Of host antioxidant response

Investigations so far in food grade clonal herb systems (1) and legume sprouts (112-114) led to the development of the model that activity of CCP, proline linked pentose-phosphate pathway is important for stress induced phenolic biosynthesis such as RA and phenolics and that this stimulation of phenolics is likely closely linked to stimulation of antioxidant response pathways (Figure 8.4) (96,112-114). Further research has indicated that the proline biosynthesis pathway coupled to stress induced antioxidant response pathways could be also stimulated in legume sprouts using exogenous treatment of phenolic extracts from clonal oregano (113,115,116). Phenolic extracts from these clonal oregano lines have high free radical scavenging activity (47). Proline linked stimulation of antioxidant enzyme response pathways may also be stimulated by low pH and salicylic acid (117). Further, exogenous seed treatment with oregano phenolic antioxidant extracts enhanced endogenous phenolic content, GPX activity, and consequently, enhanced seeding vigor during germination (116). From these initial plant studies and plant PLPPP model (Figure 8.4), a human/mammalian cell PLPPP model has been developed (Figure 8.6) wherein a proton donation by phenolic antioxidants

Glutamate

^ phosphates for ,. > anabolic n ive ««dative . - ßXZ reactions rylation under ¿jtfr S^-" ^^

n stress with Iildole ^ Chongmate <=> Shikimate <P Erythrose-4-^Ribose-5-P

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