V = Aie(VYZ)x + A2e(-VYZ)x. (2.4) Similarly, if we differentiate Eq. (2.1) and substitute Eq. (2.2) in it, we obtain d21 , , dX2 = ZYI' (25)

Constants A1, A2, B1, andB2 can be evaluated by using the conditions at the receiving end of the line when x =0, V = Vr and I = Ir. Substituting these values in Eqs. (4) and (2.6) yields

where y = VZY, which is called the propagation constant, and Zc = -JZ/Y, which is called the characteristic impedance of the line [1].

The electrical model discussed in this section represents the acoustic model mainly for the vocal tract. The acoustic model below the glottis has also been investigated by a number of researchers as briefly described below. Readers interested in the acoustic model for breath sound transmission based on the above electrical model may look at the references cited in the next section for further details.

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