Reproductive Biology

In California, it spawns in September.

CONSERVATION STATUS Not listed by the IUCN.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known.

Resources

Books

Brusca, G. J., and Brusca, R. C. A Naturalist's Seashore Guide: Common Marine Life of the Northern California Coast and Adjacent Shores. Eureka, CA: Mad River Press, 1978.

Gotshall, D. W. Guide to Marine Invertebrates: Alaska to Baja California. Monterey, CA: Sea Challengers, 1994.

Kozloff, E. N. Seashore Life of the Northern Pacific Coast: An Illustrated Guide to Northern California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1983.

Meinkoth, N. A. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Seashore Creatures. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1992.

Morris, R. H., Abbott, D. P., and Haderlie, E. C. Intertidal Invertebrates of California. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1980.

Pearse, V., Pearse, J., Buchsbaum, M., and Buchsbaum, R. Living Invertebrates. Boston, MA: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1997.

Sean F. Craig, PhD

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