Cure Your Diabetes Permanently

Diabetes Freedom

It's about time you take charge of your life from the life-sucking diabetes type2 and its so-called heavy medications. With Diabetes Freedom, you have a second chance of doing what you wished you could while nursing the pain and agony from this disease. So get busy living or get busy dying, but don't let this disease be the final report of how you lived your life. Diabetes Freedom is a guide that allows you to reverse diabetes type2. It comprises three simple steps that guide you comprehensively on how to recover without the use of medications, supplements, or pills. All you need to do is follow precisely the guidelines provided. This includes foods to take, time to take, and a specific combination of such foods. Toxins from the food we take as well as the environment can interfere with our body's normal insulin production. The main cause being ceramide toxins, it clogs the pancreas and prevents digestion. Due to this, the body is unable to regulate blood glucose levels resulting in diabetes type2. But through the conversion potential of this program, body detoxification is initiated and toxins eliminated restoring the balance in the body and freeing up the clogged vessels. Continue reading...

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Vitamin E therapy in type II diabetes

A number of studies have looked at the potential of vitamin E therapy in people with type II diabetes. Devaraj and Jialal (2000b) studied the influence of RRR-alpha-tocopherol therapy (1200 IU day for 3 months) on controls and people with type II diabetes (with and without microvascular disease). The vitamin E supplement significantly decreased the monocyte release of O2 , IL-1-beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and decreased monocyte-endothelium adhesion in all three groups. Increased levels of IL-I-beta, O2 , TNF-alpha, and the increased adherence of monocytes to arterial endothelium are all thought to be markers of inflammation and proatherogenic.

The Insulin Like Growth Factor Family

Evidence is accumulating that insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) may play an important role in breast carcinogenesis. The IGF family includes the polypeptide ligands IGF-I and IGF-II two receptors, IGF-IR and IGF-IIR six binding proteins (IGFBP-1 through IGFBP-6) and a large group of IGFBP proteases, which degrade IGFBPs to increase bioactive IGF. The actions of both IGF-I and IGF-II are mediated through IGF-IR, which is located on the cell membrane. The IGFs play an important role in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and transformation.62 As a potent mitogen, IGF-I increases DNA synthesis and accelerates the progression of cell division by stimulating the expression of cyclin D1.63

Insulin Signaling to Glucose Transport

A major, if not the major, endpoint of insulin signaling is the stimulation of glucose uptake (transport) in muscle and fat, the focus of the remainder of this chapter. Currently, at least two distinct pathways (Fig. 3) have been implicated in this process. Both pathways may be required for translocation of the insulin-regulated glucose transporter, GLUT4, a 12-transmembrane-spanning protein, from a vesicular storage compartment (GSV) within the cell, to the plasma membrane. Its insertion makes it competent to transport glucose into the cell (for reviews, see references 10 to 12 ). The most extensively characterized of these pathways begins with the IRS family of proteins (see Chapter 71). Tyrosine phosphorylation of these proteins by the insulin receptor provides recognition sites for Src homology domain 2 (SH2)-containing proteins. Of significance for several pathways in insulin action, including those leading to glucose transport and glycogen synthesis, is the binding and...

Genetic Prediction of Obesity and Diabetes

Similar results were observed for type 2 diabetes. Two studies examined the cumulative effects of 18 polymorphisms chosen from genome-wide association scans on type 2 diabetes (Lango et al, 2008 van Hoek et al, 2008). Both studies found a similar predictive value showing only a marginal improvement in the prediction of type 2 diabetes beyond classical clinical characteristics.

Gene Environment Interactions in Obesity and Diabetes

Susceptibility to obesity and diabetes is determined by both genetic and lifestyle factors. Suggestive evidence of gene-lifestyle interaction (Box 33.3) in the development of common diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes was first provided by descriptive epidemiological studies such as migration studies that compare the disease risk between genetically related populations who live different lifestyles. A classical example is the comparison of the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes between Pima Indians living in the obesogenic environment of Arizona (69 of whom are obese and 55 have type 2 diabetes) and those living in the restrictive environment of the remote Mexican Sierra Madre Mountains (13 of whom are obese with only 6 having type 2 diabetes) (Esparza et al, 2000 Ravussin et al, 1994). These findings illustrate that despite a similar genetic predisposition, different lifestyles result in different prevalences of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

Introduction classifying diabetes

Diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous metabolic syndrome with several different causes characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia with partial or total lack of insulin secretion and a reduced sensitivity to the hormone in peripheral tissues. If monitored inadequately and associated with other lipid and protein disorders, long-term complications may develop in several organs and systems, resulting in both high morbidity and mortality rates. Many of the long-term complications can be attributed to microangiopathy such as retinopathy, in the worst case leading to reduced sight or blindness to nephropathy leading to insufficient kidney function and to neuropathy, leading to motor-sensitivity deficit, a predisposing factor to the formation of ulcers and articular deformations of the feet. However, the most important epidemiological and clinical complications are those derived from macroangiopathy, primarily responsible for causing cardiovascular pathologies (chronic ischaemic cardiopathy,...

Dietary strategies for preventing the onset of diabetes

The different natures of the two types of diabetes requires diverse dietary strategies in order to prevent their onset. For type 1 diabetes, while the exact causes are still being investigated, it is acknowledged that various environmental factors increase the risk of diabetes in genetically susceptible subjects. If these factors can be identified, there could be a good chance of decreasing the incidence of the disease. It has been suggested that for type 1 diabetes an early exposure to cows' milk proteins may play a role in triggering the immune response that destroys pancreatic beta-cells.2 Observational studies have shown that breastfeeding is associated with a lower incidence of type 1 diabetes.3'4 It is hoped that the multicentre study, 'Trial to Reduce Type 1 Diabetes in the Genetically at Risk' (TRIGR) started in May 2002 will give a definite answer to this hypothesis. In this study, an offspring of someone with diabetes or first degree relative who possesses a high-risk...

Dietary strategies for the control of diabetes carbohydrates and lipids

According to the American Diabetes Association, the goals of medical nutritional therapy for diabetes are to prevent and treat complications such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, nephropathy, obesity and dislipidaemia, and include Attention should be paid to the daily energy requirement of children with type 1 diabetes, as they might lose weight at the onset of the disease. The weight-height charts used by paediatricians are useful to measure the adequacy of the energy intake. For adult type 1 diabetic patients, the daily energy requirement is not different from that of a normal individual. In this case it is also advisable to keep a desirable lean weight throughout life. However, for type 2 diabetes, since it usually occurs in overweight people, weight loss and behavioural changes are to be stressed.

Agerelated Risk and Etiologic Factors for Diabetes Mellitus Type

Poor diet, genetic factors, obesity, and lack of exercise may partly explain the increased prevalence of glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes with advancing age. Among the confounding factors for the development of type 2 diabetes associated with aging, the most important are increased body adiposity and reduced lean body mass. These changes are characteristic of the aging process, but individually can be found in many pathological states with similar untoward metabolic consequences. The concomitant occurrence of these body composition changes and aging per se probably has an important impact on the development of type 2 diabetes in elderly.

Relationship between Diabetes Mellitus and Aging in the Development of Cardiovascular Diseases

Development of atherosclerosis, as it is also for type 2 diabetes. Aging per se could present a state of impaired glucose tolerance due to the physiologic changes described. IGT is known to be a risk factor for progression to type 2 diabetes. Aging associated with the occurrence of type 2 diabetes increases several-fold the risk for development of cardiovascular diseases by approximately six to eight times more than aging alone (Nesto, 2003). This is due mainly to the strong occurrence of the classical, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, and nonclassical, including inflammatory cytokines, homocystein, and CRP risk factors. Altogether, the common pathway could be the insulin resistance and insulinopenia-induced hyperglycemia via the production of AGEs and oxidative stress.

Type 2 diabetes the next global epidemic Definitions

In contrast to type 1 diabetes, which is known to result from autoimmune destruction of the insulin-secreting beta-cells of the pancreas, leading to lifelong dependence on exogenous insulin, the etiology of type 2 diabetes is poorly understood (Kahn, 2003). Whilst type 1 diabetes is typically diagnosed in childhood or early adulthood, type 2 diabetes classically presents in later life. These clinical distinctions lie behind previous disease classifications in which type 2 diabetes was known originally as maturity-onset diabetes, and subsequently, as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (World Health Organization Study Group, 1985). Under the most recent classification of diabetes subtypes, published in 1997 by a joint expert committee of the American Diabetes Association and the World Health Organization, individuals whose diabetes has an established basis - be that causal genetic variation (as in some monogenic forms of diabetes (see below)) or discrete environment risk factors...

Insulin Receptor Signaling

Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling pathways have been implicated in aging of several experimental organisms (Pardee et al., 2004). This pathway is critical to coordinating the influx of calories with the metabolic rate. Down-regulation of this pathway through caloric restriction is associated with increased life span in mice, worms, flies, and yeast (Barbieri et al., 2003). One of the key transcription factors implicated in aging, namely, FOXO, is regulated by insulin and IGF-1. The FOXO homolog in worms, DAF-16, has a central role in imparting longevity of worms with mutations in the insulin IGF-1 signaling pathway genes, such as daf-2 and age-1 (Kenyon et al., 1993). Over-expression of dFOXO in worms and DAF-16 in flies extends life span through interactions with a host of other nuclear receptors, particularly the PPARs (Giannakou et al., 2004 Henderson and Johnson, 2003). These receptors are up-regulated during caloric restriction, and overexpression of PPAR...

