The most interesting aspect of tadpole shrimp behavior is their numerous reproductive strategies. Notostracans may reproduce sexually, with species either having two separate sexes or being hermaphrodites. They may also reproduce partheno-genetically, and most species are both parthenogenetic and sexual. There are also cases in which hermaphrodites must cross-fertilize with other hermaphrodites, and they may reproduce by parthenogenesis as well. In fact, most species of tadpole shrimps use more than one of these strategies, and different populations of the same species may use different reproductive strategies in a population-dependent manner. This plasticity of reproduction in tadpole shrimps is one of the reasons they have survived through the millenia.
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