Physical characteristics: This species resembles a leggy, medium to dark brown termite. They are small, ranging in size from 0.10 to 0.11 inches (2.6 to 2.9 millimeters) in length.
Geographic range: This species is found in the Eastern United States, from Pennsylvania and Maryland, south to Florida, and west to Iowa and Texas. Its wide distribution in North America is thought to be, at least partially, the result of accidental introductions by humans.
Habitat: They are found under the bark of moist logs and old sawdust piles in lumber mills.
Hubbard's angel insects, also known as Zorotypus hubbardi, are found under bark or in rotten wood. This specimen was found in Gainesville, Florida. (David R. Maddison, 2003. Reproduced by permission.)
Diet: They eat bits of funguses and scavenge pieces of dead small insects and mites.
Behavior and reproduction: They live in colonies numbering 15 to 120 individuals. Some colonies may live for several years.
This species reproduces either by mating or by parthenogenesis.
Hubbard's angel insects and people: This species is small, secretive, and seldom if ever noticed by people.
Conservation status: This species is not endangered or threatened.
FOR MORE INFORMATION Books:
Tavolacci, J., ed. Insects and Spiders of the World. Volume 10: Wandering spider-Zorapteran. New York: Marshall Cavendish, 2003.
Gurney, A. B. "A Synopsis of the Order Zoraptera, with Notes on the Biology of Zorotypus hubbardi Caudell." Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 40 (1938): 57-87.
Valentine, B. D. "Grooming Behavior in Embioptera and Zoraptera (In-secta)." Ohio Journal of Science 86, no. 4 (1986): 150-152.
Zoraptera. http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/compendium/zorapt. html (accessed on October 4, 2004).
The Zoraptera Data Base. http://www.famu.org/zoraptera/links.html (accessed on October 4, 2004).
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