Gssg

Figure 8.5 Model for specific steps in antioxidant enzyme response pathway in plants. (Abbreviations: SOD: superoxide dismutase; AP: ascorbate peroxidase; GR: glutathione reductase; GSSG: oxidized glutathione; GSH: reduced glutathione; DHAR: dehydroascorbate reductase; ASA: reduced ascorbate: DHA: dehydroascorbate; MDA: monodehydroascorbate; MDHA: monodehydroascorbate reductase)

Figure 8.5 Model for specific steps in antioxidant enzyme response pathway in plants. (Abbreviations: SOD: superoxide dismutase; AP: ascorbate peroxidase; GR: glutathione reductase; GSSG: oxidized glutathione; GSH: reduced glutathione; DHAR: dehydroascorbate reductase; ASA: reduced ascorbate: DHA: dehydroascorbate; MDA: monodehydroascorbate; MDHA: monodehydroascorbate reductase)

Figure 8.6 Extension of plant proline linked pentose-phosphate pathway model for the effect of external phenolic phytochemicals in human and mammalian systems. (Abbreviations: P5C: pyrro-line-5-carboxylate; GST: Glutathione-s-transferase; SOD: superoxide dismutase)

Reactions of phenolic radical on the membrane -Signaling -Transport mobilization

-Co-transport stimulation -Transport inhibition etc

Reactions of phenolic radical on the membrane -Signaling -Transport mobilization

-Co-transport stimulation -Transport inhibition etc

Figure 8.6 Extension of plant proline linked pentose-phosphate pathway model for the effect of external phenolic phytochemicals in human and mammalian systems. (Abbreviations: P5C: pyrro-line-5-carboxylate; GST: Glutathione-s-transferase; SOD: superoxide dismutase)

against oxidation linked diseases involving the host proline linked pentose-phosphate pathway has been proposed (Figure 8.6). The major diseases afflicting humans today, related to excess calories, obesity, and environmental pollutant exposure, are oxidation linked chronic diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, arthritis, cognition diseases, and diabetes. Oxidation linked immune dysfunction and the inability to fight pathogenic infection under a very low calorie and protein diet still remains a problem in several parts of the world and the challenge has to be addressed. Oxidation linked and infectious diseases involve free radical reactions. Free radicals are potential

NADPH from pentosephosphate pathway

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