Nutritional risk factors in the onset and prevention of type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is considered an immune-mediated disease, in which signs of beta-cell autoimmunity can be detected at variable times before the diagnosis of clinical disease (Knip 2002). Large geographical differences in incidence and linearly increasing incidence seen in many countries during the last five decades cannot be explained solely by genetic factors (Onkamo et al. 1999 Karvonen et al. 2000 Green et al. 2001). The relatively low concordance of identical twins also confirm the important role of environmental factors in the aetiology of this disease (Barnett et al. 1981). So far there is little firm evidence on the role of nutritional factors. Breastfeeding, vitamins C, D and E, nicotinamide and zinc have been reported as possibly protecting from type 1 diabetes, whereas N-nitroso compounds, cow's milk, some cereals, increased linear growth, and obesity may increase the risk (Virtanen & Knip 2003).

Diabetes and Neuroendocrine Disorder

Research using EEG ERP directed at diabetes has been characterized by use of both EEG as a measure of state and EP's ERP's as a probe of cognitive or sensory function. Both measures are largely directed at the impact of glucose dys-regulation on neural function. Hypoglycemia is a fall in blood glucose levels that can occur as a complication of insulin treatment in diabetes mellitus. Hypoglycemia, if uncontrolled, can spiral through autonomic, cognitive, and affective disruption down to coma. Early awareness of hypoglycemia is important, as is the long-term effect of glucose dysregulation in general.

Nutritional risk factors in the onset and prevention of type 2 diabetes

Obesity and sedentary lifestyle are well-established risk determinants of type 2 diabetes (Costacou & Mayer-Davis 2003). Recently two randomised trials provided evidence that type 2 diabetes can be prevented by changes in diet and in exercise pattern in men and women at high risk of the disease (Tuomilehto et al. 2001 Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group 2002). The beneficial role of dietary fibre and a harmful one of saturated fatty acids seem to be rather well shown, whereas evidence is contradictory as to whether dietary or supplementary antioxidant vitamins or minerals prevent the disease. Discussion on optimal proportions of fat and carbohydrate in the diet for the prevention of type 2 diabetes continues. Attention is increasingly paid to different types of fat and carbohydrate. Also, attempts to individualise the advice according to metabolic status have decreased the discrepancies in views (Grundy et al. 2002).

Long Term Effects of Diabetes

Longer term effects of diabetes on the central nervous system have been implicated by observed cognitive performance deficits among diabetes patients relative to controls on a range of tasks (learning, problem solving, mental and motor speed) (Dey et al, 1997 Pozzessere et al, 1991). Two studies examined the P300 in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients. Pozzessere and colleagues (1991) examined sixteen patients and sixteen (age- and sex-) matched healthy controls during performance of an oddball task. P300 latencies were lengthened in patients as compared to controls. Furthermore, diabetes patients performed significantly worse on a memory test (digit span backward). P300 latency and digit span task performance, however, were not significantly correlated in either the diabetes or the control group. The authors suggest that memory task performance and the P300 examine different aspects of cognitive functioning in diabetes and should be combined to evaluate the effects of...

Insulinlike Growth Factor Axis Components

Mature IGF-I and IGF-II are single-chain polypeptides of 70 and 67 amino acids, respectively, with 62 overall sequence identity (4-5). Due to structural identity with insulin, the IGF polypeptide chain has been divided into four domains arranged as B-C-A-D. IGF A- and B-domains have 45 sequence identity with insulin A- and B-chain however, the connecting peptide C is shorter than the proinsulin C-chain, and the carboxyl-terminal D-domain extension is exclusive to IGF. Another parallel between IGF and insulin structure is the presence of three intrachain disulphide bonds arranged in the same disposition as in insulin, i.e., two connecting B- and A-domains and one intra-A-domain (6). Moreover, the IGF are synthesized as preproproteins with signal peptides of about 25 amino acids at the N-terminus of the B-domain, and further extensions of 35-85 residues at the C-terminus of the D-domain, termed the E-peptide (7). Although the signal peptide and E-domain are deleted sequentially by...

Gsk3 And Insulin Resistance

GSK-3, one of the final regulatory proteins in glycogen production, is an attractive target for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). In NIDDM biopsy tissue GSK-3 activity is inversely correlated to glycogen synthase activity implicating GSK-3 as contributing to insulin resistance 27,28 . Insulin and insulin receptors are expressed in the brain, including the medial temporal regions that support the formation of memory 29 . Some NIDDM patients are also afflicted with verbal and visual memory decline independent of clinically diagnosed dementia 30 . More recently evidence suggests that the insulin resistance known to underlie NIDDM may also contribute to the clinical symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. GSK-3 intersects these two diseases, and therapeutic inhibition of GSK-3 is indicated for both.

The Regulation of GSK3 Activity by Insulin and Growth Factors

In embryonic stem cells that do not express 3-phospho-inositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1), an essential upstream activator of both PKB and MAPKAP-K1, the PKB-mediated inhibition of GSK3 (induced by insulin-like growth factor 1) and the MAPKAP-K1-mediated inhibition of GSK3 (induced by the tumor-promoting phorbol ester TPA) do not occur 26 . This genetic evidence supports the view that GSK3 can be inhibited by PKB and MAPKAP-K1 in vivo. Figure 1 GSK3 can be inhibited by several different agonists. The inhibition of GSK3 by growth factors, amino acids, and hormones, such as insulin, occurs by a different mechanism than does inhibition of GSK3 by Wnts. Protein kinases that are activated by these agonists, such as PKB, MAP-KAP-K1, and S6 kinase (S6K), phosphorylate the N terminus of GSK3 on a serine residue (Ser9 of GSK3P and Ser21 of GSK3a). In contrast, Wnt signaling does not lead to an increase in Ser9 Ser21 phosphorylation and instead may involve the displacement of Axin and...

Lifestyle Modification of the Metabolic Syndrome Type 2 Diabetes and CVD

Diabetes, a number of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have been conducted around the world to examine whether behavioral interventions can influence the progression of this disease. More specifically, it was hypothesized that weight loss and or increased physical activity or exercise may favorably alter metabolic processes, thereby preventing type 2 diabetes. In addition, several follow-up studies have examined whether these lifestyle modifications also influence preclinical markers of morbidity and mortality due to CVD. Although there have also been long-term lifestyle intervention trials to treat hypertension, and shorter term trials directed at dyslipidemia, as yet there is no evidence that lifestyle interventions for the metabolic syndrome prevent CVD. The first of these RCTs was conducted in China beginning in 1986 (Pan et al, 1997). Over 100,000 men and women from health clinics in the city of Daqing were screened for impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes. Using WHO...

Diabetes Mellitus and Hypoglycemia

Inadequate secretion of insulin, or defects in the action of insulin, produce metabolic disturbances that are characteristic of diabetes mellitus. A person with type 1 diabetes requires injections of insulin a person with type 2 diabetes can control this condition by other methods. In both types, hyperglycemia and glycosuria result from a deficiency and or inadequate action of insulin. A person with reactive hypoglycemia, by contrast, secretes excessive amounts of insulin and thus experiences hypoglycemia in response to the stimulus of a carbohydrate meal. Chronic high blood glucose, or hyperglycemia, is the hallmark of diabetes mellitus. The name of this disease is derived from the fact that glucose spills over into the urine Table 19.6 Comparison of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Insulin secretion Insulin injections Diet and exercise oral stimulators of insulin sensitivity when the blood glucose concentration is too high (mellitus is derived from a Latin word meaning honeyed or...

The Metabolic Syndrome Obesity and Insulin Resistance

A major worldwide health issue is the dramatic increase in the prevalence of overweight and obese individuals. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, 2006), globally there are over 1.6 billion overweight adults, with approximately 400 million of them obese, and it is projected that by 2015 approximately 2.3 billion adults will be overweight and over 700 million obese. In the United States, the prevalence of obesity has more than doubled from 15 of the adult population in 1973-1976 to 34 in 2003-2006 (National Center for Health Statistics, 2008a), while the proportion of overweight individuals has remained relatively unchanged over the same period at approximately one-third of the population. During the same time period the incidence of overweight and obese children in the United States aged 2-5 years old has also more than doubled from 5 to 11 , but remained relatively constant in older children (approximately 17 ). Increased ponderosity places individuals at risk for...

Regulation of Insulin and Glucagon Secretion

Absorptive Post Absorptive State

Insulin and glucagon secretion is largely regulated by the plasma concentrations of glucose and, to a lesser degree, of amino acids. The alpha and beta cells, therefore, act as both the sensors and effectors in this control system. Since the plasma concentration of glucose and amino acids rises during the absorption of a meal and falls during fasting, the secretion of insulin and glucagon likewise fluctuates between the absorptive and postabsorptive states. These changes in insulin and gluca-gon secretion, in turn, cause changes in plasma glucose and amino acid concentrations and thus help to maintain homeosta-sis via negative feedback loops (fig. 19.6). As described in chapter 6, insulin stimulates the insertion of GLUT4 channels into the plasma membrane (due to the fusion of intracellular vesicles with the plasma membrane see fig. 6.15) of its target cells, primarily in the skeletal and cardiac muscles, adipose tissue, and liver. This permits the entry of glucose into its target...

