Opy

H+ pH gradient H+ H+ electrochemical H+ H+ gradient h+

Reactions of phenolic radical on the membrane -Signaling

-Transport mobilization -Co-transport stimulation -Transport inhibition etc.

Reactions of phenolic radical on the membrane -Signaling

-Transport mobilization -Co-transport stimulation -Transport inhibition etc.

GST/PO/SOD H O with phenolics initiate 2 antioxidant response and scavenges free radicals with NADPH from proline-linked pentose phosphate pathway

Organelle nuclear vacuole and cytosolic reactions

Organelle nuclear vacuole and cytosolic reactions

Figure 9.4 Improved model for the role of praline linked pentose-phosphate pathway in phenolic biosynthesis, which also accommodates the biosynthesis and mechanism of action of l-DOPA in a high phenolioc background from fava bean sprouts, and the effect of external elicitors like oregano phenolics. (Abbreviations: P5C: pyrroline-5-carboxylate; IAA: indole acetic acid: GST: Glutathione-s-transferase: PO: peroxidase; SOD: superoxide dismutase)

H+ induced proline-linked pentose phosphate pathway

Phenolic radical

Phenolic radical

e e reactions

Figure 9.4 Improved model for the role of praline linked pentose-phosphate pathway in phenolic biosynthesis, which also accommodates the biosynthesis and mechanism of action of l-DOPA in a high phenolioc background from fava bean sprouts, and the effect of external elicitors like oregano phenolics. (Abbreviations: P5C: pyrroline-5-carboxylate; IAA: indole acetic acid: GST: Glutathione-s-transferase: PO: peroxidase; SOD: superoxide dismutase)

l-DOPA for Parkinson's management, as this could provide additional "phenolic antioxidant" and "amino acid" factors that could moderate the l-DOPA insensitivity often seen with pure synthetic l-DOPA treatments (37). These additional phenolic antioxidant and amino acid factors such as glutamic acid and proline could contribute soluble factors for proper redox management of neuronal cells as proposed for human and mammalian cells (23,91) (Figure 9.5).

Human/mammalian Cell

Mitochondria

Human/mammalian Cell

Mitochondria

Phenolic phytochemical

Figure 9.5 Extension of plant praline linked pentose-phosphate pathway model for the effect of external phenolic phytochemicals like l-DOPA in a high total phenolic background from fava bean sprouts or fermented extracts in human and mammalian systems. (Abbreviations: P5C: pyrroline-5-carboxylate; GST: Glutathione-s-transferase; SOD: superoxide dismutase)

Phenolic phytochemical

Figure 9.5 Extension of plant praline linked pentose-phosphate pathway model for the effect of external phenolic phytochemicals like l-DOPA in a high total phenolic background from fava bean sprouts or fermented extracts in human and mammalian systems. (Abbreviations: P5C: pyrroline-5-carboxylate; GST: Glutathione-s-transferase; SOD: superoxide dismutase)

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