Urinary infection

• Urine should be sent for microscopy and culture and the infection treated with appropriate antibiotics.

• It is usually appropriate to establish the likely cause of an infection. A haematuria evaluation should be performed if indicated (see above). In young girls, reflux may be a cause of recurrent UTI and a micturating cystoureterogram (MCUG) may be required.

A number of conditions that were hitherto diagnosed when patient's developed symptoms are now detected as incidental findings, or during routine (or selective) screening. The two main urological conditions to which this applies are detection of early prostate cancer and the detection of asymptomatic renal tumours as incidental findings during the investigation of other conditions. The significance of this change is that the conditions are now being diagnosed at an earlier stage, which has implications for both treatment and prognosis.

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