Insulinlike Growth Factor1 Igf1

Overall, the nitrogen-retaining effects of rhIGF-1 in metabolic ward studies did not consistently attain levels seen with rhGH (30), whereas the increases in REE were comparable to those seen with rhGH. Moreover, the insulin-like effect of IGF-1 poses a potential obstacle to its use in patients with HIV-associated wasting, many of whom may be at increased risk of hypoglycemia because of limited energy stores, anorexia, malabsorption, or increased insulin sensitivity (54,55).

Lessons from maturity onset diabetes of the young MODY

As mentioned earlier, a small proportion (around 1 ) of families with diabetes are clearly segregating an autosomal dominant form of early-onset T2D (Frayling et al., 2001). The term ''maturity onset diabetes of the young'' (MODY) was coined to describe these key clinical features, at a time when most diabetes seen before late middle age was autoimmune (that is, type 1, or juvenile-onset diabetes as it was then known). Most people with MODY were not particularly obese, suggesting that the predominant defect in this condition was likely to be beta-cell dysfunction rather than insulin resistance. Detailed clinical studies of MODY families pointed to significant heterogeneity between families with regard to disease progression and severity (Fajans, 1990 Tattersall andMansell, 1991). With the advent of modern positional cloning techniques, the availability of multigenerational families and the promise of penetrant disease alleles meant that MODY became an attractive target for gene...

Insulin and the Pancreas

Insulin, a peptide hormone produced in P-cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, strongly modulates the metabolism, facilitating the uptake of glucose in the liver, muscle, and fat tissue. Insulin facilitates the storage of glucose as glycogen in the liver and muscle and inhibits the use of fat as an energy source. The HPA axis and the sympatho-adrenal-medullary system interact with insulin actions, and chronic stress exposure is associated with insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus 2, and the metabolic syndrome (Kyrou et al, 2006 for detail see also Chapter 46).

Insulin Resistance and Hyperglycemia

The WHO definition of the metabolic syndrome is the only one that utilizes a measure of insulin resistance as a required component, although elevated fasting glucose levels, specified by the ATP III and IDF definitions, are often associated with an insulin-resistant state. Insulin resistance can be defined as the condition in which normal amounts of insulin are inadequate to produce a normal insulin response from fat, muscle, and liver cells. In mild cases of insulin resistance, increased insulin secretion by pancreatic P cells results in hyperinsulinemia to maintain eug-lycemia. As insulin resistance worsens, individuals whose increased pancreatic insulin secretion is unable to compensate for the reduced insulin action develop impaired glucose tolerance and hyperglycemia. The gold standard for assessing insulin resistance is the euglycemic insulin clamp method (DeFronzo et al, 1979) and it remains the method to which all other tests of insulin sensitivity are compared. The method...

Neonatal Transient Diabetes Mellitus

Neonatal transient diabetes mellitus (TNDM), with an incidence in newborns of 1 400,000 to 1 500,000 (Fosel, 1995 Shield et al., 1997), is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, failure to thrive, hyperglycemia, glucosuria, dehydration, polyuria, occasional ketonemia and ketonuria, lethargy, and fever. Occasional features include anemia, macroglossia (Figure 1), and umbilical hernia. The diabetic condition may be permanent, subside to recur later as type 2 diabetes (Shield et al., 1997), or vanish completely (Christian et al., 1999).

Mechanisms of Premature Aging in Diabetes

The clinical and phenotypic similarities between aging and diabetes suggest that there may be shared biochemical pathways leading to the tissue changes. Glucose is the principal metabolic fuel for many animal species. In general, with few exceptions, the plasma glucose level in various animals is maintained within a narrow range (60-140 mg dl). It is possible that the lower limit of blood glucose levels is determined by the minimum tissue requirements of metabolic fuel, and the upper limit defines the threshold beyond which glucotoxicity limits survival of the species (Mooradian and Thurman, 1999b). Avian species, especially owls and parrots, are the exception to this generalization. These animals have high blood glucose levels in the range of 250 to 350 mg dl and yet have a relatively long life expectancy and show no signs of classical diabetic complications. The overall constancy of blood glucose levels across a wide range of animal species suggests that hyperglycemia, except in...

Project Title Subclinical Heart Disease In Insulindependent Diabetes

Summary Approximately 10 percent of premature coronary artery disease (CAD) morbidity and mortality in the general population is due to insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). By age 55, 35 percent of IDDM patents die of CAD, in contrast to only 8 percent of nondiabetic men and 4 percent of women. In the U.S., IDDM affects at least 750,000 persons and this number is growing rapidly as the effect of increasing incidence and improved survival. Tight blood glucose control ran slow the development of microvascular complications but a protective effect on heart disease has not been convincingly demonstrated. This observational population-based study will evaluate cross- sectionally a population-based group of 800 IDDM patients aged 20-49 years and 600 of their non-diabetic spouse partner controls using the electron-beam computed tomography (EBCT). We will compare the patients and controls in terms of the amount and anatomical distribution of coronary artery calcium (CAC), a marker of...

Insulin Receptor Domain Structure

Disulfide Bond Public Domain

The insulin receptor (IR) is a glycosylated, disulfide-linked homodimer, with each monomer being made up of an a-chain that is entirely extracellular and a P-chain that spans the cell membrane once. The a-chain contains the insulin-binding determinants of the receptor, while the intracellular portion of the P-chain includes a protein-tyrosine kinase domain and domains involved in binding signal transduction proteins. The aP monomer of the IR is encoded by a gene with 22 exons alternative splicing of the IR pre-mRNA leads to the tissue-specific expression of two isoforms differing by the presence or absence of a 12-residue segment (exon 11) near the C terminus of the a-chain. The receptor is synthesized as a single chain with a 27-residue signal sequence and is glycosylated, oxidized to the disulfide form, and proteolytically processed to the two-chain form during transport to the cell surface. The mature a-chain of the human IR has 731 amino acid residues, while the P-chain has 620....

Pathogenesis of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 in Relation to Aging

ALTERED INSULIN ACTION INSULIN RESISTANCE One factor clearly contributing to this age-related glucose intolerance is a decline with physiologic aging in sensitivity to the metabolic effects of insulin that is, the reduction of insulin sensitivity. This means a reduction in the activity of insulin on its target tissues such as muscle, liver, and adipose tissue. In the muscle this results in a decrease of glucose disposal. In the adipocytes this results in the inability of insulin to inhibit the lipolysis leading to the release of free fatty acids in the circulation. These FFAs in turn stimulate hepatic neoglucogenesis and VLDL secretion, reduce muscle glucose uptake, and may alter glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by beta cells. This age-related impairment of insulin action appears to be predominantly due to effects on the insulin signaling mechanism beyond the insulin receptor itself. However, the latter also may be involved to some extent (Fulop et al., 2003). In the liver the...

IRSProteins and Insulin Signaling

Insulin and IGF1 receptors, like the receptors for other growth factors and cytokines, are composed of an extracellular ligand-binding domain that controls the conformation and activity of the intracellular tyrosine kinase 9,10 . Unlike most receptor tyrosine kinases that are activated upon ligand-induced dimerization, insulin and IGF1 receptors exist as inactive covalent dimers composed of two extracellular a-subunits and two transmembrane P-subunits. Insulin and IGF1 bind between the two a-subunits, thus inducing a conformation change that promotes tyrosine autophosphorylation on the cytoplasmic side of the adjacent P-subunits 11,12 . Autophosphorylation occurs in three distinct regions of the P-subunits, including the regulatory loop, the juxtamem-brane region, and the C-terminus. Phosphorylation of three tyrosine residues in the regulatory loop activates the tyrosine kinase by opening the catalytic domain to facilitate entry of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and peptide substrates...

Noninsulindependent Type II diabetes mellitus

The incidence of non-insulin-dependent (i.e. Type II) diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is increasing in adult urban populations around the world. The approximately 3 of adults currently affected by NIDDM will become an estimated 5 by 2025 (World Health Organization, 1998), as populations age and urbanize, and as obesity becomes more prevalent. NIDDM is a serious metabolic disorder which damages kidneys, heart, blood vessels and retina. The disorder results from ''insulin resistance'' - a reduction in the sensitivity of bodily tissues to insulin, the hormone which coordinates ''Thrifty genes'', and selective insulin resistance Almost a half-century ago, when obesity was much less prevalent than today, only a few populations (Pima Indians, Nauruans and other Polynesians, and Australian Aborigines) appeared to be particularly susceptible to diabetes. Further, the two main types of diabetes - adult-onset (NIDDM) and child-onset (insulin-dependent diabetes, IDDM distinguished by insufficient...

Changes In Growth Hormone And Insulinlike Growth Factor1 In Hiv Infection

Disturbances in the growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis have also been described in HIV infection. Decreased levels of IGF-1 have been noted in some malnourished individuals with HIV infection (37,38), but normal levels of IGF-1 were reported in two other groups of patients with prior weight loss (30,39). One potential explanation for these discrepant findings is that the patients in these latter two groups were studied during periods of relative clinical and weight stability, whereas the two former groups included patients who were losing weight at the time of study.

