ERPs and the locus of selective attention

Selective attention refers to the ability of the human information processing system to selectively analyze some stimuli and ignore others. The locus of selective attention within the information processing flow has long been an issue of contention in psychology (e.g., Johnstone & Dark, 1986). Two metaphors have been associated with selective attention, that of filtering (see Broadbent, 1957) and that of resources (see Kahnemann, 1973, Norman & Bobrow, 1975). Filtering theories have...

Historical Developments

Psychophysiology is still quite young as a scientific field. Studies dating back to the turn of the prior century can be found involving the manipulation of a psychological factor and the measurement of one or more physiological responses (e.g., Berger, 1929 Darrow, 1929 Eng, 1925 Jacobson, 1930 Mosso, 1896 Peterson & Jung, 1907 Sechenov, 1878 Tarchanoff, 1890 Wenger, 1941 Wilder, 1931 see also, Woodworth & Schlosberg, 1954), and such studies would now be considered as falling squarely...

Psychophysiological Science Interdisciplinary Approaches to Classic Questions About the Mind

TASSINARY, AND GARY G. BERNTSON Psychophysiology is an old idea but a new science. It is a likely assumption that ever since man began to experience himself as an object of his own awareness he has had some intuitive notion that bodily changes were, in some measure, related to his moods, his sentiments, his frustrations, his elations. How to relate these dual aspects of human functioning has been a concern of philosopher-scientists throughout the course of...

Equivalent dipole approaches Dipole Source Modeling

The equivalent current dipole (ECD) model is the most basic source localization technique and assumes that scalp EEG potentials are generated by one or few focal sources (for review, see Fuchs, Ford, Sands, & Lew, 2004). A dipole does not reflect the presence of a unique and discrete source but it is rather a mathematically convenient representation (i.e., the center of gravity) of synchronized activation of a large number of pyramidal cells likely extending larger patches of gray matter...

The Conceptualization Of Psychophysiology

The body is the medium of experience and the instrument of action. Through its actions we shape and organize our experiences and distinguish our perceptions of the outside world from sensations that arise within the body itself. (Miller, 1978, p. 14) Anatomy, physiology, and psychophysiology are all branches of science organized around bodily systems with the collective aim of elucidating the structure and function of the parts of, and interrelated systems in, the human body in transactions...

Data preprocessing

Neuroimaging, and particularly fMRI, data undergo substantial processing before data analysis. There are several conditions about the fMRI images that must be met in order to carry out a successful data analysis. Most analyses are based on the assumption that all the voxels in any given image were acquired at the same time. Second, it is assumed that each data point in the time series from a given voxel were collected from that voxel only (i.e., that the participant did not move). Third, it is...

Lowresolution Electromagnetic Tomography LORETA

Low-resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) (Pascual-Marqui et al., 1994), a form of Laplacian-weighted MN solution, solves the inverse problem by assuming that (1) neighboring neurons are synchronously activated and display only gradually changing orientations and (2) the scalp-recorded signal originates mostly from cortical gray matter (Figure 3.6). The first assumption, which is generally consistent with neurophysiological studies in animals (e.g., Haalman & Vaadia, 1997), is...

Four Categories Of Psychophysiological Relationships

Relations between elements in the psychological and physiological domains should not be assumed to hold across situations or individuals. Indeed, elements in the psychological domain are delimited in the subtractive method in part by holding constant other processes that might differentiate the comparison tasks. Such a procedure is no unique to psychophysiology or to the subtractive method, as most psychological and medical tests can involve constructing specific assessment contexts in order to...