Reproductive Biology

Mating occurs on surface of fish. Only adults are mature and mate, but adult male exhibits mate guarding behavior in which he finds and remains attached to pre-adult female until her final molt into sexually receptive state. Male transfers pair of spermatophores and female stores sperm in paired seminal receptacles until used to fertilize series of egg strings. Each female can produce several pairs of egg strings, each containing a single stack of up to 700 disc-shaped eggs. Eggs hatch serially.

CONSERVATION STATUS Not listed by the IUCN.

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