint Augustine and sex the poena reciproca and the role of love

One of the church fathers, Saint Augustine (Augustinus Aurelius, bishop of Hippo, doctor of the Roman Catholic Church, AD 354-430) is regarded by many as the most influential of Christian thinkers. He wrote quite extensively on sexuality and he wrote quite explicitly. His luminous analyses have become the basis for the views on sexuality still ferociously defended by the Holy Roman Catholic and Apostolic Church as well as by the majority of Lutheran churches. The following summary of Augustine's views on sexuality is essentially based upon three excellent works Brown (1983, 1988) and Schmitt (1983). To the specialist, it will certainly appear superficial and uninformed, but it should be acceptable for the purpose of showing how his analyses of human sexuality still are the bases for most contemporary opinions, both among men of faith and among scientists. Those especially interested in the subject may want to venture into the original writings, particularly volume 14 of the City of...

Determining the safety and efficacy of hypoallergenic infant formulas

The oldest technique for quantification of a-amino groups uses ninhydrin (Moore and Stein, 1948), which reacts with them to produce a heavy blue product that is detected at 570 hm. This method is very sensitive but present several disadvantages, such as the interference of ammonia and the oxygen sensitivity of the reagent. In addition, the analysis requires a lot of time, due to the heating and cooling phases required for chromophore formation (Turgeon et al., 1991). The utilisation of trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS) and orthophthaldialdehyde (OPA), other specific reagents for a-amino groups released by the hydrolysis of a peptide bond, for the analysis of protein hydrolysates was proposed by Adler-Nissen (1979) and Church et al. (1983), respectively. Samples are incubated with TNBS for 1 hour at 37 C, and subsequently the absorbance is measured at 420 nm. Some disadvantages of this technique are the duration of the analysis, reagent contamination by picric acid giving high...

Ethical Dilemmas

In this chapter, we have laid the groundwork for what is to follow by introducing the overall goals for this handbook and by providing a terminological framework with which to approach the chapters that follow. However, while each contributor is ''in the same church,'' each is not necessarily ''in the same

Generality

Scalar timing theory has been applied to many different procedures that include both classical conditioning and instrumental training, both perceptual and behavioral, and both appetitive and aversive (Church, 2002). It has been extended from simple procedures to more complex ones involving several stimuli (involving simultaneous temporal processing) and several responses (involving choice). It has also been extended from the analysis of steady-state behavior to the study of dynamics of behavior, including acquisition, extinction, and transition effects (Gallistel and Gibbon, 2000). Scalar timing theory has been applied to many different dependent variables, including latency, relative response rates as a function of relative time from stimulus onset, and the distribution of the times of transitions from low to high response rates (Church et al., 1994). But it does not account for many other dependent variables. For example, in the fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement, it does not...

Clocks

The best-known exemplar of a state-based clock is the behavioral theory of timing (BET) (Killeen and Fetterman, 1988). Explicitly proposed as an alternative to the more cognitive model of scalar expectancy theory (SET) (Gibbon, 1977 Gibbon and Church, 1990), BET hypothesizes that animals keep track of time during an interval by going through a series of discrete behavioral states. For example, a rat might touch its nose, run to the back corner of the cage, stand up, and turn The connectionist SET model of Church and Broadbent (1990) can be considered a type of complex state-based model, but because it is based on a system of neural oscillators, it will be covered in a later section. SET has proven to be an enduring and flexible model of interval timing, due to its information-processing approach. By separating the timing mechanism into discrete subunits with clearly defined roles and properties, SET provides a theoretical framework for reducing timing behavior to manageable components...

Epilogue

During the long story that I have summarized in this chapter with my own personal bias, I had the chance to meet and interact with numerous people without whom the history of intron-encoded homing endonucleases would not have been the same. It is impossible for me to recall all of them. May the absent forgive me. Beside those personally cited in the text, I should mention particularly P. Avner, B. Backhaus, H. Baranowska, A. Beauvais, L. Belcour, M. Bolotin-Fukuhara, H. Blanc, J. Boyer, J. Brosius, G. Burger, M.-P. Carlotti, G. Church, M. Claisse, D. Coen, A.M. Colson, G. Cottarel, F. Denis, J. Deutsch, G. Dujardin, M. Eck, E. Fabre, C. Fairhead, G. Faye, G. Fischer, F. Foury, B. Frey, L. Gaillon, N.W. Gilham, J.E. Haber, A. Harington, E. Heard, C. Jacq, N. Jacquesson-Breuleux, Z. Kotylak, A. Kruszewska, F. Lang, J. Lazowska, B. Llorente, E. Luzi, G. Michaelis, C. Monteilhet, R. Mori-moto, P. Netter, O. Ozier-Kalogeropoulos, S. Pellenz, A. Perrin, E. Petrochilo, A....

