Before World War Two, no internationally acknowledged code of ethics for human subjects research existed. During the war, Nazi physicians conducted many experiments of dubious value on thousands of prisoners. The experiments were conducted without the prisoners' informed consent and many prisoners were mutilated and killed. The discovery of the atrocities committed by the Nazi physicians under the guise of experimentation led to the Nuremberg War Crimes Physicians Trial of Nazi physicians for "crimes against humanity'' consisting of experments upon concentration camp prisoners and others without their voluntary consent resulting in "murders, brutalities, cruelties, tortures, atrocities and other inhuman acts'' (The Nuremberg Code, 1947). The trial judges included in their 1947 verdict a list of rules for
Handbook of Models for Human Aging
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