R

Figure 19.31 Schematic diagram of DNA vaccine technology utilized to produce vaccines against neoplastic cells. The symbols of the components making up the plasmid vector are as follows: G, the gene of interest taken from the neoplastic cell; MS, multicloning sites for restriction enzymes which facilitate insertion of the gene; T, termination signal; R, antibiotic resistance gene needed to amplify the plasma only in those bacteria that carry it; P, promoter sequence that initiates transcription of the gene; I, intron that enhances transcription of the gene of interest. The CpG island's function is discussed in the text. (Modified from Sasaki et al., 1999, with permission of the authors and publisher.)

Figure 19.31 Schematic diagram of DNA vaccine technology utilized to produce vaccines against neoplastic cells. The symbols of the components making up the plasmid vector are as follows: G, the gene of interest taken from the neoplastic cell; MS, multicloning sites for restriction enzymes which facilitate insertion of the gene; T, termination signal; R, antibiotic resistance gene needed to amplify the plasma only in those bacteria that carry it; P, promoter sequence that initiates transcription of the gene; I, intron that enhances transcription of the gene of interest. The CpG island's function is discussed in the text. (Modified from Sasaki et al., 1999, with permission of the authors and publisher.)

figure, in addition to the gene of interest various other genes that allow the growth of the plasmid in bacteria are incorporated into the plasmid as well as CpG islands, which are unmethylated as they would be in bacteria in contrast to the methylation of such sequences seen in most vertebrate DNA (cf. Manders and Thomas, 2000). Such sequences have been shown to stimulate innate immunity because their structural characteristics are distinctly different from vertebrate CpG islands (cf. Krieg, 2000).

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