African Americans

The effects of slavery on the experience of death began early and often, during capture and the journey to the Western Hemisphere (Markides & Mindel, 1987). Millions of Africans never finished the trip to America ''victims of starvation, suffocation, drowning, suicide, disease, and the whippings, beatings, mutilation, and direct killing by those who held them in bondage'' (Jackson, 1985, p. 203). The death-causing social structures of oppression and institutional discrimination continued during slavery (Weld, 1969) and afterwards, during segregation. Today death is common in ghettos in the United States. Within a context of deprivation, some African Americans have considered death as a covert form of desire for freedom (in spirituals, for example) (Markides & Mindel, 1987). Nevertheless, the spiritual image of African Americans has been misinterpreted (Jackson, 1972 S. A. Brown, 1958 M. M. Fischer, 1969). The significance of the African American church and religious beliefs lies not...

Laissezfaire

Spencer's socioevolutionary views continue to provoke debate among historians. Many have emphasized that his writings stood in the way of important social reforms. Laissez-faire capitalism had led to great advances in trade and industry, and some people made huge fortunes. But when trade and manufacturing slumped in the nineteenth century, many workers suffered poverty and unemployment. In industrial England, with its sweatshops, child labor, homelessness, and poverty, many writers called for social reform and the need for state charity. Spencer, however, decried state intervention, whether it be education for the poor or privileges for the church. While some historians portray him as a brutal social Darwinist who expounded the idea of struggle for survival into a doctrine of ruthless competition and class conflict, 5 others have argued that this view is somewhat misleading.6 For although the struggle for existence provided a plausible explanation for all the selfish behavior of which...

Longinterval Timing

The observation that timing data superimpose when plotted in relative time, rather than in absolute time, has played a formative role in the development of theories of interval timing (e.g., Gibbon 1977, 1991 Gibbon and Church, 1984). Most of these data came from short-interval timing (i.e., in the range of seconds and minutes), with relatively less information available about timing of long intervals (i.e., in the range of hours). A central question about long-interval timing is the extent to which

Circadian Timing

Most investigators of interval timing and circadian rhythms regard timing in short-interval and circadian ranges as mediated by separate mechanisms (e.g., Aschoff, 1984 Church, 1984 Gibbon et al., 1997a Hinton and Meck, 1997), with interactions that may occur at the behavioral level (Gibbon et al., 1984, 1997a Lustig and Meck, 2001 Meck, 1991 Pizzo and Crystal, in press Terman et al., 1984) or in the range of hours (Aschoff, 1985a, 1985b Aschoff and Daan, 1997). However, the observation that the scalar property applies to the anticipation of daily meals, as it does to short-interval timing, raises the prospect that the mechanisms of short-interval and circadian timing may be more related than previously supposed. Moreover, if the location of a local maximum in short-interval sensitivity identifies the period of an oscillator, then a local maximum in sensitivity to approximately 24 h is predicted. Therefore, a series of experiments investigating meal anticipation was undertaken

All Cause Mortality

Marital status, friends and relatives, church and group membership Social relationships (marital status, visit friends and relatives), social activity (church, group membership, social leisure activity) Marital status, friends and relatives, church membership Marital status, friends and relatives, church and group membership. Marital status, contact with close friends and relatives, church and groups membership relatives, church and group relatives, church, group relatives, church and group

Future Directions

Women) relatives, church and group relatives, church and group membership relatives, church and group membership Marital status, friends and relatives, church and group membership Marital status, friends and relatives, church and group membership Marital status, contact with close friends and relatives, church and group membership

Scalar Timing Theory

Scalar timing theory (see Church, this volume Gibbon et al., 1984) is an information-processing account of interval timing that grew out of scalar expectancy theory (SET) (Gibbon, 1977). All models of interval timing require three basic functions a clock function that measures elapsed time by converting it to some physical representation, a memory function in which a recorded time interval can be represented and stored, and a decision function that uses output from the clock and the memory components to control behavior (Church, 1997). In scalar timing theory these different functions are embodied in discrete components described as follows.

Ordering

Honig and colleagues (Honig, 1991 Honig and Matheson, 1995 Honig and Stewart, 1989, 1993) have conducted a series of studies showing that pigeons are sensitive to the relative number of icons in visual matrices. In one study, pigeons were trained to respond to a homogeneous array of X's and to avoid responding to a homogeneous array of O's (Honig and Stewart, 1989). Pigeons were then tested with arrays that had different proportions of X's and O's, and the proportion of responses the pigeons made was a systematic function of the proportion of X's in the test arrays. These data suggest that the pigeons were responding on the basis of the relative numerosity of the X's compared to the O's. Similarly, Meck and Church (1983) trained rats to discriminate two from eight sounds or successively presented visual stimuli and found a generalization gradient for intermediate values (for a similar demonstration in pigeons, see Roberts, 1995). More recently, Emmerton (1998) used a similar paradigm...

