Jerry Suls and M Bryant Howren

Why should health psychologists conduct laboratory experiments to understand the role that social behavior plays in physical health Lab experiments, by their very nature, are artificial and rarely can recruit representative samples. Would not it be far better to study the influence of social factors on health in real-life situations These questions and complaints represent a misunderstanding of the purposes of laboratory experimentation. Festinger (1953), one of the foremost social...

Aging Related Outcome Physical Decline and Disability

Especially in old age an individual often has multiple chronic conditions which vary in severity and may have synergistic effects on health status. This is why specifically in old age the full picture of the link between behavioral factors and health outcomes cannot be portrayed by looking at individual chronic diseases. Although individual diseases are important, and our system of modern medicine is often oriented toward the diagnosis and treatment of specific diseases, the consequences of...

Stage Models of Health Behavior

The SCMs considered above assume that the cognitive determinants of health behaviors act in a similar way during initiation (e.g., quitting smoking for the first time) and maintenance of action (e.g., trying to stay quit). In contrast, in stage models psychological determinants may change across such stages of behavior change (see Sutton, 2005, for a review). An important implication of the stages view is that different cognitions may be important determinants at different stages in promoting...

Polytomous IRT Models

Several polytomous IRT models have been developed and they can be divided into two types the indirect (or difference) models and the direct (or divided-by-total) models. The indirect (difference) models include the graded response model (GRM Samejima, 1969) and the modified graded response model (M-GRM Muraki, 1990). The direct (divided-by-total) models include the partial credit model (PCM Masters, 1982), the generalized partial credit model (G-PCM Muraki, 1992), the rating scale model (RSM...

Physiological Mechanisms of Acute and Chronic Stress Effects on Hemostasis

Molecular studies and in vivo studies in animals and humans convincingly demonstrate that the SNS regulates hemostatic activity. Much of this knowledge derives from human studies in which adrenergic compounds, particularly the stress hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine, had been infused together, with or without previous blockade of adrenergic receptors by various drugs (von Kanel and Dimsdale, 2000). Via stimulation of vascular endothelial -adrenergic receptors, catecholamines release...

Life Course Epidemiology Theoretical Models

The underlying purpose of life course epidemiology is to build and test theoretical models that postulate pathways linking exposures across the life course to later life health outcomes (Ben-Shlomo and Kuh, 2002). Given the wide range of exposures over the life span and the potential importance of timing and duration, exposures may affect disease risk in a variety of ways. Four broad hypothetical life course models that can operate for exposures acting at different points across the life course...

Media Influence on Health Behaviors

In our modern world, we are bombarded by mass communication and the communication matrix in which we are embedded has a profound impact on health behavior. From a psychological perspective, Bandura (2001) has provided a social cognitive theory formulation of the pathways through which communications systems operate. He includes a direct pathway to individuals and a socially mediated pathway through social networks. From a public health perspective, Abroms and Maibach (2008) characterized the...

References

S., and Isacsson, S. O. (1989). Job demands, job decision latitude, job support, and social network factors as predictors of mortality in a Swedish pulp and paper company. Br J Ind Med, 46, 334-340. Barefoot, J. C., Gr0nbaek, M., Jensen, G., Schnohr, P., and Prescott, E. (2005). Social network diversity and risks of ischemic heart disease and total mortality findings from the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Am J Epidemiol, 161, 960-967. Barnes, D. E., Cauley, J. A., Lui,...

Advantages and Disadvantages of Standard Dietary Assessment Instruments

Dietary records and recalls provide similar types of data detailed information on all foods and beverages consumed on specified days. While these methods are intended to capture data on actual foods consumed, there is a somewhat large respondent burden of recording (or recalling) food intake that can cause people to alter their food intake such that they consume less complex foods or they may avoid eating foods perceived to be less healthful (i.e., sweets, salty snacks). Further, even when...

Pathways Linking Positive Well Being with Health

If the effects of positive well-being on health are robust, a crucial issue is to increase the understanding of what mechanisms are involved. There are at least four possibilities. The first is that there is a common genetic substrate. As noted in Section 1.2, positive affect is moderately heritable and genetic factors also contribute to risk of common diseases such as type 2 diabetes and CHD. Theoretically, there might be genetic factors common to positive affect and health risk. These genetic...

Karani S Vimaleswaran and Ruth JF Loos

Medical Research Council (MRC) Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke's Hospital - Box 285, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, UK e-mail A. Steptoe (ed.), Handbook of Behavioral Medicine, DOI 10.1007 978-0-387-09488-5_33, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010 A. Steptoe (ed.), Handbook of Behavioral Medicine, DOI 10.1007 978-0-387-09488-5_33, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Pathogenesis of PMDD

1.2.1 Review of the Menstrual Cycle and Role of Gonadal Steroid Hormones in PMDD The reproductive cycle can be divided into a follicular phase, an ovulatory phase, and a luteal phase. Day one of menses marks the beginning A. Steptoe (ed.), Handbook of Behavioral Medicine, DOI 10.1007 978-0-387-09488-5_38, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010 of the follicular phase, during the first half of which blood levels of estrogens and progesterone are low and stable. The second half of the...

Stress and Allostatic Overload Related Illnesses

The costs of allostatic overload can be significant. As discussed previously, allostatic mediators are beneficial acutely, but if allostatic states are maintained for too long, improperly engaged, or unsuccessfully disengaged, the chronic allo-static state can lead to allostatic overload and cumulative wear and tear on the brain and body. In many cases, the balance between an adaptive stress response and maladaptive allostatic overload can be described using an inverted U-shaped curve...

