Transmission dynamics

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Although some of the genetic mechanisms underlying rotavirus diversity are known, the transmission dynamics of rotaviruses effecting this diversity in

TABLE 5 G and P types of human rotavirus strains commonly found in animal rotavirus strains

Type .Animal Source References

G3 G5 G6

G8 G9

Cats, dogs, monkeys Pigs, horses Calves

Calves Lambs, pigs

Calves

Pigs

Cats

Calves, horses Pigs, rabbits

P[19] Pigs

Nakagomi et al 1989; Arch. Virol. 106: 145-150 Mochizuki et al 1997; J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 1272-1275

Gouvea & Santos 1999; Vaccine 17: 1291-1292 Santos et al 1999; J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 2734-2736

Snodgrass et al 1990; J. Clin. Microbiol. 28: 504-507 Gerna et al 1992; J. Clin. Microbiol. 30: 9-16 Palombo & Bishop 1995; J. Med. Virol. 47: 348-354 Gulati et al 1999; J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 2074-2076

Adahetal 1997; Arch Virol. 142: 1881-1887 Santos et al 1998; J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 2727-2729 Cunliffe et al 1999; J. Med. Virol. 57: 308-318 Steele et al 1999; J. Gen. Virol. 80: 3029-3034 Palombo et al 2000; J. Med. Virol. 60: 56-62

Das et al 1993; Virology 197: 99-107 Fitzgerald et al 1995; Arch. Virol. 140: 1541-1548 Ramachandran et al 1996; J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 436-439 Ramachandran et al 1998; J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 3223-3229

Santos et al 1999; J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 2734-2736 Snodgrass et al 1990; J. Clin. Microbiol. 28: 504-507 Beards et al 1992; J. Clin. Microbiol. 30: 1432-1435 Santos et al 1998; J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 2727-2729 Gulati et al 1999; J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 2074-2076

Leite et al 1996; Arch. Virol. 141: 2365-2374 Ramachandran et al 1996; J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 436-439

Aristaetal 1997; Arch. Virol. 142: 2065-2071 Ramachandran et al 1998; J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 3223-3229

Cunliffe et al 1999; J. Med. Virol. 57: 308-312 Cubitt et al 2000; J. Med. Virol. 61: 150-154 Fischer et al 2000; J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 264-267 Racz et al 2000; J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 2443-2446

Mochizuki et al 1997; J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 1272-1275

Gentsch et al 1993; Virology 194: 424-430 Gulati et al 1999; J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 2074-2076

Huang et al 1993; Virology 196: 319-327 Ciarlet et al 1997; Arch. Virol. 142: 1059-1069 Arista et al 1999; J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 2706-2708 Okada et al 2000; J. Med. Virol. 60: 63-69

populations are much less so. Their description will require knowledge of a number of parameters: annual human birthrate in area of study; duration of presence of maternal antibodies after birth; age-related susceptibility and prevalence of specific antibodies, specified by G and P type; age-related incidence of rotavirus infections; transmission effectiveness; reduction of susceptibility in non-primary infections; and significance of animal reservoirs (Desselberger & Estes 2000). On the other hand, modern techniques of phylogenetic analysis of cognate sequences of an appropriate sample will allow characterization of some of the factors determining the spread of rotaviruses (Page & Holmes 1998, E. Holmes, personal communication). Much more work will have to be done to be able to establish an accurate model of the epidemiology and transmission dynamics of rotaviruses.

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