Guilt Free Desserts
Formerly important as food and hunted for its fur by aboriginal tribes, this marsupial has gained an iconic status today as a symbol of Australia's threatened indigenous wildlife. Adopted as a mascot by the Commonwealth of Australia Endangered Species Program, the species has gained wider public awareness thanks to a campaign that began in the 1980s to replace the Easter bunny with an Easter bilby. Every Easter, thousands of chocolate bilbies are sold, often with a percentage of the profits channeled back into bilby conservation.
Vallacher and Wegner (1987) contended that behaviors can be identified at various levels, ranging from a concrete and mechanistic level (e.g., eating a chocolate bar) to a more abstract and comprehensive level (e.g., high-calorie snacking). We thus may identify habits at different levels of construal. A particular habit may be innocent when it operates at a specific lower level, but harmful when it operates at higher levels. For example, suppose person A likes chocolate, frequently eats a chocolate bar, but has a perfectly healthy diet otherwise. Person B also frequently eats chocolate bars, but has a habit of eating sweet and fatty foods whenever he can. Person A simply likes chocolate. Person B's chocolate eating is thus part of a higher order habit, which designates an unhealthy and perhaps dangerous lifestyle. The level of construal is also important from a public health perspective, as higher order unhealthy habits add up to unhealthy populations.
Cooperative breeding is common in the family, and has been studied in several thornbills and scrubwrens. Mostly, though, acanthizids breed as pairs with some being assisted by a third or fourth bird. The breeding season is typically late winter to early summer and several attempts are made each season. Nests are domed, often with a clear hood above the entrance, and those of gerygones are pendant, attached to foliage. Although usually placed in trees or shrubs, crannies and hollows are also used and some species nest on the ground. The most common clutch is two eggs, though up to five eggs have been recorded. Egg color ranges from white in the rock-warbler, and white with sparse spotting in Acanthiza and Gery-gone, to cream or buff with heavier spotting in many genera to plain chocolate in redthroat and speckled warblers (Chthon-icola sagittatus). Eggs are laid at 48-hour intervals and are incubated by the female alone. Incubation periods and dependency of the fledglings are long....
All emulsifiers can be characterized by their hydro-philic-lipophilic balance (HLB). Among plant phospholipids PC has the highest HLB value, PE is intermediate, and the other phospholipids have a low HLB. Thus, PC has the greatest value as a soluble oil-in-water emulsifier it is used, for example, in lowering the viscosity of cocoa butter during chocolate manufacture. PE is more useful as a wetting agent for example, in increasing fat absorption during the preparation of cake doughnuts (1). For this reason, commercial lecithin preparations are often separated into PC and PE fractions using ethanol, and there may be some value in genetically manipulating the ratio of phospholipids in plant oils for particular food applica
Sexually dimorphic and dichromatic. The male is slender-bodied and cylindrical in shape the body has a slight curve to the dorsal surface. The head tapers to a terminal mouth, and the caudal peduncle is compressed and tapering. Dorsal fin is small and set far back, with its origin over the midpoint of the anal fin. Dorsal surface is chocolate brown, and anterior flanks are light metallic blue red spots and splotches are scattered over the body and on the dorsal and anal fins. All fins show color, the dorsal and anal fins with orange and red margins. Anal fin tapers to a point, with its color grading into white the upper and lower parts of the caudal fin have curved white extensions, giving this fin its characteristic lyre-tailed shape. The female is smaller, usually without much color. Sometimes golden, gray, or muddy, with rounded fins and iridescent bluish white margins on the pectoral fins. Body and unpaired fins have tiny red dots. All color and color...
Triglycerides are the basis for the production of spreads such as margarine and butter, as well as confectionery fats and chocolate. An important triglyceride property in this type of product is their melting behavior and contribution to product texture. The latter is easily recognized in product properties as softness, spreadability, and mouth feel.
