Significance To Humans

Best examined sipunculan species; model organism for anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, and ecology. Used as bait in some parts of the world. ♦



Cutler, Edward, B. The Sipuncula. Their Systematics, Biology, and Evolution. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1994.

Edmonds, Stanley J. "Phylum Sipuncula." In Fauna of

Australia: Polychaetes and Allies, The Southern Synthesis, Vol. 4A, edited by Pamela L. Beesley, Graham J. B. Ross, and Christopher J. Glasby. Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO Publishing, 2000.

Rice, Mary E. "Sipuncula." In Microscopic Anatomy of

Invertebrates: Onychophora, Chilopoda, and Lesser Protostomata, Vol. 12, edited by Frederick W. Harrison and Mary E. Rice. New York: Wiley-Liss, 1993.

Stephen, A. C., and S. J. Edmonds. The Phyla Sipuncula and Echiura. London: Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History), 1972.


Maxmen, Amy B., Burnett F. King, Edward B. Cutler and Gonzalo Giribet. "Evolutionary Relationships Within the Protostome Phylum Sipuncula: A Molecular Analysis of Ribosomal Genes and Histone H3 Sequence Data." Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 27 (2003): 489-503.

Rice, Mary E. "Larval Development and Metamorphosis in Sipuncula." American Zoologist 16 (1976): 563-571.

Anja Schulze, PhD

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Phylum Echiura Number of families 5

Thumbnail description

Worm-like invertebrates with non-segmented, bilaterally symmetrical bodies

Photo: A spoon worm (Bonellia) in Western Australia, with its forked tongue fully extended. (Photo by L. Newman & A. Flowers. Reproduced by permission.)

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