B

Bacteria, origins of life and, 2:8-9 Balanus balanoides. See Northern rock barnacles Balanus psittacus, 2:276 Balloon animals. See Balloon water bears Balloon water bears, 2:119, 2:120-121 Banana slugs, North American, 2:413 Bandanna prawns. See Banded coral shrimps Banded boxer shrimps. See Banded coral shrimps

Banded coral shrimps, 2:34, 2:202, 2:204,

2:213-214 Bankia setacea. See Shipworms Barber pole shrimps. See Banded coral shrimps Barnacles, 2:273-281, 2:277 behavior, 2:28, 2:43, 2:274-275 conservation status, 2:276 distribution, 2:274 evolution, 2:273 feeding ecology, 2:275 habitats, 2:275 humans and, 2:276 physical characteristics, 2:273-275 reproduction, 2:5, 2:275-276 species of, 2:278-281 taxonomy, 2:273 Bary, Anton de. See de Bary, Anton Basipodellidae, 2:284

Basommatophora, 2:412, 2:413, 2:414, 2:415 Bathynellaceans, 2:177-179 Bathynellidae, 2:177-178 Bathynomus giganteus, 2:249 Bathysciadiidae, 2:435, 2:436 Bathysquilloidea, 2:168, 2:171 Batillipes spp., 2:117 Batillipes noerrevangi, 2:117 Bauplan, 2:8, 2:13 Beach fleas. See Beach hoppers Beach hoppers, 2:264, 2:267, 2:268 Bean clams. See Coquina clams Beard worms, 2:85-89, 2:87 Bees, 2:25 Beetles, 2:38 Behavior, 2:33, 2:35-40 amphionids, 2:196 amphipods, 2:261, 2:265-271 anaspidaceans, 2:182, 2:183 aplacophorans, 2:380, 2:382-385 Arachnida, 2:37, 2:335, 2:339-352 articulate lampshells, 2:522, 2:525-527 bathynellaceans, 2:178, 2:179 beard worms, 2:86, 2:88 bivalves, 2:452, 2:457-466 caenogastropods, 2:446, 2:449 centipedes, 2:354-355, 2:358-362

cephalocarids, 2:132, 2:132 Cephalopoda, 2:477-478, 2:482-488 chitons, 2:395, 2:397-400 clam shrimps, 2:148, 2:150-151 copepods, 2:300, 2:304-310 Crustacea, 2:32 cumaceans, 2:229-230, 2:232 Decapoda, 2:32, 2:33-34, 2:199-200,

2:204-213 deep-sea limpets, 2:436, 2:437 earthworms, 2:43, 2:66, 2:70-73 echiurans, 2:104, 2:106-107 fairy shrimps, 2:136-137, 2:139 fish lice, 2:289-290, 2:292-293 freshwater bryozoans, 2:497, 2:500-502 horseshoe crabs, 2:328, 2:331-332 Isopoda, 2:250-251, 2:254-259 krill, 2:186, 2:189-192 leeches, 2:76, 2:80-82 leptostracans, 2:162, 2:164-165 lophogastrids, 2:226, 2:227 mantis shrimps, 2:169-170, 2:173-175 marine bryozoans, 2:504, 2:506-508, 2:509,

2:513-514 mictaceans, 2:241, 2:242 millipedes, 2:364-365, 2:367-370 monoplacophorans, 2:388, 2:390-391 mussel shrimps, 2:312, 2:314-315 mysids, 2:216, 2:219-222 mystacocarids, 2:295, 2:297 myzostomids, 2:60, 2:62 Neritopsina, 2:440, 2:442-443 nonarticulate lampshells, 2:516, 2:518-519 Onychophora, 2:37, 2:110, 2:113-114 pauropods, 2:376, 2:377 peanut worms, 2:98, 2:100-101 phoronids, 2:492, 2:494 Polychaeta, 2:32, 2:46, 2:50-56 Pulmonata, 2:5, 2:414, 2:417-421 remipedes, 2:125-126, 2:128 sea slugs, 2:403-404, 2:407-409 sea spiders, 2:321, 2:324-325 spelaeogriphaceans, 2:243, 2:244 symphylans, 2:371-372, 2:373 tadpole shrimps, 2:142, 2:145-146 tanaids, 2:236, 2:238-239 tantulocaridans, 2:284, 2:286 Thecostraca, 2:28, 2:275, 2:278-281 thermosbaenaceans, 2:245, 2:247 tongue worms, 2:33, 2:319-320 true limpets, 2:424, 2:426-427 tusk shells, 2:470, 2:473-474 Vestimentifera, 2:92, 2:94 Vetigastropoda, 2:430, 2:433-434 water bears, 2:117, 2:120-123 water fleas, 2:153-154, 2:157-158 Behavior modification. See Learning Bentheuphausiidae, 2:185 Benthomisophria palliata, 2:302, 2:308-309 Bermudamysis speluncola, 2:217 Bern Convention, on Roman snails, 2:420 Bernard's hermit crabs. See Common hermit crabs