Experimental Models Linking Diabetes Mellitus to Aging and Longevity

In some species, caloric restriction (CR) is associated with reduction of aging and increased longevity. It was observed that a reduced body size was correlated to an increased life span in mice, dogs, Caenorhabditis elegans, or Drosophila melanogaster. One very recent study could not find a clear general effect of body size on life span (Hafen, 2004 McCulloch et al., 2003). The question has been asked why smaller individuals would live longer. One explanation that has been put forward, mainly in invertebrates, is the homologous insulin IGF signaling (IIS). In C. elegans it was suggested that the IIS can act to limit the body size. However, in some wild-type strains this correlation was much less clear. Moreover, several mutations in C. elegans led to extended longevity phenotype. Among these are the genes involved in the insulin IGF-signaling pathway, such as daf-2 and age-1, or clk mutants related to respiratory metabolism. Similar results were obtained in Drosophila. The study in...

Diabetes Mellitus

In a cohort of 87,253 of healthy females aged 34-59 years followed for 8 years, Manson et al (1991) reported that the age-adjusted relative risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in females who engaged in vigorous exercise at least once per week was 0.67. In another study of 21,271 initially healthy male physicians, Manson reported that vigorous exercise was found to be associated with reduced risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus over a 5 year follow-up period (Manson et al, 1992). The age-adjusted relative risk of diabetes decreased with increasing frequency of physical activity (0.77 for once weekly, 0.62 for two to four times per week, and 0.58 for five or more times per week).


Diabetes is highly prevalent in older individuals, and significantly increases the risk of cardiovascular events. A meta-analysis found that the rate of depression among individuals with diabetes was twice that of individuals without diabetes (Anderson et al., 2001). In a long-term follow-up of a community cohort, the presence of depressive symptoms at baseline more than doubled the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (Palinkas et al., 2004). In addition, the presence of depression has been associated with poor glycemic control in both patients with type 1 and those with type 2 diabetes (de Groot et al., 2001 Lustman et al., 2000 Palinkas et al., 2004). Care should be taken to choose antidepressants with no or minimal effects on glucose levels in patients with diabetes. A review of treatment of depression in patients with comorbid diabetes mellitus included six studies of fluoxetine for up to 12 months that demonstrated reductions in weight, in fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and in...

Insulin Resistance

Insulin resistance is a common condition and can be seen, for example, in NIDDM, obesity, and hypertension. The inter-relationship between insulin resistance and these conditions, as well as the exact mechanisms for insulin resistance, have not yet been fully clarified. It has recently been clear that GH-deficient adults are also insulin resistant in peripheral tissues (as measured using the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique 67,68 ). In our study, glucose disposal rate (GDR) in the GH-deficient group was less than half that of controls, when calculated according to body weight and when corrected for body fat (67). The decreased lean body mass and the increased abdominal obesity in GH deficiency may be of importance for this finding as the association between increased body fat mass and insulin resistance is stronger in the presence of abdominal obesity (69). Low levels of serum IGF-1 may also contribute to insulin resistance (70) as IGF-1 stimulates the glucose transport in...

Insulin And Gsk3

In 1960 Joseph Larner reported that the activity of glycogen synthase was increased within minutes when rat diaphragms were incubated with insulin 11 and, a few years later, he showed that this resulted from decreased phos-phorylation of this enzyme 12 . Following the discovery that PKA can phos-phorylate and inhibit GSK-3 in vitro 13,14 , it was thought that insulin must exert its effect on glycogen synthase by inhibiting PKA, but no decrease in the concentration of cyclic AMP could be detected in muscle under conditions where insulin stimulated glycogen synthase 12 . This led Joe Larner to suggest that insulin might trigger the formation of a second messenger or chemical mediator distinct from cyclic AMP, which bound to PKA and prevented its activation by cyclic AMP but, despite much effort, no such molecule was ever purified and characterised. However, when other glycogen synthase kinases were identifieid, I suggested that insulin might instead activate glycogen synthase by...

Expression of the 65kDa Isoform of Human Glutamate Decarboxylase in P pastoris and P methanolica

Human glutamate decarboxylase (GAD65) is expressed exclusively in pancreatic islet (5 cells and is thought to be an important autoantigen in the development of type I diabetes (Baekkeskov et al., 1990). GAD65 was expressed as an intracellular protein in P. pastoris and P. methanolica (Raymond et al., 1998). For P. pastoris, the GAD65 cDNA (Karlsen et al., 1991) was inserted into pHIL-D2, several hundred His+ transformants were screened for GAD65 expression, and a high-expressing strain identified in a secondary expression screen was fermented (see Chapter 6). For P. methanolica, the GAD65 cDNA inserted into pCZR134 was used to transform PMAD16 cells to Ade+, and screening yielded an auglA strain, PGAD4-2, that harbored about eight copies of the GAD65 cDNA (Raymond et al., 1998). Strain PGAD4-2 was used to express GAD65 in a fermentor as described in the Appendix. Protein-normalized cell extracts were prepared from samples of GAD65 expressing P. pastoris and P. methanolica cells, and...

Choosing an Expression System

S2 cells are also inexpensive to grow. Media composition does not include expensive supplements such as insulin and nucleotides, which are required for mammalian cell cultures. Serumfree medium conditions can further reduce the cost of S2 cell culture. S2 cells are maintained essentially at room temperature without C02 supplementation. One of the drawbacks of this lower temperature growth, of course, is slower growth compared to 37 C expression systems. However, this slower growth does not interfere with production levels.

Transgenic Paradigms for Achieving Cell Specific Ablation

Cell lineage has also been investigated through use of a vector encoding thymidine kinase of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSYTK). In contrast to the mammalian enzyme, HSVTK has the capacity to phosphorylate nucleoside analogues such as acyclovir, gancyclovir, or FIAU Incorporation of any one of these analogues into replicating DNA causes chain termination and ultimately blocks cell replication (Borrelli et al., 1988, 1989 Heyman et al., 1989). The advantage of this approach is that the viral enzyme is usually not harmful until the animals are treated pharmacologically with a nucleoside analogue. This permits temporal control over cell-specific ablation. One disadvantage, however, is that nonreplicating cells may not be responsive, implying the need to start treatment early in fetal life, although there have been instances where ablation was obtained in adult animals thyrotropes (Wallace et al., 1991) and gonadotropes (Markkula et al., 1995) . There may also be situations where transgenic...

Pernicious Anemia As A Subset Of Megaloblastic Anemias

To intrinsic factor are present in 56 of patients with pernicious anemia, with 90 of patients showing parietal cell antibodies, and this suggests a strong autoimmune component to this disorder. Additionally, there is a higher frequency of pernicious anemias in individuals with diabetes, thyroid conditions, and other autoimmune processes.6 Pernicious anemia may occur genetically as an autosomal recessive trait in children before the age of 2. Cubilin, a receptor for vitamin B12 and intrinsic factor, has been identified since 1998, but its role in juvenile-onset pernicious anemia is still being researched.7 Adult forms of congenital pernicious anemia do occur and are associated with achlorhydria or malabsorption in relatives.

Disorders Of Fibrinogen

Appropriate levels of fibrinogen are necessary to maintain hemostasis and to cause platelets to aggregate. The reference range for fibrinogen is 200 to 400 mg dL. Fibrinogen is an acute-phase reactant, meaning that there will be a transient increase in fibrinogen during inflammation, pregnancy, stress, and diabetes and when taking oral contraceptives. Therefore, a careful patient history is necessary when evaluating a problem involving fibrinogen. For the most part, decreases in fibrino-gen result from acquired disorders such as acute liver disease, acute renal disease, or disseminated intravascular coagulation. Acquired increases in fibrinogen may be demonstrated in hepatitis patients, pregnant patients, or those with atherosclerosis.3 The inherited disorders of fibrinogen are afibrinogenemia, hypofibrinogenemia, and dysfibrinogenemia. These conditions are rare and are marked by hematomas, hemorrhage, and ecchymoses depending upon severity.

Cell Biology

Alphavirus expression systems have been used to express a variety of proteins (Table 1). As mentioned earlier, GLUT-1, GLUT-4, and GLUT 1 4 chimeras were expressed in CHO cells using recombinant Sindbis virus (Piper et al., 1992 1993a,b, 1994). These studies revealed a sequence in GLUT-4 that is responsible for the intracellular sequestration and insulin-stimulated translocation to the plasma membrane. The structure-function relationship of Rab5, a small GTPase involved in endocytosis, has also been studied extensively using the Sindbis expression system (Li and Stahl, 1993a,b Li et al., 1994). Expression of a variety of mutants identified several dominant-negative mutations and revealed that isoprenylation is required for the proper interaction of Rab5 with the endosomal membranes (Li et al., 1995). Expression of another protein involved in endocytic trafficking, ARF6 (an ADP-ribosylation factor), revealed that myristylation is required for its intracellular targeting and function...


Interactions characterized in S2 cells include c-Krox binding at the a 1 collagen promoter (Galera et al., 1994), Kruppel-like factor SPl interaction at erythroid promoters (Gregory et al., 1996), and SP1 interaction at both nexin-1 and insulin-like growth factor receptor gene promoters (Werner et al., 1992). Because Diosophila S2 cells lack homologous transcription factors, they provide an ideal background in which to study such interactions.