Conclusion

Task and estimate its duration simultaneously, have been widely used to study attention in human timing research (e.g., Brown, 1985, 1997 Hicks et al., 1976 Macar, 1996 McClain, 1983 Zakay et al., 1983). Interpolating nontemporal tasks in time production (e.g., Burle and Casini, 2001 Fortin and Rousseau, 1987 Rousseau et al., 1984 for a review of studies using this paradigm, see also Fortin, 1999) or in time discrimination (e.g., Casini and Macar, 1997) has also been used in the same purpose. However, even though disruption or interruption in accumulation of temporal information was often inferred to interpret results from dual-task studies, none of them addressed the problem of interruption in timing itself. In contrast, effects of breaks in stimuli to be timed were systematically investigated using the peak-interval procedure in animal timing research (e.g., Meck et al., 1984 Roberts, 1981 Roberts and Church, 1978), which provided reference data and a useful theoretical framework to...

Discussion

One type of sudden death that is assumed to cause problems for those bereaved is suicide. It can be a respected social act in specific and carefully defined circumstances - for example, hara-kiri. The Christian Church forbade it and those who died by suicide were forbidden burial within consecrated ground and buried at crossroads or lonely places such as headlands. Their bodies could be used for dissection as were those of murderers. The tools used to make the coffin would be destroyed or buried with it. Suicide was a crime in England and Wales until 1959 and in Scotland until 1961.

History

Iceland was first settled between 870 and 930 A.D. by Norwegian Vikings. Recent research has shown that 20 to 25 of the founding males had Gaelic ancestry. The majority of the females are thought to have come from the British Isles during the time of settlement. At the end of the initial settlement period, the population is estimated to have numbered approximately 30,000 (Halldorsson, 2003). A period of favorable climate conditions sustained a local population growth through the twelfth century, when the estimated population may have plateaued at 80,000. This era was followed by centuries of colder climate, and several periods of substantial population reduction occurred. Two epidemics, of plague in the fifteenth century and several smallpox epidemics in the sixteenth to early eighteenth century, reduced the population of the entire island to as low as 30,000 on more than one occasion. The fallout from a volcanic eruption in 1875 devastated the Icelandic economy and caused widespread...

Volunteerism

As discussed in Chapter 7, most older adults spend some of their free time visiting friends and relatives. In addition, some volunteer their services to various public and private organizations. Several million American men and women aged 16 and over perform unpaid volunteer work each year. Volunteer activities provide them with opportunities to utilize and broaden their skills while extending their social contacts. The largest number of volunteers work in churches or other religious organizations, followed in order by schools or other educational institutions, civic or political organizations, hospitals or other health organizations, social or welfare organizations, and sport or recreational organizations (U.S. Department of Labor, 1990). Among the activities of these volunteers are visiting people who are home-bound and directing religious, cultural, and recreational programs for the young and old.

Religious Activities

As indicated by the results of a telephone survey of over 3,000 American adults conducted by the Gallup Organization in 1995, the United States is a very religious nation. Ninety-five percent of the respondents in that survey stated that they believe in God or a universal spirit, 88 described religion as very important or fairly important in their lives, and 70 said they belonged to a specific church or synagogue. Eighty-four percent reported affiliation with a Christian denomination, 2 were Jewish, 6 claimed other religions, and 8 claimed no religious preference. However, only 43 (50 of women and 36 of men) of all respondents reported that they attend church or synagogue every week or almost every week. Attendance at religious services increases with age Thirty-six percent of those aged 18-29, 42 of those aged 30-49,44 of those aged 50-64, and 56 of those aged 65 and older reported attending their place of worship each week. Also of interest is that 38 of the respondents stated that...

Cultural Differences

Timothy Church and Walter Lonner, in their article, The Cross-Cultural Perspective in the Study of Personality, published in 1998, pointed to the fact that, from a historical point of view, anthropologists and sociologists were the first to pay attention and to research the relationships between culture and personality. Sociologists and anthropologists, however, are first interested in macrolevel phenomena and less in the microlevel of the individual person. Psychologists have been focusing most of the time on single aspects (e.g., neuroticism, locus of control, field dependence) and the cultural difference for these aspects and less on personality as a whole and the effect of culture on differences in personality. Church (2000) makes a distinction between two different approaches when the relation between personality and culture is studied (1) the cross-cultural trait psychology and (2) the cultural psychological approach. The first approach considers culture to be an independent...

Communication

Churches and other places of spiritual worship should be recognized as wonderful places for dissemination of such information. Clergy should also be targets of communication and educational efforts because of the likelihood of approach for spiritual support during prolonged periods of pain (see Chapter 4).

Funeral Practices

The nature and location of the funeral service also vary with the cultural and religious background of the survivors. For example, Roman Catholics, who are more likely than Protestants to hold funerals in a church rather than in a funeral home, are more favorably disposed toward elaborate funerals (Khleif, 1976). In both the United States and other countries, secular funerals have become more commonplace (Norbeck, 1995). Another modern trend has been toward simpler funerals or memorial services characterized by an emotional toning down of the service and a deritualization of mourning.