Lipases are used to hydrolyze milk fat for a variety of uses in the confectionery, candy, chocolate, sauce, and snack food industries. The partially hydrolyzed fat imparts a greater intensity of butterlike flavor to the products and delays stalling, presumably as a result of the emulsifying effect of di- and monoglycerides (56, 71, 74). An important new application of lipases is in the trans interesterification of fatty acids on triglycerides (75). This approach can be used to modify the melting point of triglycerides, and hence their rheological properties. An important application of this technology is in the production of cocoa butter substitutes for chocolate manufacture. Mono- or polyunsaturated fatty acids may also be introduced to relatively saturated milk lipids to improve their nutritional qualities. Immobilized lipase systems have been developed for these applications (74).
Traditionally, the Rostratulidae have been considered to represent two species in the monotypic genera Rostratula (greater painted snipe) and Nycticryphes (South American painted snipe). However, research in 2000 recommends that the Australian form of greater painted snipe (Rostratula aus-tralis) be elevated to species status based on its longer wing, shorter bill and legs, and coloration. Australian greater painted snipe males have boldly spotted (not barred) wing-coverts and a paler gray tail, and females possess a mainly dark chocolate-brown (rather than rufous) head and neck and discrete, round tail spots. In addition, there appears to be clear
Some ornithologists believe that the greater painted snipe of Australia is a distinct species, a third painted snipe. It has longer wings, a shorter bill, and shorter legs than greater painted snipes found elsewhere in the world. Coloration in Australian populations is also different, since the males' gray tail is paler and females have a chocolate-brown rather than reddish brown head, as well as round tail spots. Finally, the calls of Australian painted snipes sound different from the low booming call of other greater painted snipes.
There have been several reports of ricin being used as a weapon both at home and abroad. A ricin-containing bomb, code-named compound W, was developed and tested by the United States, in collaboration with Britain, before World War I. Ricin was used in injection form to assassinate Georgi Markov, a Bulgarian defector, in 1978. In 1994 and 1995, four men from a tax protest group were convicted of possessing ricin as a biological weapon. Plans linked to al Qaeda to produce ricin were found in Afghanistan in November 2001. In October 2003 a package containing ricin and a threatening note were sent to a South Carolina post office. In May and June of 2004, ground castor beans were found in jars of Gerber Banana Yogurt Dessert in California.
Rat diets were supplemented with milk, chocolate drink, chocolate milk, and a shake-like mixture that contained milk or chocolate milk plus vanilla ice cream. In addition, they also included a group that consumed cheese. All of the groups with milk (except the chocolate drink) demonstrated caries reduction with the cheese variable having best results. Early researchers observed that dairy products (milk, casein, caseinates, and cheeses) have anti-caries activity (Schweigert et al., 1946b, Shaw, 1950). Several studies proved casein was an effective anticariogenic substance, but casein's adverse organoleptic properties and the large amount required for efficacy disqualified its use as a food or toothpaste. Acid casein as an active ingredient in toothpaste was effective at reducing dental caries, but was required at very high levels for efficacy (Bavetta and McClure, 1957, Schweigert et al., 1946a). Sodium caseinate solublized in water and fed to rats in a caries model...
Physical characteristics Purple-bearded bee-eaters are easily identified from other bee-eaters because they have a purple-blue head, throat, and breast. They are colorful birds, with dark green upper-parts, wings, and tail streamers dark brown lower belly green and russet (reddish brown) tail feathers blackish forehead and crown (the top of a bird's head) chocolate on the sides and back of the neck. The long, broad throat feathers hang over the breast, and the neck and nape feathers form a coat that is sleeked down or fluffed out. When flying, they look mostly green, with broad rounded wings, a longish tail, and short-to medium tail streamers. Purple-bearded bee-eaters are 9.8 to 10.2 inches (25 to 26 centimeters) long without
It was therefore tempting to determine why or how a rather consistent sequence length of chromosome material could accidentally be deleted from the whole chromosome as would, to use a comparison, a chocolate square easily be split off from the whole plate As a result of this search, '' hot spots'' prone or predisposed to repeated breakage accidents were characterized by studying the breakpoint regions in YAC clones (Kuwano et al., 1992), the identification of restriction fragments positive for the same genomic DNA probes (Amos-Landgraf et al., 1999), or by FISH analyses in which more than one hybridizing signal was detected after hybridization with the same probe (Carrozzo et al., 1997).
