CYP1A1 and Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor AhR

The CYP1A1 p450 monooxygenase enzyme has recently been identified as a target of chemopreventative strategies. The protoxin dimethylbenz a anthracene (DMBA) is metabolized by CYP1A1 (and CYP1B1) into a DNA damaging agent that is a potent initiator of breast cancer (64). The CYP1A1 gene also catalyzes the conversion of estradiol to form hydroxylated estrogen high estrogen levels are associated with an increased risk of breast and ovarian cancers. The CYP1A1 enzyme is capable of metabolizing...

References

Biotechnology to harness the benefits of dietary phenolics focus on Lamiaceae. Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr. 6 162-171, 1997. 2. Briskin, D.P Medicinal plants and phytomedicines. Linking plant biochemistry and physiology to human health. Plant Physiol. 124 507-14, 2000. 3. Mann, J. Oxford Chemistry Series Secondary Metabolism. Oxford Clarendon Press, 1978. 4. Bravo, L. Phenolic phytochemicals chemistry, dietary sources, metabolism, and nutritional significance. Nutr. Rev. 56 317-333,...

Low Amylose Starch

Although staining starch with iodine readily identifies amylose free starches (161), care must be taken when using this quantitatively to adequately account for the iodine binding capacity of the amylopectin (120). For example, amylopectin from an amylose free plant having an inactive GBSSI enzyme might appear to contain 5 amylose based on iodine binding, blue value, measurement (116). After carefully considering these potential problems certain low amylose starches have been identified. For...

High

Achieve these therapies is also shown as a continuum from a high level for individual treatment to a low level for reduction of risk utilizing established public health programs. In the latter case there is an important educational component even though health professional involvement is low compared to the rest of the continuum. In Table 1.3 several other continua are overlapped on those in Table 1.2. With the advent of functional foods it can be seen that the scope of delivery options has...

Preface

The World Health Organization (WHO) has highlighted that the disease profile of the world is changing, and this is more so in low- and middle-income countries where there is a double burden of diet-related chronic disease along with infectious diseases. WHO further states that 80 of chronic disease deaths now occur in less developed countries. Globally there are more than 1 billion overweight and obese adults, and since 2001 this figure is higher than the number of people (0.8 billion) on this...

Bioprocessing of the fava bean to enhance ldopa and phenolics using food grade fungal systems

A solid-state bioconversion system using the food grade fungus Rhizopus oligosporus was developed to enrich the fava bean substrate with phenolic antioxidants and l-DOPA (65). The l-DOPA content in the fungal grown fava bean increased significantly to approximately twice that of control, accompanied by moderate soluble phenolic linked antioxidant activity based on free radical scavenging assay and higher fungal SOD activity during early stages of growth. This indicated that l-DOPA can be...

Superoxide Dismutase

The superoxide radicals are formed by the activity of enzymes like xanthine oxidase and NADPH-oxidase (22,23) (Figure 10.1). They are extremely reactive and have been shown to be able to oxidize biological macromolecules such as DNA, lipids and proteins (11,19,21-23). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) (EC 1.15.1.1) is involved in the dismutation of the superoxide radicals into hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen. In humans, there are four forms of SOD cytosolic Cu, Zn-SOD, mitochondrial Mn-SOD, and...

Phenolic Phytochemical Ingredients And Benefits

Phenolic phytochemicals are secondary metabolites synthesized by plants to protect themselves against biological and environmental stresses such as pathogen attack or high energy radiation exposure (1,2). These compounds involved in the plant defense response are one of the most abundant classes of phytochemicals and are also invariably important components of our diets (3,4,5). Commonly consumed fruits such as apples, bananas, grapes, and several types of berries and their beverages are...

Biosynthesis of phenolic metabolites and ldopa

Plant phenolics are synthesized using several different routes. This constitutes a heterogeneous group from a metabolic point of view. Two basic pathways are the shikimic acid pathway and the acetate-malonate (polyketide) pathway. The shikimic acid pathway represents the principal mode of accumulation of plant stress related phenolic compounds. The acetate-malonate pathway is also an important source of phenolic secondary products for biosynthesis of flavonoids and isoflavonoids that have many...

Relevance of phenolic antioxidants for functional food and comparative metabolic biology considerations

It is clear that food plants are excellent sources of phenolic phytochemicals, especially as bioactives with antioxidant property. As is evident, phenolic antioxidants from dietary sources have a history of use in food preservation, however, many increasingly have therapeutic and disease prevention applications (69-72). Therefore, understanding the nutritional and the disease protective role of dietary phytochemicals and particularly phenolic antioxidants is an important scientific agenda well...

Cranberry synergies with functional phytochemicals and other fruit extracts

Recent research has documented the evidence that whole foods, and not single compounds, have a better functionality in maintaining our health against many of the antioxidant diseases. Recent work on the effect of wine has shown that resveratrol is responsible for the decrease in atherogenesis in rats (101,102). However, when resveratrol was used as a supplement in diet such an effect was not seen. Other researchers have shown that the combination of resve-ratrol and quercetin exerts a synergic...

Biological Function Of Phenolic Phytochemicals

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are now associated with manifestation of several oxidation-linked diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes epidemiologi-cal studies indicate that diets rich in fruits and vegetables are associated with lower incidences of such oxidation linked diseases. These disease protective effects of fruits and vegetables are now linked to the presence of antioxidant vitamins and phenolic phyto-chemicals having antioxidant activity, which support the...