Autoimmunity And The Hosttumor Relationship

Although Paul Ehrlich (Ehrlich and Morgenroth, 1957) argued that the organism should never react to its own tissues, during the last century a number of diseases resulting from immune reactions within the organism to its own or "self' antigens have now been described. A discussion of the development of autoimmune disease is beyond the scope of this text; however, the interested student may consider the following references: Schwartz, 1993; Eisenbarth and Bellgrau, 1994; Mayes, 1999; Bach, 1995. Interestingly, Prehn and Prehn (1987) have presented arguments that neoplasia, at least in part, should itself be considered an autoimmune disease. However, here are considered only an artificially induced autoimmune condition leading to neo-plastic development and its potential application as well as some examples of autoimmunity stimulated in the host by antigens present in neoplasms. An artificial "autoimmune" disease has been induced in rodents by the production of "runt" disease resulting from a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction in several mammalian species including the human. The basic requirements for a graft-versus-host reaction in vivo are (1) the graft must contain immunologically competent lymphocytes; (2) the host must be incapable of rejecting the graft either because of artificially induced immunological incompetence or because the host is tolerant to the engrafted cells; and (3) a degree of histoincompatibility must prevail between the graft and the host (cf. Seemayer et al., 1983).

The production of the GVH reaction resulting in runt disease is outlined in Figure 19.30; immunocompetent lymphoid and bone marrow tissues are removed from an adult animal that is genetically distinct from the recipient neonate. The cells from the adult survive within the neonatal animal because the donor cells do not produce a rejection reaction in the host, owing to

Figure 19.30 Classic method for the production of "runt" disease or a graft-versus-host reaction. Immunocompetent cells from the spleen, lymph node, or bone marrow are removed from an adult animal and inoculated into a neonate. Since the neonate is immunologically deficient, it will not react to the donor cells, but the donor cells will react to the host tissues, resulting in a graft-versus-host reaction and runt disease with ultimate death.

Figure 19.30 Classic method for the production of "runt" disease or a graft-versus-host reaction. Immunocompetent cells from the spleen, lymph node, or bone marrow are removed from an adult animal and inoculated into a neonate. Since the neonate is immunologically deficient, it will not react to the donor cells, but the donor cells will react to the host tissues, resulting in a graft-versus-host reaction and runt disease with ultimate death.

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