Reproductive biology

Little is known of the courtship and mating behaviors of neritopsine species. What is known is that the sexes are separate; the female reproductive system is quite complex with as many as three distinct openings into the mantle cavity; and a penis is present in all but the terrestrial species. Eggs are laid in gelatinous capsules, either singly or as multiples in an egg mass. In most marine species, the embryos pass through a trochophore stage within the capsule before hatching out as feeding veliger larvae. Some freshwater species and all terrestrial species have direct development, and hatch as juvenile snails. There is no record of parental care or brooding in this group, and seasonality in broadcast spawning individuals appears correlated with food availability both for the adults and the larvae. In the freshwater Theodoxus species, most of the eggs function as food for the single surviving juvenile.

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