John M Walker Series Editor

Buolamwini and Alex A. Adjei, 2003 84. Opioid Research Methods and Protocols, edited by Sabire Ozcan, 2003 83. Diabetes Mellitus Methods and Protocols, edited by Zhizhong Z. Pan, 2003 82. Hemoglobin Disorders Molecular Methods and Protocols,, edited by Ronald L. Nagel, 2003

Primary Structures of Proteins

Real proof of the importance of the peptide bond in proteins was when this bond joining individual amino acids into a longer polymer was discovered in 1903 by Emil Fischer, who synthesized the first peptides (3). Fischer synthesized many peptides during his scientific career. Hofmeister also reported the peptide bond in 1903 (4). Sanger developed the methodology for determining the amino acid sequences of proteins in 1955 (5) using insulin (a polypeptide of 5737 daltons). Edman developed a chemical method of sequencing

The Discovery Of Gsk3

In late 1971 I had joined the Department of Biochemistry at the University of Dundee as a junior member of the Faculty after spending two years as a postdoctoral fellow studying the regulation of glycogen metabolism in Edmond's Fischer's laboratory at the University of Washington, Seattle. At that time only four enzymes were known that were regulated by phosphorylation, namely glycogen phosphorylase (activated by phosphorylase kinase) 1 , phosphorylase kinase 2 and glycogen synthase 3 (activated and inactivated, respectively, by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, PKA), and pyruvate dehydrogenase (inactivated by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase) 4 . No protein kinase had been purified to homogeneity or characterised in molecular terms, and so I decided to tackle phosphorylase kinase. This led me to discover that its regulation by PKA involved its phosphorylation at two serine residues, one on the a-subunit and one on the P-subunit of the enzyme. This was unexpected, because the...

Tools for Purification of Enzymes

Fred Sanger and colleagues (5) worked out methodology for determining the amino acid sequence of insulin in 1955 (5737 daltons 53 amino acid hormone). By 1958, ribonuclease (13,683 daltons 121 amino acids) was sequenced by Moore and Stein (69) and Hirs et al. (70, 71). As noted above, small proteins up to 50,000 daltons can be automatically sequenced within 24 to 48 h by the Edman degradation method.

The Unusual Substrate Specificity Of Gsk3

Although GSK-3 was originally identified as a protein kinase involved in the regulation of glycogen metabolism, we now know that it participates in the control of many cellular processes, including embryonic development, where it is a key component of the Wnt signalling pathway, as well as gene transcription and neuronal cell function, which will be apparent from reading the chapters in this book. Undoubtedly, many more substrates for GSK-3 remain to be discovered in these and other processes. Another extremely exciting development in recent years has been has the advent of potent and specific inhibitors of GSK-3, which have not only become powerful pharmacological reagents with which to study its functions, but also have therapeutical potential for the treatment of diabetes, stroke, Alzheimer's and other diseases. These aspects are the major topic of Sections B and C of this book. However, these compounds are still at the preclinical stage and whether inhibitors of GSK-3 can be used...

Quantitative Measurements

Normal ranges and deviations from the set point must be known quantitatively in order to study physiological mechanisms. For these and other reasons, quantitative measurements are basic to the science of physiology. One example of this, and of the actions of antagonistic mechanisms in maintaining homeostasis, is shown in figure 1.5. Blood glucose concentrations were measured in five healthy people before and after an injection of insulin, a hormone that acts to lower the blood glucose concentration. A graph of the data reveals that the blood glucose concentration decreased rapidly but was brought back up to normal levels within 80 minutes after the injection. This demonstrates that negative feedback mechanisms acted to restore homeostasis in this experiment. These mechanisms involve the action of hormones whose effects are antagonistic to that of insulin that is, they promote the secretion of glucose from the liver (see chapter 19).

Case Detection Outbreak Detection and Outbreak Characterization

A clinician establishes a diagnosis by collecting and interpreting diagnostic data, including symptoms, physical observations (e.g., rash or temperature), risk factors for disease (e.g., travel to a foreign country), pre-existing diseases in the individual (e.g., diabetes), results of microbiological tests, radiographic examinations, and autopsy findings. The interpretation of diagnostic data is a complex cognitive activity. The clinician first generates a differential diagnosis, which is a list of diseases that the patient could have given the information the clinician has thus far. The clinician then resolves the differential

Feedback Control of Hormone Secretion

Hormones are secreted in response to specific chemical stimuli. A rise in the plasma glucose concentration, for example, stimulates insulin secretion from structures in the pancreas known as the pancreatic islets, or islets of Langerhans. Hormones are also secreted in response to nerve stimulation and to stimulation by other hormones. The secretion of a hormone can be inhibited by its own effects, in a negative feedback manner. Insulin, as previously described, produces a lowering of blood glucose. Since a rise in blood glucose stimulates insulin secretion, a lowering of blood glucose caused by insulin's action inhibits further insulin secretion. This closed-loop control system is called negative feedback inhibition (fig. 1.6a). Homeostasis of blood glucose is too important the brain uses blood glucose as its primary source of energy to entrust to the regulation of only one hormone, insulin. So, during fasting, when blood glucose falls, it is prevented from falling too far by several...

Routes of administration

In patients who are alert and orientated, tube positioning may be confirmed by aspiration of gastric contents and auscultation of the epigastrum. If aspiration or auscultation is unsuccessful, radiograph confirmation of the position of the tube is essential, and must be undertaken routinely in all such susceptible patients. In some patients (e.g. diabetics with neuropathy, head injuries, postabdominal surgery and ITU ventilated patients), nasogastric delivery of nutrients may not be appropriate because of increased risk of regurgitation and or pulmonary aspiration of feed. All such patients and others with gastric atony or gastroparesis should be considered for postpyloric nasoduo-denal or nasojejunal feeding. For the surgical patient for whom postoperative nutritional support is anticipated, placement at laparotomy is advised. In other cases a fine-bore tube may be introduced pernasally and, if spontaneous passage has not occurred after 12-24 h, endoscopic or...

Analysis of Hemoglobins and Globin Chains by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Cation-exchange HPLC is the method of choice to quantify normal and abnormal Hb fractions (1-4). This is the method of reference for measuring glycated Hb for monitoring diabetes mellitus. It is also generally used for measuring of the levels of HbA2, HbF, and several abnormal Hbs.

Metabolism and Energy Utilization

The metabolic activity of the indigenous gastrointestinal flora has been described as equaling that of the liver (Berg 1996). Among many other abilities, commensals produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), synthesize vitamin B12, and deconjugate bile acids. Compared to conventionally raised animals, germfree animals show defects in vitamin synthesis (including, biotin, folate, and vitamins B and K), bile acid transformation, carbohydrate and fatty acid digestion, synthesis of SCFA, xenobiotic transformation, and other signs of metabolic deficiencies (Berg 1996 Midvedt 1999 Savage 1986). Many of these benefits are indeed mediated by the novel enzymatic bioactivity of the indigenous flora. However, recent studies by Backhed et al. reveal that some of the effects of intestinal symbionts on host metabolism maybe due to regulation of host metabolic enzymes (Backhed et al. 2004). Conventionalization of germfree mice led to adipogenesis and increased insulin resistance, revealing a role of...

Overview of Dietary Assessment in Behavioral Medicine

Nutritional status is one of the most important predictors of health risk. Research consistently demonstrates that diets rich in fruit, vegetables, whole grains, and lean meats from poultry and fish are inversely associated with risk of age-related chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes (Kushi et al, 2006 Lampe, 1999 Neuhouser, 2004 Pool-Zobel et al, 1997 Prentice et al, 2004 World Cancer Research Fund AICR, 2007). Conversely, diets high in refined grains and added sugars, but low in diverse plant foods, increase risk for obesity and obesity-related disorders including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes (Boynton et al, 2007 Kristal et al, 2000 National Research Council Committee on Diet and Health, 1989 Patterson et al, 2004). Despite the strong and consistent diet-disease associations and recommendations to the public to make healthy food choices and limit or avoid added fats, sodium, and empty calorie-type foods, consumers still, for the most...

Brainstem Malignant Glioma Subtypes

The initial neurologic symptoms often respond partially with the use of dexamethasone or another corticosteroid, although the improvement in function is temporary. The dose of steroids is not standardized and should be the minimal dose necessary to control symptoms. Children may require steroid therapy for weeks to months, therefore monitoring of blood pressure and blood sugar is recommended. Although not routinely practiced, the use of prophylactic antibiotic therapy (usually trimethoprim + sulfamethoxazole or pentamidine) may be considered for prevention of pneumocystis pneumonia. The risk of gastric ulceration needs to be considered, and although the use of proton pump inhibitors, H2-blockers, or buffering agents has not been proven to decrease the risk of ulceration, they are commonly used.

Role Of Wnt Signaling And Gsk3 In Development

During Xenopus embryonic development GSK-3 acts as a negative regulator of dorsal axis formation 8 . Inhibition of GSK-3 activity leads to stabilization of P-catenin and expression of target dorsalizing genes 9,10 . GSK-3 promotes P-catenin phosphorylation, which stimulates its degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system 11 . Maternally expressed P-catenin is essential for dorsal determination and is localized to the future dorsal side of the embryo just after egg fertilization 12,13 . Thus meiotic maturation can be considered as a preparation for asymmetric localization of P-catenin and dorsal axis formation. Interestingly insulin, as well as progesterone, can promote meiotic maturation of Xenopus oocytes.