I could invent many other examples of the uselessness of the orientation concept for explaining behavior. Rather than doing that, I will simply point out that a behavioral concept becomes useful only when it is possible to integrate into a theoretical body of some generality. Sexual orientation refers specifically to the choice of sexual partner and has no generality. Of course, we could imagine that this choice obeys behavioral mechanisms that are not at work in any other choice. However, then we would need to fill our brain with thousands of choice mechanisms, or orientations. I, for example, am very fond of a Swedish nut chocolate with the name Schweizernot. Whenever available, I choose it among all the other chocolates. Am I equipped with a chocolate orientation making me choose Schweizernot Or is it simply so that I choose the chocolate with the largest incentive value And how about the choice of Bourbon I always choose Knob Creek when it is available. Have I a Bourbon...
Physical characteristics The cactus wren measures in length from about 7.2 to 8.5 inches (18 to 21.6 centimeters) and is the largest species of wren in North America. In color, the bird is a chocolate brown on top with a plain cap. Its back is streaked very prominently in black and white, and the wings, which can spread to a length of 10.7 inches (over 27 centimeters), are barred with buff and black tones. The tail feathers vary between having blackish brown and gray-brown bars. The outer tail feathers are very noticeably barred black and white. The underparts of the bird are buff-white and are spotted heavily with black, especially on the chest. Eyes are reddish brown with a dull black bill that has a paler base. Its legs are a pinkish brown.
In the food industry, the main use of fiF is for producing chocolate-coated candies with a soft and creamy center. A hard and firm center is prepared with sucrose and molded into the desired shape. After coating with chocolate the fiF is inoculated into the center to change its consistency to a permanent and noncrystallizable cream. Purified fiF is preferred to yeast since variations in both the added amount and in the strains of yeast utilized does not assure uniform quality of softer centers. Other fiF uses are related to the production of artificial honey and to the enzymatic determination of glucose and sucrose in dietetic foods (29). The productivity value, the operational stability and mechanical stability of F, the low cost of the immobilization on a variety of carrier, and the absence of undesirable reaction byproducts make the scale production of inverted syrups from sucrose and nonrefined sugars economically very attractive. In the confectionery industry fructose is...
Physical characteristics Spotted nutcrackers are named for their appearance and the way they use their large bills to take the shells off of nuts. There are white spots and streaks in their feathers. The spotted nutcracker's brown body plumage is the color of chocolate. The lower part of the body is white. The wing and tail feathers are a shiny black. There are white tips at the ends of the wings and feathers. The spotted nutcracker's bill, legs, and feet are black.
A positive incentive will not always produce approach and a negative incentive will not always produce withdrawal. While an adult male rat will approach a sexually receptive female and eventually initiate sexual interaction with her, a prepubertal male will show much weaker approach behaviors and very little sexual interaction will occur. Likewise, a rat that has been deprived of food for 24 hours will rapidly approach and start to eat its normal food pellets when given the opportunity to do so, while a rat that just has finished a large meal of delicious chocolate pellets will pay no attention to her normal pellets. These petty examples show that a constant stimulus (a sexually receptive female or standard food pellets) may or may not have effects on the organism. Obviously, there is no necessary dichotomy effect - no effect. In most cases there are simply variations in the magnitude or intensity of response activated by the incentive stimulus. Nevertheless, it is clear that some...
Dietary calcium and magnesium have a modest impact on overall energy balance through inhibition of fatty acid absorption via formation of calcium and magnesium soaps (Vaskonen, 2003). A randomized crossover study (Jacobsen et al., 2005) evaluated the short-term effect of dietary calcium on fat absorption. A total of 10 subjects consumed a low calcium and normal protein diet, a high calcium normal protein diet or a high calcium and high protein diet. The high calcium normal protein showed a 2.5-fold increase in fecal fat excretion compared to the other two diets. Another study (Shahkhalili et al., 2001) compared the absorption of cocoa butter with calcium (900 mg day) or without calcium in a chocolate supplement. In this randomized, double blind, crossover study 10 men were fed control diets with or without the calcium supplemented chocolate. The results of the study showed a 2fold increase in fecal fat excretion and a 9 decrease in absorbable energy. These two studies (Jacobsen et...
