Paleontologist: A scientist who studies fossils of plants and animals.

Palp: Fingerlike appendages associated with mouthparts of many arthropods.

Paralyze: To make helpless or unable to move.

Parasite: An animal that lives on another organism, called a "host," from which it obtains its food; the host is seldom killed.

Parasitic: Living on another plant or animal without helping it and often harming it.

Parasitoid: A parasite that slowly kills its host.

Parthenogenesis: Development of young from unfertilized eggs.

Pedipalps: Leg-like appendages of the mouthparts of arthropods.

Pheromones: Chemicals produced by animals that affect the behavior of other individuals in the same species.

Polar: Referring to the cold regions of the world that are farthest north (the Arctic) and farthest south (the Antarctic), where temperatures never rise above 50°F (10°C).

Pollution: Poison, waste, or other material that makes the environment dirty and harmful to health.

Postures: Body positions.

Predator: An animal that hunts and kills other animals for food.

Prey: An animal hunted and caught for food.

Proboscis: A long, flexible, tubelike snout; a strawlike sucking structure of some insects.

Prolegs: Fleshy leglike structures on the abdomen of some insect larvae.

Protozoan: A single-celled, microscopic organism with a nucleus that is neither plant nor animal.

Pulsating: Beating rhythmically.

Pupa: The transition stage between larvae and adult that does not feed or walk.

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