Conservation Status

Not listed by the IUCN. Severely overfished in many countries, and also affected by loss of critical mangrove habitat. Regulations protecting immature specimens and egg-bearing females (which are considered a delicacy) are often nonexistent or ignored. Although increasingly being cultured, these are essentially "grow out" operations that rely on wild-caught juveniles, so wild populations continue to be depleted. Considerable research has been conducted on large-scale production of laboratory-reared larvae, with promising results.

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