Dairy consumption energy intake and body weight

In contrast, a link between increased dairy product consumption and healthier body weight has been suggested in several reports. An inverse association has been reported between ready-to-eat breakfast cereal consumption and the BMI of 4-12-year-old children (Albertson et al., 2003) and between the number of servings of dairy products and body fat in pre-school children (Carruth and Skinner, 2001). Similarly, in a large multi-center, population-based, prospective observational study, the number of dairy servings consumed was inversely related to the ten-year cumulative incidence of obesity and to the insulin resistance syndrome in adults (Pereira et al., 2002). Over the long term, the hypothalamus regulates food intake in response to hormones that enter the brain from the peripheral circulation and whose plasma concentrations are related to adipose tissue mass (Schwartz et al., 2000). The two major hormones that have been implicated in the long-term regulation of food intake are leptin...

Applications Of Microarrays To Agingrelated Research

Several studies have reported gene expression profiles corresponding to long-lived mammalian models, as a result of environmental changes such as calorie restriction (CR) (Park and Prolla, 2005b), as well as longevity-enhancing mutations, such as the Ames dwarf, the growth hormone receptor knock-out (GHR-KO) (Dozmorov et al., 2001 Miller et al., 2002 Tsuchiya et al., 2004), and the fat-specific insulin receptor knock-out (FIRKO) (Bluher et al., 2004). In C. elegans, the transcriptional changes associated with longevity-determining mutations in the insulin-like IFG-1 pathway have been well characterized by microarray, resulting in the identification of several previously unknown aging genes (McElwee et al., 2003 Murphy et al., 2003).

Summary of strategies and implications

Techniques for phenolic phytochemical enhancement for functional food design is based on harnessing the potential of proline linked pentose-phosphate pathway (PLPPP) as the critical control point (CCP) in clonal shoots of single seed genetic origin such as herbs from the family Lamiaceae and seed sprouts in self-pollinating species such as various legumes. This strategy can be extended to develop foods with better phenolic phytochemical profile and functionality. Further it can be extended to develop functional foods and supplements with consistent ingredient profiles targeted against a disease condition. This concept is now being extended to specifically isolate antioxidants for diverse disease conditions, antimicrobials against bacterial pathogens, phytochemicals for diabetes management, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors for hypertension management, l-DOPA for Parkinson's management, dietary cyclooxygenase (COX-2 inhibitors) for inflammatory diseases and isoflavones for...

Complications And Prognosis

Glucocorticosteroid treatment-related adverse events occur commonly among these elderly patients, and at least 65 of patients may have at least one adverse event (3). Patients are at a risk for diabetes mellitus and osteoporosis with osteoporotic fractures, which occur in this patient group at a rate two to five times higher than in age-matched controls. Complications are more frequent in patients over the age of 75 and patients receiving higher doses of steroids (3). All patients should receive calcium and vitamin D supplementation and appropriate treatment for osteoporosis including bisphosphonates.

Dupuytrens contracture

There appears to be a familial susceptibility. Diabetes, epilepsy or its treatment are also associated. The palmar and plantar fascia undergo thickening and contracture. In the foot the pressure of walking and standing maintain the foot's normal shape. In the hand, the medial side is most affected so that the little finger is held flexed. The condition can usually be considerably improved by excising the palmar fascia and carrying out Z-plasty on the overlying skin, since the tendons are not shortened.

Adoption of the Regimen

Least two clinical encounters (Shah et al, 2009). In the same practice, 85 of new diabetes prescriptions were filled (Shah et al, 2008). For patients recently discharged from hospital after a myocardial infarction, 77 of discharge prescriptions were filled within 7 days (Jackevicius et al, 2006). In this situation, closed health-care systems may detect failure to fill through close monitoring of pharmacy fills. But for the open systems where patients may utilize any number of pharmacies, failure to adopt the regimen is unlikely to be detected until the next healthcare visit, perhaps as long as 6-12 months after the prescription is written. It is unknown how many persons take the first step in behavioral interventions. Many factors may influence the patient's adoption of treatment including those noted above combined with a reluctance to question or challenge the provider. Other factors may include barriers to obtaining the prescription such as cost, accessibility, and availability.

Minority Elderly Data Inadequacies

That may affect the health or the delivery of health care of the minority elderly (e.g., the relationship of obesity to diabetes, the effects of inner-city population density and crime on restrictions in the activities of daily living, or out-of-pocket expenses for the elderly poor).

Project Title Calcium Regulation In The Diabetic Heart

Summary Heart disease is the leading cause of death in diabetic patients, and considerable evidence is now available to support the existence of a specific diabetic cardiomyopathy that is independent of coronary artery disease and hypertension. Functional and biochemical data acquired from multicellular cardiac preparations of diabetic animals support the view that cellular mechanisms controlling cytosolic Ca2+ on a beat-to-beat basis are abnormal and contribute to impaired relaxation. The goal of this project is to characterize diabetes-induced changes in the expression and function of Ca2+ regulating proteins in isolated cardiac myocytes, and to determine the role of hyperglycemia in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of diabetic cardiomyopathy. To test the hypothesis that abnormal Ca2+ handling occurs at the single cell level, biophysical assessment of excitation-contraction coupling will be carried out in ventricular myocytes isolated from diabetic rats. Voltage clamp techniques...

John M Rosenfeld Hungying Kao Ronald M Evans

Endogenous steroid and vitamin hormones as a result of genetic mutation of the receptor or other proteins that function upstream in the regulation of hormone production or function. Furthermore, modulation of receptor function in certain physiological or pathophysiological states is often clinically beneficial. For these reasons, pharmacological administration of natural or synthetic ligands for several receptors is effective in a variety of clinical syndromes, including diseases associated with reproduction and fertility, immune function, obesity, diabetes, heart disease, and cancer. Identification of natural, endogenous ligands and design of synthetic ligands for nuclear receptors is therefore an important area of research not only for understanding the physiology of NRs, but also for pharmacological intervention in a number of medical syndromes.

Neuroprotection By Pparg Activation Against Ab Toxicity

PPARy participates in differentiation, insulin sensitivity, type 2 diabetes, arteriosclerosis, and cancer 67,68 . In particular, PPARy is a critical regulator of adipocyte differentiation 67 , a process also dependent on the Wnt signaling pathway 69 . Recent studies suggest that treatment of insulin resistance with a PPARy agonist retards the development of AD 73 , and recent studies have shown that some anti-inflammatory drugs that are PPARy agonists have neuroprotective actions in different animal models of neurodegeneration 74,75 . Accordingly anti-diabetic thiazolidinedione drugs have been shown to have a potent insulin-sensitizing action 76 that might be mediated through PPARy-mediated inhibition of GSK-3p 77 .

Cardiovascular Disease

Despite a major decline in mortality by more than 50 in the second half of the 20th century, coronary heart disease (CHD) remains the single largest killer, accounting for 20 of all deaths in developed countries such as the United States, where mean age of manifestation of a first heart attack is 65-70 years (American Heart Association, 2005). The major risk factors for CHD, which include hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking and diabetes, are well established, and 80-90 of all CHD patients have prior exposure to at least one of these risk factors (Khot et al., 2003). In the United States, about 700,000 patients have a new heart attack each year. In recent years, the proportion of affected people surviving the acute stage of a heart attack has substantially increased, but the survivors have a risk of another heart attack, stroke and heart failure that is substantially higher than that of the general population (Hurst, 2002). Although there is evidence that much of the subsequent...

What should be clarified beforehand

Before starting treatment, a possible concurrent illness must be identified as it may effect drug choice. (see Table 6.2). For example, a patient with diarrhea may not tolerate nelfinavir, fosamprenavir, or lopinavir. ddI is contraindicated in patients with a history of pancreatitis Caution with tenofovir or indinavir in renal disease Polyneuropathy requires that any d-drugs (ddl, d4T) be avoided they are only used as exceptions in primary therapy. Non-insulin-dependent diabetes can become insulin-dependent for the first time on PI treatment. Diabetes mellitus

Sympathoadrenal system

Glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis and lipolysis are the main metabolic changes occurring in direct response to stimulation of the sympatho-adrenal system. For example, plasma insulin concentrations are often acutely low after severe injuries despite a marked hyperglycaemia and this is a result of a suppres-sion of insulin secretion by adrenaline acting on pancreatic a-adrenergic receptors. In contrast, the secretion of glucagon is stimulated by raised catecholamine concentrations through a 0-adrenergic receptor mechanism. The peak hormonal response occurs within a few hours and usually declines rapidly.

Metabolism and utilisation of energy substrates

The catabolic phase of severely injured patients is characterised by the mobilisation of fuel stores, that is, increased glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis and lipolysis, and breakdown of proteins. The main stimulus for the breakdown of glycogen in both skeletal muscle and liver is adrenaline, although glucagon and vasopressin may also have a role in the liver. This glycogenolysis leads to hyperglycaemia either directly due to liberation of glucose from the liver, or indirectly, via the Cori cycle, from lactate released from skeletal muscle. It should always be remembered that raised plasma lactate concentrations can reflect this increase in skeletal muscle glycogenolysis as well as tissue hypoxia. The hyperglycaemia, which is directly related to the severity of the injury, is potentiated, after severe injuries, by the reduction of glucose utilisation in skeletal muscle following the inhibition of insulin secretion by raised adrenaline levels and by the development of intracellular...

How Is Gsk3 Activity Controlled

Many kinases are involved in the serine phosphorylation of GSK-3, including Akt, ILK, PKA, and p90Rsk. Furthermore the inhibition of GSK-3 has been correlated with serine phosphorylation in many physiological situations, such as stimulation of the Insulin IGF1, NGF, and Estradiol pathways 23 . However, there are fewer candidates that might be responsible for tyrosine phosphorylation of GSK-3. In neurons, the Pyk-2 and fyn kinases are capable of phosphorylating GSK-3 on tyrosine in vitro 24,25 , and more recently MEK1 2 has been shown to fulfill this role in fibroblasts. Furthermore in Dictyostelium there is compelling evidence that ZAK1 is responsible for the tyrosine phosphorylation of GSK-3 26 .

