The number of candidate gene studies (Box 33.1) for common obesity has grown steadily over the past 15 years. The latest update of Human Obesity Gene Map, which covers the literature available at the end of October 2005, reports 127 candidate genes associated with obesity-related traits (Rankinen et al, 2006). Among those, findings for 12 genes (ADIPOQ, ADRB2, ADRB3, GNB3, HTR2C, NR3C1, LEP, LEPR, PPARG, UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3) were replicated in 10 or more studies. Despite this number of replications, many other studies have shown no or even opposite association, and thus the overall conclusion for most of these genes remains inconclusive (Rankinen et al, 2006).
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