Psychosocial Behavioral Interventions with Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients

Several meta-analyses have examined randomized psychosocial-behavioral interventions in patients with CHD (Clark et al, 2005 Dusseldorp et al, 1999 Linden et al, 1996, 2007). Most of the studies that were analyzed compared a psychosocial-behavioral intervention with usual care. The meta-analysis by Dusseldorp and colleagues examined the effects of health education and stress management in 37 studies and found a 34 reduction in cardiovascular mortality, a 29 reduction in MI recurrence and...

Power and Sample Size Considerations

As mentioned in the previous paragraph, behavioral medicine traits are likely to be influenced by multiple genes and interactions. Therefore, effect sizes of individual genes are expected to be small. Consequently, required sample sizes to detect genetic main effects or gene x environment interactions with sufficient statistical power are expected to be relatively large. Excellent online resources specific to power and sample size calculations for genetic association studies exist (e.g., Quanto...

Representations Create a Context for Management

1.3.1 Relating Treatment and Action Plans to Illness Representations The activation of a representation of a condition such as asthma, cancer, diabetes, or hypertension creates a framework within which individuals engage in a common-sense selection and appraisal of procedures to prevent, detect, control, and cure potential threats to health. These specific procedures can be selected from culturally prescribed nostrums, the shelf of family remedies, or be medically prescribed. Procedures are...

EEG and the Effects of Hormone Treatment

The administration of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) offers the promise of normalization of function, but EEG ERP has been used to determine whether general brain state or cognitive function indeed improved with treatment. Schneider and colleagues (2005) examined the effects of growth hormone (GH) replacement deficiency on the sleep EEG, using polysomnography in growth hormone-deficient patients. Results showed that the values for the obtained sleep parameters were similar to those for...

Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire

The Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire (Godin and Shephard, 1985) is a brief, self-administered questionnaire that assesses leisure time physical activity. Respondents are asked to indicate the number of times during a typical week that they participate in mild (e.g., yoga, bowling), moderate (e.g., fast walking, baseball), or strenuous (e.g., running, jogging) exercise for at least 15 min. One additional item assesses how often during a typical week respondents engaged in sweat-inducing...

Seven Day Physical Activity Recall

Physical activity can be assessed with the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall (PAR Blair et al, 1985 Sallis et al, 1985), a semi-structured interview designed to evaluate self-reported activity levels over a 7-day period. A self-report version of this questionnaire is also available. Respondents are asked to estimate the total time spent in sleep or engaged in occupational, household, or leisure activities of at least moderate intensity. Examples of moderate (e.g., brisk walking), hard (e.g.,...

Cultural Behavioural Explanations

Cultural behavioural explanations view social gradients in health as the result of social class differences in individual behaviours such as the excessive consumption of harmful commodities (alcohol, tobacco, refined foods), lack of exercise and the under-utilization of preventive health care (vaccination, contraception). There is strong epidemiological evidence that links some of these behaviours to major causes of death such as coronary heart disease, lung cancer and chronic bronchitis as...

Insulin Resistance and Hyperglycemia

The WHO definition of the metabolic syndrome is the only one that utilizes a measure of insulin resistance as a required component, although elevated fasting glucose levels, specified by the ATP III and IDF definitions, are often associated with an insulin-resistant state. Insulin resistance can be defined as the condition in which normal amounts of insulin are inadequate to produce a normal insulin response from fat, muscle, and liver cells. In mild cases of insulin resistance, increased...

Insulin and the Pancreas

Insulin, a peptide hormone produced in P-cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, strongly modulates the metabolism, facilitating the uptake of glucose in the liver, muscle, and fat tissue. Insulin facilitates the storage of glucose as glycogen in the liver and muscle and inhibits the use of fat as an energy source. The HPA axis and the sympatho-adrenal-medullary system interact with insulin actions, and chronic stress exposure is associated with insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus...

The Metabolic Syndrome Obesity and Insulin Resistance

Goldberg, and Philip M . McCabe A major worldwide health issue is the dramatic increase in the prevalence of overweight and obese individuals. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, 2006), globally there are over 1.6 billion overweight adults, with approximately 400 million of them obese, and it is projected that by 2015 approximately 2.3 billion adults will be overweight and over 700 million obese. In the United States, the prevalence of obesity has more...

Lifestyle Modification of the Metabolic Syndrome Type 2 Diabetes and CVD

Given the accumulating evidence that metabolic variables play an important role in type 2 diabetes, a number of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have been conducted around the world to examine whether behavioral interventions can influence the progression of this disease. More specifically, it was hypothesized that weight loss and or increased physical activity or exercise may favorably alter metabolic processes, thereby preventing type 2 diabetes. In addition, several follow-up studies have...

Descriptive Statistics and Interpretation of IRT Results

Table 9.1 displays brief descriptions of the item content, the observed response frequencies within each category, and the item mean score when scored on a 0-3 scale for the CES-D. As shown in Table 9.1, the item means did not Table 9.1 Content of the CES-D items, response frequencies, and item means N 220 Table 9.1 Content of the CES-D items, response frequencies, and item means N 220 Note 0 rarely lt 1 day 1 some 1-2 days 2 occasionally 3-4 days 3 all the time 5-7 days Note 0 rarely lt 1 day...