Significance To Humans

Always has to be regarded as a possible, sometimes severe, pest of growing crops. ♦



Edwards, Clive A. "Symphyla." In Soil Biology Guide, edited by Daniel L. Dindal. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1990.

Scheller, Ulf. "Symphyla." In Biodiversidad, Taxonomía y Biogeografía de Artrópodos de México: Hacia una Síntesis su Conocimiento, edited by Jorge Llórente Bousquets and Juan J. Morrone. Tlalpan, Mexico: Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad (CONABIO), 2002.

Scheller, Ulf, and Joachim Adis. "Symphyla." In Amazonian Arachnida and Myriapoda. Identification Keys to All Classes, Orders, Families, Some Genera, and Lists of Known Terrestrial Species, edited by Joachim Adis. Sofia/Moscow: Pensoft Publishers, 2002.


Scheller, Ulf. "Symphyla from the United States and Mexico."

Texas Memorial Museum, Speleological Monographs 1 (1986): 87-125.

Ulf Scheller, PhD

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Phylum Arthropoda Class Myriapoda Subclass Pauropoda Number of families 5

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Very small myriapods that live hidden in litter and soil; highly specialized to live in the edaphic (soil) environment

Photo: Allopauropus carolinensis. (Photo by Ernest C. Bernard, University of Tennessee. Reproduced by permission.)

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