Sheep And Goat Flea Dorcadia ioffi

Physical characteristics The body of a sheep and goat flea has light and dark brown markings. Adult males grow to 0.13 inches (3.3 millimeters) in length, while females are 0.18 inches (4.5 millimeters). Females swollen with eggs may reach 0.6 inches (16 millimeters). The head and thorax lack combs. The mouthparts are very long. Geographic range They are found in parts of China, Mongolia, and Russia. Habitat They prefer pastures and agricultural fields where domestic sheep, cattle, goats, and...

Bookish Book Lice

Warm, damp homes, offices, and other buildings are perfect habitats for book lice. They forage for food in cellars, furniture stuffing, and inside food storage areas. Sometimes they will even eat the glue behind peeling wallpaper. They are particularly fond of libraries, nibbling the glue used in book bindings as well as the funguses that grow on the pages of books. Their feeding activities can cause great damage to old and rare books and papers. Most psocids spend their time living alone....

Zootermopsis laticeps

Physical characteristics This is the largest and most primitive termite in North America. Winged kings and queens measure 1.0 to 1.2 inches (25.4 to 30.5 millimeters) from head to wingtips, with a wingspan up to 1.9 inches (48.3 millimeters). Their bodies are dark yellowish. Soldiers measure 0.6 to 0.9 inches (15.2 to 22.9 millimeters) in length. The flattened head is widest at the back, and they have very long and roughly toothed jaws. Workers, soldiers, and other castes are whitish yellow or...

Subclass

Adults horseshoe crabs range in length from 3.5 to 33.5 inches (89 to 850 millimeters). The females are larger than the males. Horseshoe crabs have a large, arched forebody covered by a horseshoe-shaped carapace (KARE-a-pays), or upper shell, followed by a smooth abdomen with spines on the sides, and a thin tail. There are two pairs of simple eyes, or eyes with one lens, on top of the carapace and a pair of compound eyes, or eyes with multiple lenses, on ridges toward the sides. The mouthparts...

Cockroaches And People

If they are not controlled, some species may build up huge populations not only in homes and businesses but also in sewers. They are known to carry funguses bacteria parasitic worms, worms that infest the cockroaches' internal organs and other microscopic organisms on and in their bodies that cause diseases in humans. They have the potential for spreading harmful organisms indirectly, through contact with foods and utensils used in home and commercial food preparation areas. There is still no...

Supella longipalpa

Physical characteristics This small cockroach measures only 0.39 to 0.57 inches (9.9 to 14.5 millimeters) in length. In males the forewings completely cover the body, while those of the female seldom reach the tip of the abdomen. The forewings are reddish brown, with pale areas at the base and in the middle. The body color varies the dark midsection often has a pale area in the center. Geographic range The brownbanded cockroach is probably native to Africa. It has now become widespread around...

C

Carapace An upper platelike shield that covers all or part of certain arachnids a shield-like plate covering the body of some animals. Carnivore An animal that eats the flesh of other animals. Chimera A single organism that has features of two or more species. Chitin A material similar to fingernails that is the main component of the outer skeletons of some animals. Cholesterol A substance in animals' cells and body fluids that cleans the blood too much of it can be unhealthy. Coevolution...

Dances With Plants

Arthropods, especially insects, have had a long and close relationship with flowering plants that dates back between 135 and sixty-five million years ago. From the plant's point of view this relationship is both negative and positive. A negative example is their relationship with herbivorous insects. As herbivores, insects have strongly influenced the evolution of flowering plants. Over millions of years, plants have evolved several ways of defending themselves against insects. Many have...

Pandinus imperator

Physical characteristics Emperor scorpions are shiny blue, black to greenish black, and measure 5 to 8 inches (127 to 203 millimeters) in length, including the tail. They weigh up to 1.1 ounces (35 grams), although pregnant females may weigh as much as 1.4 ounces (40 grams). The males are similar in appearance to the females, but are slightly smaller and lighter-bodied. The powerful reddish-brown claws are rough in texture. The claws, body, and tail are covered with sensory hairs. Underneath...

Oriental Cockroach Blatta orientalis

Physical characteristics This shiny blackish brown species measures 0.7 to 0.94 inches (18 to 23.9 millimeters) in length. The forewings of the male are short, covering only about two-thirds of the abdomen. The female's forewings form small pads that barely cover the rear of the thorax, or midsection. There are no hind wings. Geographic range This species is found in port cities around the world. It also is found throughout the United States, England, northern Europe, Israel, southern...

Earwigs And People

The name earwig is thought to come from the mistaken belief that this insect likes to crawl into and hide in the ears of sleeping people. Earwigs are harmless and do not bite people, although some larger species can pinch. Most earwigs are not considered important pests. Earwigs like cockroaches have been transported throughout the world by ships and in cargo. They will cause damage in gardens by feeding on flowers and leaves. Sometimes earwigs are helpful because they eat other insects and...