Bilateria, 2:4, 2:10-11, 2:13, 2:36 Biochemistry, 2:4 Biodiversity, 2:29

See also Conservation status Biodiversity Action Plan (U. K.), 2:56 Bioinformatics, 2:4-5 See also Taxonomy

The Biology of Millipedes, 2:364 Bioturbation, 2:43 See also Behavior Bipulvina spp., 2:387 The Birth of Venus, 2:42 Bivalves, 2:451-467, 2:455, 2:456 behavior, 2:452 conservation status, 2:454 distribution, 2:452 evolution, 2:451 feeding ecology, 2:452-453 habitats, 2:452 humans and, 2:454

physical characteristics, 2:451-452, 2:453 reproduction, 2:24, 2:453-454 species of, 2:457-466 taxonomy, 2:451 Bivalvia. See Bivalves Biwadrilidae, 2:65

Black katy chitons, 2:394, 2:396, 2:399-400 Black lampshells, 2:524, 2:525 Black-lipped pearl oysters, 2:43, 2:455,

2:461-462 Black oligobrachias, 2:87, 2:88 Black tiger shrimps. See Giant tiger prawns Black widow spiders, 2:37, 2:336 Blackflies, 2:29 Blackwater fever, 2:12 Blastocoel, 2:4

Blastopores, 2:3, 2:15-16, 2:21 Blastulation, 2:20-21, 2:23-24

See also Reproduction Blind scolopenders, 2:357, 2:358 Blood-feeding leeches, 2:75, 2:76

See also Medicinal leeches; Tiger leeches Blow lugs. See Lugworms Blue mussels. See Common blue mussels Blue ringed octopods, 2:475, 2:479 Blue tiger prawns. See Giant tiger prawns Blueleg mantis shrimps. See Giant mantis shrimps Bobtail squids, 2:475, 2:478

See also Butterfly bobtail squids Bodotriidae, 2:229 Body organization. See BaĆ¼plan Body temperature, 2:26

See also Physical characteristics Bohadschia graeffei. See Sea cucumbers Bolma rugosa, 2:430 Bonellia spp. See Spoon worms Bonellia viridis. See Green bonellias Bonellidae, 2:103, 2:104 Book scorpions, 2:337, 2:345, 2:347-348 Boticelli, Sandro, 2:42 Bottle squids, 2:475 Bowerbankia spp., 2:25 Boxer shrimps, 2:197, 2:198 Brachiopods. See Lampshells Brachycarida, 2:245 Brachypauropodidae, 2:375, 2:376 Brachypelma smithi. See Mygalomorph spiders Brachypoda, 2:131 Brachyura. See True crabs Branchinecta spp., 2:136 Branchinecta ferox, 2:137 Branchinecta gigas, 2:135, 2:137 Branchinectidae, 2:135 Branchinella spp., 2:137 Branchiopoda, 2:135, 2:141, 2:147 Branchipodidae, 2:135

Branchipodopsis spp., 2:136 Branchiura. See Fish lice Brechites vaginiferus. See Watering pot shells Brine shrimps, 2:36, 2:136, 2:138, 2:139, 2:140

Bristleworms, 2:50-56

Bristly millipedes, 2:363, 2:364, 2:365, 2:366,

2:369-370 Brittle stars, 2:32

Broadcast spawning, 2:17-18, 2:23-24, 2:27

See also Reproduction Brown recluse spiders, 2:336 Bryozoans, 2:5, 2:25, 2:29 freshwater, 2:497-502, 2:499 marine, 2:503-508, 2:505, 2:509-514, 2:512

Bubble coral shrimps, 2:197

Bugula turbinata, 2:512, 2:513

Bursa spp., 2:447

Butterflies, 2:37-38

Butterfly bobtail squids, 2:481, 2:484,

2:487-488 Butterfly clams. See Coquina clams

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