Risk Factors and Neurocognition

Various traditional biomedical risk factors for disease and newer biomarkers are associated with lower levels of cognitive function and decline. Examples include high levels of blood pressure (or hypertension Waldstein and Katzel, 2001), cholesterol (Muldoon et al, 2001), glucose (even in a non-diabetic range Taylor and MacQueen, 2007), insulin (Stolk et al, 1997), homocysteine (Elias et al, 2005), obesity (Gunstad et al, 2007), pro-inflammatory markers (e.g., interleukin-6 Yaffe et al, 2003), and indices of oxidative stress (Berr et al, 2000). Interestingly, both high and low levels of several of these risk factors (e.g. blood pressure, cholesterol, body mass index, alcohol consumption) have been related to poorer cognitive outcomes (see Waldstein et al, in press).

Chronic Diseases and Neurocognition

Negative cognitive outcomes are also associated with type I and type II diabetes mellitus, pulmonary diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma, hepatic diseases such as cirrhosis, kidney diseases, autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, various cancers, sleep disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea, and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (see Bellia et al, 2007 Biessels et al, 2008 Borson et al, 2008 Kurella et al, 2005 Tarter et al, 2001 Zhang et al, 2007).

Medical Decision Making

Similarly, executive functioning deserves consideration in the context of management of chronic illness and adherence to medical treatment regimens. As noted above, on average, individuals with obesity, diabetes, hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, renal dysfunction, pulmonary disease, HIV AIDS, and other illnesses demonstrate poorer executive function than individuals without these diseases. Deficits in executive function may result

Project Title Cardiovascular Disease In The Pima Indians

Summary MedStar (formerly Medlantic) Research Institute proposes to continue its participation in the Strong Heart Study to manage the Arizona field center and the core laboratory. For the field center, this proposal describes methodology for 1) morbidity and mortality surveillance of the original Strong Heart Study cohort (1099 surviving out of 1500 original men and women ages 45-74 years in Phase I) 2) recruitment and examination of 30 families of at least 30 members, each 15 years and older and 3) re-examination of the 900 family members from the Phase Ill pilot study. The Arizona field center comprises three American Indian communities Gila River, Salt River, and Ak Chin. The Arizona center had a 71 recruitment rate in Phase I and 90 + completion rates in Phases II and III. Morbidity and mortality surveillance obtained data on 99 of the participants. The core laboratory will provide accurate, reliable, stable, and comparable phenotypic measures of coronary heart disease risk...

Importance Of Anatomy And Animal Research

Likewise, animal research has been fundamental for much of the progress made in medicine. Most, if not all, of what we know about the human body and biology in general has been initially made possible through animal research. A1989 American Medical Association publication, cited in ref. 2, listed medical advances that had emanated from animal research, including studies on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), anesthesia, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hepatitis, and Parkinson's disease, to name only a few.

Significance Of Gsk3 Activation

It has generally believed that GSK-3 activity is only negatively regulated and that this occurs through the insulin and Wnt pathways. However, its has recently been shown that GSK-3 can also be activated in response to some extracellular stimuli 24,39,49 . Direct measurements of GSK-3 activity in control and LPA-treated neurons, confirmed that GSK-3 activity increases during LPA-induced neurite retraction 46 . Furthermore we more recently found that Reelin and Netrin augmented GSK-3 activity 39,47 . Thus GSK-3 activation by LPA, Netrin, or Reelin seems not to be a particular characteristic of the cell line used but rather a more general physiological process. Indeed, even in situations where the final balance is an inhibition of GSK-3 kinase activity, such as following the addition of IGFl Insulin or after estradiol addition, a transient activation of GSK-3 could be observed 24,37 . All these data suggest that the upregulation and downregulation of this kinase is more complex than...

Cardiovascular Effects

EGb 761 at a dose of 200 mg administered to 60 patients intravenously for 4 days improved skin perfusion and decreased blood viscosity without affecting plasma viscosity (19). Another GB extract, LI 1730, increased blood flow in nailfold capillaries and decreased erythrocyte aggregation compared to placebo in 10 volunteers at a dose of 112.5 mg (26). Blood pressure, heart rate, packed cell volume, and plasma viscosity were unchanged. A study in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with retinopathy evaluated the effects of administration of GB (EGb 761) for 3 months on erythrocyte hemorrheology (27). At the end of the treatment period, it was observed that blood viscosity was significantly reduced, fibrinogen levels were decreased, and erythrocytes were more deformable. Finally, retinal capillary blood flow was improved. However, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of GB in the treatment of Raynaud's disease, after 10 weeks of treatment there was no improvement in...

Uptake of HSPS into Cells

Decreased HSP levels in some tissues have detrimental consequences, and uptake of extracellular HSP may be a mechanism whereby cells with low expression can obtain HSP required for survival. Type 1 diabetes patients with polyneuropathy have very low levels of Hsp72 in blood leucocytes (Strokov et al., 2000). Administration of the anti-oxidant a-lipoic acid, which improves nerve conductance and blood supply to nervous tissue, increased Hsp72 leukocyte levels in these patients accompanied by improvement in nerve damage (Strokov et al., 2000). Uptake of extracellular HSP may have positive effects on other cells with low HSP.

Phosphorylation Sites Of Gsk30

The kinase fold of GSK-3P superimposes well on the structures of MAP kinases p38 and ERK2 and also CDK2. The catalytic activity of these kinases depends on the correct alignment of the N- and C-terminal domains, which is usually modulated by two phosphorylated residues in the activation loop. One of the phosphorylated residues (typically a phospho-threonine) binds positively charged residues from the N-terminal and C-terminal domains via its phosphate group. Phosphorylation of the second residue (typically a phospho-tyrosine) opens up the substrate-binding groove. GSK-3P has two phosphorylation sites that regulate the catalytic activity, Ser9 and Tyr216. AKT phosphorylates GSK-3P at Ser9 attenuating enzyme activity. This mechanism of inactivation by phosphorylation is specific for the insulin signaling pathway and is not used in the Wnt signaling pathway 8,9 . GSK-3P has only one phosphorylation site in the activation loop, Tyr216, as opposed to two in MAP kinases. A valine (Val214)...

The impact of cardiovascular disease

Owing to the enormous worldwide impact of cardiovascular disease it must be emphasized that even very modest reductions in risk factors, brought about by the appropriate design and use of functional foods, can have very important health related and economic significance. Statistics from the American Heart Association (see http statistics 03cardio.html) indicate the enormous impact of CVD. Over 61 million Americans have one or more types of CVD. CVD causes more mortality each year than the next seven leading causes of death combined and the estimated cost of cardiovascular diseases and stroke in the United States in 2003 was 352 billion. In developed countries, childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions and this will certainly translate into a dramatic increase in type 2 diabetes which is characterized by elevated levels of triglycerides, LDL-C (low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol) and decreased levels of HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol), i.e....

How Does Heparin Transform Pf4 Into An Alloantigen

As mentioned, PF4 is a positively charged tetrameric glycoprotein (GP) member of the CXC chemokine family (Brandt and Flad, 1992). The tetramer forms by sequential noncovalent association of identical PF4 monomers two dimers are formed that self-associate into the fundamental tetrameric structure. As found within platelet a-granules, PF4 is released into blood only after platelet activation, such as seen with trauma, surgery, atherosclerosis (Dunlop et al., 1987), diabetes, CPB, inflammation, cancer, infections, and so on. In vivo, PF4 has many different biological functions, including immunoregulation, inhibition of megakaryocytopoi-esis and angiogenesis, and mediation of cell response (Nesmelova et al., 2005 Slungaard, 2005). As summarized in Figure 1, PF4 released from platelets is in a 350 kDa complex comprised of eight PF4 tetramers linked to a chondroitin-contain-ing proteoglycan dimer (Barber et al., 1972 Luscombe et al., 1981 Huang et al., 1982). These PF4 complexes then bind...

Physiological Links Between Social Stress and Disease Processes

Insulin, and insulin resistance (HOMA) in a mixed sample (Surwit et al, 2002), it has recently been found that this association of hostility with fasting glucose and insulin resistance is present only in African American women (Georgiades et al, 2009). It now appears, moreover, that increased CNS serotonin function, as indexed by CSF levels of the tryptophan pathway metabolites 5OH-tryptophan (5HTP) and 5HIAA, is responsible for this association between hostility and fasting glucose and insulin resistance in African American women (Boyle et al, 2009).

Project Title Community Surveillance Of Cardiovascular Diseaserisk F

Summary Data from the most recent survey (1995-97) of the Minnesota Heart Survey (MHS) indicate that previously favorable trends in cardiovascular risk factor levels are attenuating. While cigarette smoking and self-reported dietary fat intake continued to decline, mean body weight rose substantially and rapidly, physical activity decreased, and the previous decline in serum total cholesterol was no longer apparent. These trends may or may not continue in the future. As part of the Minnesota Heart Survey, we propose to conduct another population survey of 4,000 adults, ages 25-84 years in 2000-02, to detect current trends in cardiovascular disease risk factors, including serum lipids, blood pressure, cigarette smoking prevalence, dietary fat intake, obesity, diabetes, physical inactivity, fibrinogen, and serum vitamin E. The proposed survey will build upon four previous, independent cross-sectional surveys conducted in 1980-82, 1985-87, 1990-92, and 1995-97, which collectively...

