Biomedical researchers try to find answers for questions pertaining to populations of interest. A hypothesis is a formal statement of or prediction for the scientific question of interest. In other words, most research activities are designed to test a given hypothesis in one or more populations. Hypothesis testing involves a number of steps (Daniel, 1998): (A) developing a formal hypothesis; (B) designing a study that tests the hypothesis; (C) collecting data from a sample of the target population; and (D) calculating the test statistics from the data and drawing conclusions as to whether the hypothesis is supported.
Each of these steps is summarized below.
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