Grylloblatta campodeiformis

Physical characteristics The adults measure 0.98 to 1.06 inches (25 to 27 millimeters) in length. Their bodies are yellowish brown. The antennae have fewer than thirty segments. Geographic range Northern rock-crawlers are found in southeastern British Columbia, southwestern Alberta, eastern Washington, northern Idaho, western and southern Montana. Habitat Northern rock-crawlers live in the mountains above the highest point where trees can grow. They prefer habitats where there is plenty of...

Suriname

Black-headed nasute termite Blue morpho Brownbanded cockroach Chigoe German cockroach Giant water bug Greenhouse camel cricket Greenhouse whitefly Hair follicle mite Honeybee Human head body louse Indian mealmoth Linnaeus's snapping termite Long-bodied cellar spider Lucerne flea Madeira cockroach Mediterranean fruitfly Pea aphid Silverfish Tarantula hawk Wandering glider Western flower thrips

Devils Coachhorse Ocypus olens

Physical characteristics Adult beetles are long, slender, black, and measure 0.9 to 1.3 inches (22 to 33 millimeters) in length. The body is black with short elytra exposing most of the abdominal segments. Geographic range This species lives in lower elevations of Europe, Russia, Turkey, North Africa, and the Canary Islands and is established in parts of North America. Habitat The devil's coach-horse lives in forests and gardens under stones, damp leaves, and moss, or in damp wood. Diet Adults...

Algeria

Camel spider Death's head hawk moth Devil's coach-horse European mantid German cockroach Greenhouse camel cricket Gypsy moth Hair follicle mite Honeybee House centipede Human head body louse Indian mealmoth Liposcelis bostrychophila Long-bodied cellar spider Long-winged conehead Lucerne flea Mediterranean fruitfly Sacred scarab Scolopender Silverfish Slender pigeon louse Spoonwing lacewing Wandering glider Western flower thrips Yellow fever mosquito

France

American cockroach Antlion Bed bug Book scorpion Brown mayfly Brownbanded cockroach Common harvestman Death's head hawk moth Devil's coach-horse European earwig European mantid European marsh crane fly European stag beetle Flat-backed millipede German cockroach Great water beetle Greenhouse camel cricket Greenhouse whitefly Gypsy moth Hair follicle mite Honeybee House centipede Human head body louse Indian mealmoth Large blue Long-bodied cellar spider Long-winged conehead Lucerne flea...

Ghana

Death's head hawk moth Emperor scorpion European mantid German cockroach Greenhouse camel cricket Greenhouse whitefly Hair follicle mite Honeybee Human head body louse Indian mealmoth Long-bodied cellar spider Long-winged conehead Lucerne flea Madeira cockroach Oriental cockroach Silverfish Variegated grasshopper Wandering glider Yellow fever mosquito

Greece

American cockroach Bed bug Book scorpion Brown mayfly Brownbanded cockroach Common harvestman Death's head hawk moth European earwig European mantid European stag beetle German cockroach Great water beetle Greenhouse camel cricket Greenhouse whitefly Gypsy moth Hair follicle mite Honeybee House centipede Human head body louse Indian mealmoth Long-winged conehead Lucerne flea Mediterranean fruitfly Pea aphid Sacred scarab Silverfish Slender pigeon louse Spoonwing lacewing Velvet ant Western...

Javan Leaf Insect Phyllium bioculatum

Physical characteristics The Javan leaf insect is a supreme leaf-mimic. Their broad green bodies and legs, with or without spots, are quite flattened. The antennae of the females are very short, while those of the male are longer. Adult males are 1.8 to 2.7 inches (46 to 68 millimeters) in length. Females range from 2.6 to 3.7 inches (67 to 94 millimeters). Geographic range This species is widespread in Southeast Asia, including Borneo, China, India, Java, Malaysia, Singapore, and Sumatra. They...

Rhabdotogryllus caraboides

Physical characteristics Beetle crickets are small, black, shiny, and beetlelike. Males and females have short, thick forewings covering only half of the abdomen. The veins on these wings are made up of many straight, parallel veins. Males lack the ability to produce sound with their wings. Geographic range Guinea (West Africa). Habitat Beetle crickets are found in leaf litter of the lowland and middle elevation rainforests, as well as in termite mounds. Beetle crickets are found in leaf litter...

Bristletails Versus Silverfish

With their shiny, scaly bodies, bristletails closely resemble silverfish (order Thysanura). Bristletails, however, have tube-shaped bodies, while those of silverfish are flattened. The eyes of bristletails are quite large and meet over the top of the head, but those of silverfish are much smaller and are widely separated. And each jaw of a bristletail has only one point of attachment to the head, while those of silverfish and all other insects connect to the head at two points. Bristletails...