Positive Well Being and Physical Health

Fortunately, other studies provide stronger evidence. A good example is Kubzansky and Thurston's (2007) study of emotional vitality and coronary heart disease (CHD). A cohort of 6025 men and women aged 25-75 years who were initially free of CHD were followed for an average of 15 years, during which time 1141 developed CHD. Emotional vitality, a combination of vitality (sense of energy and pep), positive well-being (happiness and life satisfaction), and emotional self-control (feeling emotionally stable and secure), was assessed at baseline. Participants with greater emotional vitality were at markedly reduced risk for CHD, and this effect remained significant after accounting statistically for age, gender, ethnicity, marital status, educational attainment, blood pressure, cholesterol, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol use, physical activity level, diabetes, hypertension, and psychological illness. All three components of emotional vitality appeared to contribute to the health...

Isolated Pericardial Hemodynamic Effects And Transplantation

Late toxic metal ions and free calcium concentration titration insulin (10 U L) to aid in glucose utilization sodium pyruvate (2.27 mmol L) as an additional energy substrate and mannitol (16.0 mmol L) to increase osmolarity and reduce cardiac edema. The in vitro approach was employed because, in vivo, ventricular output is coupled to the pulmonary system and flows through the coronary vessels, limiting chamber ejection rates (i.e., right ventricle output cannot be steadily greater than left atrial output). Decoupling these flows in vitro allowed intrinsic output of the left and right side to operate independently with controlled atrial preload.

Research From Our Approach

To exemplify the ways in which our perspective shapes problems of relevance for contextual aspects of environment behavior research, we now complement previous mention of our studies with a more comprehensive description of our work on six problems. These six problems (three treating the general contexts of the person and three of the environment) are as follows onset of diabetes (physical context of person) changes in experience and action related to psychiatric hospitalization (psychological context of person) transition to parenthood (socio-cultural context of person) urban contexts for children (physical context of environment) protection against AIDS in sexual situations (interpersonal context of environment) and experience and action in the context of automobile driving before and after mandatory legislation (sociocultural context of environment). Onset of Diabetes (Physical Context of Person) Relevant here is a study by Collazo (1985) that examined the transition from health to...

Infections in the ICU

Infections are common in the ICU and are a significant cause of mortality. Critically ill patients are particularly vulnerable to infection because their immune responses may be impaired (trauma, burns, malignancy, diabetes) or suppressed (cytotoxic agents, steroids). Extremes of age, malnutrition, and co-morbid diseases also render patients more susceptible to infection. Finally, ICU care involves invasive procedures and indwelling devices which disrupt anatomic and physiologic barriers further predisposing patients to infection.

Renal problems Tenofovir

Tenofovir has been approved since 2001 and is, like the two nephrotoxic drugs, adefovir and cidofovir, a nucleotide analog. Animal studies showed a dose-related nephrotoxicity. Severe renal toxicity occurs rarely, but a significant proportion of patients develop kidney dysfunction (Crane 2007, Sax 2007). In one study graded elevation of serum creatinine occurred in 2,2 of the patients (Nelson 2007) ). Acute renal failure and proximal tubulopathy with Fanconi's syndrome and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and rarely hypophosphatemic osteomalacia have been reported Rollot 2003,Saumoy 2004). Proximal tubular damage manifests as proximal tubular acidosis, normoglycemic glycosuria, hypophosphatemia, hypouricemia, hypokalemia, generalized aminoaciduria, and proteinuria. Renal toxicity occurs after some months, rarely at the beginning of therapy (Hansen 2004, Izzedine 2004, Rifkin 2004). Risk factors include a relatively high tenofovir exposure, pre-existing renal impairment, low body weight,...

Evolutionary Conserved Pro Aging Pathways

Research conducted in C. elegans has identified the insulin IGF-1-like pathway as a major pro-aging pathway (Figure 19.2). The similarities between yeast and worm aging pathways are remarkable. Analogously to the yeast Ras PKA pathway, the insulin IGF-1-like pathway senses the presence of nutrients and regulates entry into a hypometabolic stage (dauer larva) (Kimura et al., 1997). Worm life span can be extended up to three times by reducing the activity of some of the components of the insulin IGF-1-like pathway such as the cellular receptor DAF-2 and PI-3 kinase AGE-1 (Kimura et al., 1997 Morris, 1996). Importantly, AGE-1 activates kinase Akt PKB, which was shown to be homolog of yeast Sch9 and can also be activated by PDK-1, homolog of yeast Pkh1 (Figure 19.2) (Paradis et al., 1999). Life-span extension in both daf-2 and age-1 mutants requires the activity of stress resistance transcription factor DAF-16, which belongs to the FOXO family transcription factors, and of the heat-shock...

Lipid Receptors Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors

While PPARa contributes to systemic fatty acid disposal through oxidation, PPARy regulates and promotes lipid storage by its activities in adipocytes and macrophages. The y isoform was initially thought to be an adipose-specific NR, whose activation by the prostaglandin metabolite 15-deoxy-A12,14-prostaglandin J2 (or synthetic thiazolidinedione) resulted in differentiation of multiple cell types to an adipocyte phenotype.390-395 The adipogenic process minimally requires insulin and glucocorticoid signaling, as well as the activities of multiple basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper transcription factors of the CAAT enhancer binding protein and sterol regulatory element binding protein class.396 In addition to its established role in adi-pogenesis, however, PPARy performs unique roles in macrophage function, intestinal mucosal proliferation differentiation, and placentogene-sis.239,397-399 Activation of PPARy in these tissues may not induce the same program of target genes observed in...

Neurological side effects Peripheral polyneuropathy

Peripheral polyneuropathy is mainly caused by the NRTIs, zalcitabine, didanosine and stavudine. It usually presents with a distal symmetrical distribution and senso-rimotor paralysis. Patients complain of paresthesia and pain in their hands and feet, and often, with zalcitabine, about perioral dysesthesia. The symptoms often begin gradually after several months of therapy. HIV infection itself can lead to peripheral polyneuropathy, but the drug-induced form becomes apparent much earlier and may develop within a shorter period of time. Patients must be informed that they should consult their treating physician as soon as possible if the typical complaints develop. Additional risk factors for polyneuropathy, such as vitamin B12 deficiency, alcohol abuse, diabetes mellitus, malnutrition, or treatment with other neurotoxic drugs, e.g. INH, should be addressed in the appropriate manner. Symptoms frequently improve within the first two months following discontinuation of the drugs...

Crystal Structures Of Gsk30 Inhibitor Complexes

GSK-3 has been considered a target for adult onset diabetes 34-36 , stroke 37,38 , Alzheimer's disease 39,40 , bipolar disorder 41 , and schizophrenia 42,43 . The ATP binding site has been the preferred site for kinase drug design and the crystallization of inhibitors with GSK-3 P is relatively straightforward. Unphosphorylated protein and ligand readily form diffracting crystals when combined with a mixture of PEG and salt (e.g., 5 ). The PEGION screens from Hampton Research or Nextal Biotechnologies yield crystals under multiple conditions. The crystals typically have the same space group as the native unliganded protein, although exceptions have been observed (e.g., the GSK-3P complex with 6-bromoidurubin, PDB 1UV5 44 ). The space group is P212121 with unit cell dimensions 83, 86, and 127 A, and 90 angles, and there are two GSK-3P inhibitor complexes in the asymmetric unit. The Protein Data Bank contains seven crystal structures of GSK-3P in complex with non-ATP inhibitors, all of...

Between The Genetics And Evolution Of Lifespan

Major advances have recently been made in terms of the genetics of lifespan, particularly using C. elegans and D. melanogaster. For example, the insulin insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) signalling pathway has been shown to be a powerful regulator of lifespan in nematodes, flies and probably rodents (Kenyon, 2005). The relationship between the lifespan-determining genes and pathways identified, and those involved in lifespan evolution, remain unclear. One possibility is that at least some of the genes and processes identified by model organism lifespan genetics are the same as those involved in lifespan evolution. In the case of S. ratti, insulin IGF-1 signalling is a good candidate for a regulator of pheno-typic plasticity of aging. In C. elegans, this pathway controls the differences in lifespan between the long-lived dauer larva and the shorter lived adult (Riddle and Albert, 1997). In C. elegans, DAF-16, a FOXO-family transcription factor, controls the rate of aging in response...

Vitamin E and measures of cardiovascular function

Despite the mixed results when the outcome measures are myocardial infarction or stroke, there is considerable evidence that vitamin E has a positive effect on other measures of cardiovascular function. For example, a study by Skyrme-Jones et al. (2000) found that 1000 IU of vitamin E (all-racemic alpha-tocopherol) for 3 months improved endothelial function and blood flow in patients with type I diabetes and reduced the oxidative susceptibility of LDL. This study had an excellent study design, i.e. double-blind, placebo-controlled, and randomized. The relationship of oxidative stress to diabetes and the potential use of antioxidants is an area of intensive research (Laight et al., 2000). Owing to an epidemic of childhood obesity, the incidence of type II diabetes is expected to dramatically increase in the near future.

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Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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