Pectin is extracted from citrus peel, apple pomace, sugar beet, and other plant materials. Structurally it comprises polygalacturonic acid and its methyl ester, and a number of neutral sugars 15 . It is widely used in food applications (e.g., jams and jellies, confectionery, beverages, desserts) and in some pharmaceutical applications. It is susceptible to enzyme reactions, and the following three pectolytic enzymes are well known polygalacturonase (cleaving the galacturonan backbone), pectin meth-ylesterase (hydrolyzing the methyl ester), and pectin lyase (which catalyzes the scission of the backbone 16 .
Diastase application was a major issue from the 1830s onward. The diastase presents the best means for production of dextrin and dextrin syrup. These products not only become cheaper, but also more pure and tasty.'' This latter argument was used in favor of the application in food and beverage production. Thus, it was recommended for the manufacture of bread, pastries, chocolate, and soups furthermore, it was recommended for cider and fruit wine, but especially beer production, where a specific advantage was that the formation of haze at low temperature could be prevented (12, 17). Also, a sugar could be isolated after extended action of diastase on starch. A mass balance gave, in two experiments where the sugar was subsequently fermented by yeast and the amount of carbon
Targeted instruments are those that are focused on a particular behavior or intake of a limited number of foods, such as fruit and vegetables, snacks, or sweets. While not useful for comprehensive dietary assessment, they are useful when evaluating or conducting an intervention on focused dietary behaviors. These types of targeted dietary assessment instruments are most useful when the target food nutrient is not distributed throughout the food supply. For example, dietary fat is widely distributed in dairy foods, meats, added fats, desserts, prepared foods, etc. Therefore, short instruments that attempt to estimate fat intake tend to be imprecise since a short number of questions cannot capture this complex behavior (Neuhouser et al, 1999). A good example of a targeted instrument is one that was recently developed to assess soft drink and snack consumption among adolescents. Due to the tremendous and rapid increase in obesity among the entire population, including adolescents (French...
The largest and heaviest member of the genus, with the longest horns. Head and body length 67 in (171 cm), height 43 in (110 cm), and weight 286 lb (130 kg). Horns are scimitarlike, swept back and laterally compressed, with prominent transverse ridges on the front surface and reach 60 in (148 cm). Horns of females are much shorter. Males have a long beard. Color is very variable, from light gray to dark chocolate brown.
The K1SS1 mRNA was originally isolated from a nonmetastatic human malignant melanoma cell line using a modified subtractive hybridization technique.19 The K1SS1 gene was so named to combine the laboratory nomenclature for putative ''suppressor sequences'' with acknowledgment of the gene's discovery in Hershey, Pennsylvania, a city known for its famous chocolate
Social marketing is founded on exchange theory (Bagozzi, 1974 Houston and Gassenheimer, 1987), which argues that given behavioral options people will ascribe values to the alternatives and select the one that offers greatest benefit - or enhancement - to themselves. This process may be prolonged and considered, as with a career decision, or truncated and virtually automatic as with the purchase of a chocolate bar. The values ascribed to the marketer's offering during an exchange may be tangible (e.g., monetary) or psychological (e.g., status), immediate (e.g., nicotine now) or deferred (e.g., better health later), but they will always be subjective. The notion of compromise, of adjusting the offering to meet the target group's needs, can be a difficult one for public health which puts such emphasis on the evidence base and expert-driven solutions. A marketer might be able to change his chocolate bar in response to consumer concerns about obesity - by making it less calorific, for...
