Clinical Manifestations

In the majority of TB cases, the lungs are the site most commonly involved. Primary TB or TB of childhood refers to the primary infection usually affecting the mid-lung fields. Adult or postprimary disease is characterized by caseation, cavity formation, and fibrosis. TB can affect many extrapulmonary sites, including the gastrointestinal tract, liver, lymph nodes and reticuloendothelial system, central nervous system, pericardium, pleura and peritoneum, bone and joint structures, and kidneys and genital tract. It can also disseminate hematogenously as miliary TB. The discussion of clinical manifestations will focus on the head and neck organs, relevant to the otorhinolaryngologist (9-12).

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