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Figure 19.35 A diagram of the preparation of human adherent lymphokine-activated killer (A-LAK) cells. Condition medium is obtained from 24-hour incubation cultures and is added back to A-LAK cells at a final concentration of 50% (v/v) in fresh IL-2-containing medium. A-LAK cells are grown in culture for 2 to 3 weeks, allowing for significant expansion of the cell population to the numbers utilized in therapy (see text). (Adapted from Whiteside and Herberman, 1990, with permission of the authors and publisher.)

Figure 19.35 A diagram of the preparation of human adherent lymphokine-activated killer (A-LAK) cells. Condition medium is obtained from 24-hour incubation cultures and is added back to A-LAK cells at a final concentration of 50% (v/v) in fresh IL-2-containing medium. A-LAK cells are grown in culture for 2 to 3 weeks, allowing for significant expansion of the cell population to the numbers utilized in therapy (see text). (Adapted from Whiteside and Herberman, 1990, with permission of the authors and publisher.)

neoplasm (Hornung et al., 1995). In fact, graft-versus-leukemia reactions can be induced in patients with hematological cancers by allogeneic stem cell and bone marrow transplantation and also have shown some success with renal cell carcinoma (Childs et al., 2000). In theory, such technologies may be an ideal way to produce dendritic cells specific for antigens in neoplasms (Björck, 1999; Fong and Engleman, 2000), but there are still a number of logistical problems to overcome.

Cytokine Immunotherapy of Neoplasia

The known number of hormone-like proteins affecting the immune system has increased exponentially during the last two decades. More than 18 interleukins are presently known, as well as | a variety of other proteins directly affecting cells of the immune system (Table 19.4). Tumor | necrosis factor and its family of ligands (Chapter 17) have already been discussed; below are several other important cytokines that have found some place in immunotherapy.

Interleukins i

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