Most cladocerans are restricted to freshwater habitats, although eight species are found in marine waters. Cladocer-ans abound in lakes, ponds, slow-moving streams, and rivers. They are found from the Arctic to the Southern Ocean, from sea level to alpine ponds. Some cladocerans are benthic (found on the bottom of a lake, sea, or ocean); other species live on sediment or in vegetation virtually anywhere water is present, including swamps, puddles, ditches, and ground water. One species even lives in water trapped by mosses living on trees in a Puerto Rican cloud forest.
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