Reproductive Biology

The eggs of California lampshells are 0.00512-0.00551 in (130-140 ^m) in diameter, and the sperm are unmodified. At 50°F (10°C) an embryo develops within 72 hours, and gastrula-tion occurs within 24-38 hours. A three-lobed larva with an attachment disk develops in about seven days. The larvae, however, die within one day at 77°F (25°C). At 68°F (20°C), development is normal but may result in abnormal settlement of larvae. At 59°F (15°C), 50°F (10°C), and 41°F (5°C), most larvae achieve competence in five, seven, and nine days, respectively. Settlement and metamorphosis can occur within one day after the larvae make contact with the substrate.

CONSERVATION STATUS Not listed by IUCN.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

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