Conclusions

It is concluded that the epidemiologic associations found suggesting that increased dairy consumption contributes to healthier body weights are plausible. The associations are supported by literature showing that dairy components and dairy products suppress short-term food intake and increase subjective satiety and stimulate the mechanisms known to signal satiation and satiety. Nonetheless, the favourable effects of dairy components consumed independently on food intake, subjective satiety and...

The pathogenesis of IBD

Both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis represent the clinical outcome of a complex interaction of immune, genetic, and environmental factors. The normal physiological response to indigenous micro-organisms is one of immunological quiescence. Deviations from this, and in particular, genetically-influenced aberrant immune responses to luminal antigens are now recognised to underlie IBD. The intestinal barrier can be impaired in IBD. Defects in epithelial barrier function may precede the...

References

M. and Behrens, s. (2001) The identification of microorganisms by fluorescence in situ hybridisation. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol., 12, 231-236. ARVOLA, T., RUUSKA, T., KERANEN, J., HYOTY, H., SALMINEN, S. and ISOLAURI, E. (2006) Rectal bleeding in infancy clinical, allergological, and microbiological examination. Pediatrics, 117, e760-768. BACKHED, F., LEY, R. E., SONNENBURG, J. L., PETERSON, D. A. and GORDON, J. I. (2005) Host-bacterial mutualism in the human intestine....

The scientific and clinical rationale for probiotic and prebiotic interventions

In 2001, at the request of the government of Argentina, an Expert Panel was assembled by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO) to examine probiotics in food and prepare an appropriate definition and set of guidelines for what constitutes a probiotic. Major reasons for the request were the lack of consensus on what a probiotic was at the time, how a product should be prepared and administered, and whether or not there was sufficient...

Components from skimmed milk and weight loss 121 Calcium and weight loss

It may not seem obvious to discuss blood pressure in relation to weight management, but the link between dairy components and weight management was initially derived from blood pressure studies. Zemel (2002) reported a 4.9 kg reduction in body fat in an African American population that had elevated blood pressure and were being 'treated' with dairy products to reduce blood pressure. When the dairy connection to weight management was proposed, Heaney et al. (2002) re-examined calcium-related...

Determining the viability of probiotics

Plate count technique, which is based on reproduction of bacterial cells on agar plates, is the traditional method used for quality assurance of probiotic products. Culture-based analysis enables determining the number of bacterial cells able to grow on the medium applied and their identification. To gain more insight into the actual physiological state and metabolic activities of the cells, fluorescent stains, which enable the detection of viable, damaged, and dead bacterial cells, can be...

Safety testing of probiotics with regard to antimicrobial susceptibility testing

For assessing the safety of probiotics with regard to the presence of acquired antimicrobial resistance properties, strains should be investigated by means of standardized antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods. However, no standards have been proposed for non-enterococcal LAB by the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI), EUCAST or other committees. A variety of methods and protocols for the determination of antibiotic susceptibilities of non-enterococcal LAB have been reported in...

Developing new synbiotics and testing their efficacy

The development of new synbiotics typically requires a long-term screening process. During the screening, combinations of selected prebiotic substances and probiotic strains are tested both in vitro and in vivo in order to find the most active and synergistic pairs. Figure 9.1 portrays a typical product development pipeline with several interesting candidates in the beginning, and the necessity of the use of in vitro methods in reducing the number of studied substances prior to both expensive...

Safety assessments of synbiotics

Besides efficacy, safety of a functional food ingredient is of main importance. Since synbiotics are a combination of prebiotics and probiotics, we will first address the safety considerations for these two components separately. Subsequently the specific safety considerations for their combination in synbiotics will be discussed. Prebiotics have long been part of the human diet. Fructosyl-type ingredients are natural components of edible plants (van Loo et al. 1995). Furthermore, some novel...

The hostmicrobe interface within the gut

Therapeutic modification of the intestinal microbiota with any type of pharmabiotic poses a significant challenge when one considers the complexity and scale of this internal ecosystem. Intestinal bacteria comprise more than 1000 different species, outnumber human somatic and germ cells 10-fold, and have a collective metabolism that is equivalent to that of an organ within an organ (O'Hara and Shanahan, 2006). In the past, investigation of this living bacterial organ was impeded by the...

Irritable bowel syndrome

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a widespread functional gastrointestinal disorder that affects 10-20 of the Western population (Drossman et al., 2002). The main clinical features of IBS include abdominal pain, bloating, flatulence and variable bowel habit. Current treatments for IBS are regarded as relatively ineffective. The pathophysiology of IBS remains unknown, but there is evidence that at least in part of the patients an imbalanced intestinal microbiota is associated with the onset of...

Determining the safety and efficacy of hypoallergenic infant formulas

Hypoallergenic protein hydrolysates to be used as an ingredient in infant formulas of high nutritional and therapeutic value should be rich in low molecular weight peptides, especially di- and tripeptides, with the least quantity possible of free amino acids. Sometimes it is difficult to know the composition of hydrolysates because of a large number of possible constituents, due mainly to potential degrees of polymerisation of the peptides, and several analyses may be done to assess their...

Dairy products and probiotics in childhood disease

3.2.1 Development of the intestinal microbiota in the first years of life - role of breast feeding, prebiotics and infant diet Current data suggest that the intestinal bacterial microbiota undergoes substantial changes in the first year(s) of life and remains relatively stable thereafter, although factors such as acute or chronic intestinal diseases, antibiotic treatment and the composition of the diet influence the composition of the microbiota (Barbut and Petit 2001 Hooper and Gordon, 2001...

Dairy components and food intakesatiety

The effects of milk and dairy products on reducing energy intake and increasing satiety have been attributed to several of its components. These include milk proteins, casein and whey, and their products of digestion, milk fat, possibly MCT and CLA, and lactose. Of the milk components, the proteins have the greatest potential to contribute to satiety for three reasons. First, it has generally been shown that protein results in greater satiety and lower ad libitum energy intake than either...

The role of plant sterols and stanols in functional dairy products in reduction of cholesterol

Plant sterols and stanols appear to be as effective in dairy products as in spreads with lowering of LDL cholesterol of 5-10 . No significant changes in HDL cholesterol or triglyceride occur with either food carrier. Volpe (2001) was the first to show an effect of low fat yoghurt containing 1 g day of soybean derived sterols (whether free or esterified was not specified) in 30 men and women with elevated LDL cholesterol. LDL cholesterol was lowered by 6.2 after four weeks compared with placebo....