The outputs of models which incorporate some kind of intervention, say, treatment or vaccination, can provide useful inputs to economic analyses. In many cases health economics analyses ignore the importance of herd immunity effects in the control of infections. Dynamics models allow these nonlinear effects to be taken into account in the analysis (Brisson and Edmunds, 2003). By running a model both with and without intervention, the numbers of prevented cases of infection or disease can be calculated. Likewise the number of treatments or vaccinations can be output so that an indication of the number of cases prevented by the program per individual intervention may be calculated, and similarly comparisons between levels of intervention or between different interventions may be undertaken.
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