Notably, the Nuremberg Code only addresses research involving healthy subjects. In an effort to address the ethical aspects of research involving patients, the World Medical Association drafted the Declaration of Helsinki in 1964 (World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki, 1964). As with the Nuremberg Code, informed consent, the need for favorable risk-to-benefit ratios, and subject voluntariness are central features of the Declaration. However, the Declaration also addresses proxy consent (e.g., when potential subjects have impaired decision-making capacity), the use of control groups and placebos, and nontherapeutic research.
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