Liposcelis bostrychophila

Physical characteristics Book lice are small, about 0.04 inches (1 millimeter) in length. They are wingless, somewhat flattened, and are pale brown in color. Each compound eye is made up of seven lenses. Geographic range They are found on all continents. Habitat Book lice are commonly found in homes and businesses where foods are stored. They also occur in the wild in the nests of birds and other animals. Diet They eat funguses and other bits of plant and animal materials. Behavior and...

Trialeurodes vaporariorum

Physical characteristics Greenhouse whiteflies are small insects measuring 0.06 inches (1.5 millimeters) in length. Males and females are similar in size and appearance and winged. The yellowish to pale brown body and wings are coated with a powdery white wax. Larvae are flat and yellowish. Geographic range They are found on all continents except Antarctica. Habitat They are usually found on twigs and the undersides of leaves on a wide variety of tropical plants. They are also widespread on...

Bosnia And Herzegovina

American cockroach Bed bug Book scorpion Brown mayfly Brownbanded cockroach Common harvestman Devil's coach-horse European mantid European stag beetle German cockroach Great water beetle Greenhouse camel cricket Greenhouse whitefly Gypsy moth Hair follicle mite Honeybee House centipede Human head body louse Indian mealmoth Large blue Long-bodied cellar spider Long-winged conehead Lucerne flea Mediterranean fruitfly Pea aphid Silverfish Slender pigeon louse Spoonwing lacewing Western flower...

Polydesmus angustus

Physical characteristics Flat-backed millipedes resemble centipedes. The bodies of the adults are flat, dark brown, with about twenty segments. They measure 0.6 to 1.0 inches (14 to 25 millimeters) in length and are about 0.16 inches (0.4 millimeters) wide. The plate segments covering the back are ridged along their lengths. The antennae and legs are longer than in most other millipedes. Geographic range This species is found in northwestern Europe and was accidentally introduced to the...

House Centipede Scutigera coleoptrata

Physical characteristics Adult house centipedes measure up to 1.2 inches (35 millimeters) in length. They are yellow or brown with three purplish or bluish bands along the length of the body. They have large compound eyes on each side of the head. The antennae are very long and threadlike with five hundred to six hundred segments. Adults have fifteen pairs of long slender legs that keep the body well above the ground when they are on the move. The last pair of legs are the longest with those of...

Behavior

Arthropods engage in all kinds of behaviors that help them to survive and reproduce. They not only have to find food, but they also need to avoid their enemies, find and select mates, and secure a future for their young. Ecologists (ih-KA-luh-jists), scientists who study where and how organisms live, sometimes divide arthropods into different groups based on what they eat. Herbivores (URH-bih-vorz) eat plants, and carnivores (KAR-nih-vorz) eat animal flesh, while omnivores (AM-nih-vorz) eat...

Megaloprepus caerulatus

Physical characteristics This is the largest damselfly in the world, with a wingspan of 6.4 inches (162.6 millimeters) and a body length of 4 inches (101.6 millimeters). Their wings have a wide, dark blue band. The males are larger than the females and have a white patch before the blue band and the glassy wingtip. The females are shorter, with only white patches on their wingtips. Geographic range The forest giant lives in the rainforests of Central and South America, from Mexico to Bolivia....

Pronunciation Guide for Scientific Names

Acherontia atropos ah-KER-on-tee-uh at-TRUH-pohs Acyrthosiphon pisum as-er-THOS-ih-fon PY-sum Aedes aegypti ay-EE-deez ee-JIP-ty Allopauropus carolinensis al-oh-puh-ROP-uhs kar-uh-LINE-en-sis Anthophiloptera dryas an-thoh-FILL-op-tuh-ruh DRY-uhs Apis mellifera AY-puhs muh-LIF-uh-ruh Basilia falcozi buh-SIL-ee-ay FAL-koh-zy Blatta orientalis BLAY-tuh or-ee-EN-tuh-lis Blattella germanica BLAY-tell-uh jer-MAN-ih-kuh Carausius morosos kuh-RAW-see-uhs muh-ROH-suhs Ceratitis capitata sair-uh-TID-is...

Behavior And Reproduction

Most grasshoppers feed and mate during the day but molt and lay their eggs at night. The majority of katydids and crickets tend to be active at night, especially in the tropics. However, a wasp-mimicking katydid from Central America is active during the day. These katydids are black and orange and strongly resemble the large tarantula hawk wasps. These harmless katydids not only look like wasps, they act like them too. They are found in sunny openings in lowland rainforests, where they move in...