In Central and Northern California, spawning has been noted from July to September, whereas a winter spawn has been recorded in Santa Monica Bay (Los Angeles County, California) and a spring spawn has been observed in Monterey Bay, with eggs and sperm shed into large tidepools. The green- or golden brown-colored eggs are 0.011 in (0.29 mm) in diameter and, following fertilization, develop through three cleavage divisions in 2.5 hours. Hatching occurs in 20 hours, and the larvae swim freely for several days, with settlement occurring about 11.5 days post-fertilization, provided an appropriate substratum is present. The first seven shell plates are visible within 13.5 days, with the last (eighth) shell plate appearing only about six weeks after fertilization. Sexual maturity is reached in approximately two years.
CONSERVATION STATUS Not listed by the IUCN.
SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦
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