Proanthocyanidins are dimers, oligomers, and polymers of flavan-3-ols and are formed by enzymatic or chemical condensation. These so-called condensed tannins contribute to astringent tastes in fruits (e.g., grapes, peaches, apples, pears, berries etc.), beverages (e.g., wine, cider, tea, beer etc.) and chocolate. At a lower degree of polymerization they are colorless and bitter to taste, but with greater polymerization the taste becomes astringent and the color yellow to brown. Proanthocyanidins purely consisting of catechin and epicatechin monomers are called procyanidins, which are the most common type of proanthocyanidins. Less abundant are the prodelphinidins, which include both epicatechin and gallocatechin monomers.
There is considerable variation in coat coloration between subspecies. Fur ranges from off-white gray through reddish orange to chocolate dorsally and from white through cream to pale orange ventrally. There is relatively little sexual dimorphism in body size, with males being only slightly bigger than females. Head and body length 19.5 in (49.0 cm) for males and 20 in (49.5 cm) for females tail length 28.5 in (71.0 cm) for males and 28.5 in (71.0 cm) for females. Body mass 14 lb 8 oz (6.59 kg) for males and 14lb 4 oz (6.47 kg) for females.
Head and body length (19-28 cm), forearm 6-7.5 in (15-19 cm), wingspan up to 3.3 ft (1 m) weight 1.1-2.2 lb (500-1,000 g). The fur on the head is black, the mantle ranges from chocolate brown to reddish brown, and white hairs frequently appear over the body, including the underside.
Head and body length, 5.5-6 in (14-15.3 cm) forearm length, 3.2-3.6 in (8.2-9.2 cm) no tail weight, 2.9-5 oz (83-142 g). Pelage is chocolate to dark brown, ventrum is lighter. Differs from all other fruit bats in its dental structure. The molars have 5-6 cusps, the lower canines have three cusps, and the incisors are directed forward.
Protein, selected vegetables, bread, and desserts, all low in vitamin, and (3) a diet composed of regular foods low in vitamin A. The vitamin A depletion time ranged from 359 to 771 d, with a slow decrease in plasma retinol noted over the depletion period. All men received 18-19 mg of iron daily, but mild anemia occurred which was associated with the drop in plasma retinol. Plasma retinol concentrations of 1.05, 0.70-1.05, and
Forelegs, and mid-back are a greenish brown the rump is a dark red to bright fire orange (this may not be visible unless the rump hairs are erect). There is sometimes a crest of longer black hairs between the shoulders and up to the top of the head. The belly varies from shades of muddy to pure orange, sometimes with a white midline. Populations on Caribbean islands tend to be smaller than those on the mainland and are less colorful, being dark brown with long chocolate-colored hairs forming a cape over the shoulders.
6.7-7.5 in (17-19 cm) female 1.1-1.6 oz (31-45 g), male 1.5-2.1 oz (43-60 g). Breeding male chocolate brown with white forehead, white patch in wing conspicuous in flight. Heavy black bill. White on forehead variable, absent in non-breeding plumage. Female has brown upperparts, underparts white heavily streaked with brown. Heavy yellowish bill. Juvenile like female, more rufous above and buffy below. Bill dull brown.
6-6.6 in (15-16.5 cm), 1.1 oz (29-30g). A bulky and dark-plumaged wren with a notably long and slender bill. Upper-parts including tail are a deep chocolate-brown. Wings are dull blackish brown. Throat is whitish brown, chest orange-brown, belly rich chocolate-brown. Lower belly and flanks have small white spots. Eyes are brown bill is very long, slender, and de-curved, blackish with dull orange-yellow base legs are dark gray. Sexes are identical. The juvenile has a dull buff throat with diffuse scaling and whitish flecks on the belly.
Making Chocolate 101
If you love chocolate then you can’t miss this opportunity to... Discover How to Make Homemade Chocolate! Do you love gourmet chocolate? Most people do! Fine chocolates are one of life’s greatest pleasures. Kings and princes have for centuries coveted chocolate. Did you know that chocolate used to be one of the expensive items in the world, almost as precious as gold? It’s true!