Figure 8.4 Expanded Model for the role of proline linked pentose-phosphate pathway in regulating phenolic biosynthesis, which also accommodates the mechanism of action of external phenolic phytochemicals such as RA from herbal extracts to trigger an endogenous antioxidant enzyme response. (Abbreviations: P5C: pyrroline-5-carboxylate; IAA: indole acetic acid; GST: Glutathiones-transferase; PO: peroxidase; SOD: superoxide dismutase)

such as RA at the outer plasma membrane initiates a proton/hydride ion influx into the cyto-sol which activates an antioxidant response through the stimulation of the, CCP, proline linked pentose-phosphate pathway (95,96). Demand for NADPH by stimulated proline biosynthesis also drives the production of precursors for phenolic (only in plants and fungi), purine and antioxidant pathways. In this host response PLPPP model, proline can also be used as a reducing equivalent (RE) reductant to support oxidative phosphorylation for ATP synthesis. Using this approach and rationale, we first developed several RA and phenolic overexpressing plant clonal systems for functional food and agro-environmental applications. Subsequently, PLPPP linked and optimized phenolic phytochemical clonal profiles can be used as sources of antioxidants and antimicrobials in biological systems based on host PLPPP response and have implications for human health and wellness.

Human health applications have been developed with additional insights based on the animal antioxidant response model (Figure 8.7) and the plant antioxidant response model (Figure 8.5). From these insights an innovative model for the mechanism of action of phenolic antioxidants like RA for improving human health through protection

From mitochondrial oxidative phophorylation

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