At the most fundamental level, we can ask whether or not the two conditions are associated with different ERP responses. Note that this inference, as well as the next (Section 3.2.2), do not depend on the classification of the ERP into components, but, rather, are based on the evaluation of the waveforms obtained in different conditions. The analytic procedure necessary to answer this question would involve a univariate or multivariate analysis of variance, with condition and measure (e.g., peak or datapoint within a specified time window) as factors. If such an analysis yields a significant effect of condition or a condition by measure interaction, we can infer that the conditions are different. If we assume that the ERP is an index of brain activity and/or that it reflects some psychological process, then we can infer that the brain activity and associated psychological process are different in the two conditions.
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